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1.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1054, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658208

RESUMO

Stable isotope analysis of individual compounds is emerging as a powerful tool to study nutrient origin and conversion in host-parasite systems. We measured the carbon isotope composition of amino acids and glucose in the cestode Schistocephalus solidus and in liver and muscle tissues of its second intermediate host, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), over the course of 90 days in a controlled infection experiment. Similar linear regressions of δ13C values over time and low trophic fractionation of essential amino acids indicate that the parasite assimilates nutrients from sources closely connected to the liver metabolism of its host. Biosynthesis of glucose in the parasite might occur from the glucogenic precursors alanine, asparagine and glutamine and with an isotope fractionation of - 2 to - 3 ‰ from enzymatic reactions, while trophic fractionation of glycine, serine and threonine could be interpreted as extensive nutrient conversion to fuel parasitic growth through one-carbon metabolism. Trophic fractionation of amino acids between sticklebacks and their diets was slightly increased in infected compared to uninfected individuals, which could be caused by increased (immune-) metabolic activities due to parasitic infection. Our results show that compound-specific stable isotope analysis has unique opportunities to study host and parasite physiology.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Infecções por Cestoides , Doenças dos Peixes , Parasitos , Smegmamorpha , Animais , Humanos , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Isótopos de Carbono , Carbono , Aminoácidos , Cestoides/fisiologia , Smegmamorpha/parasitologia , Nutrientes , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(1): e2217732120, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36574686

RESUMO

The drug praziquantel (PZQ) is the key clinical therapy for treating schistosomiasis and other infections caused by parasitic flatworms. A schistosome target for PZQ was recently identified- a transient receptor potential ion channel in the melastatin subfamily (TRPMPZQ)-however, little is known about the properties of TRPMPZQ in other parasitic flatworms. Here, TRPMPZQ orthologs were scrutinized from all currently available parasitic flatworm genomes. TRPMPZQ is present in all parasitic flatworms, and the consensus PZQ binding site was well conserved. Functional profiling of trematode, cestode, and a free-living flatworm TRPMPZQ ortholog revealed differing sensitives (~300-fold) of these TRPMPZQ channels toward PZQ, which matched the varied sensitivities of these different flatworms to PZQ. Three loci of variation were defined across the parasitic flatworm TRPMPZQ pocketome with the identity of an acidic residue in the TRP domain acting as a gatekeeper residue impacting PZQ residency within the TRPMPZQ ligand binding pocket. In trematodes and cyclophyllidean cestodes, which display high sensitivity to PZQ, this TRP domain residue is an aspartic acid which is permissive for potent activation by PZQ. However, the presence of a glutamic acid residue found in other parasitic and free-living flatworm TRPMPZQ was associated with lower sensitivity to PZQ. The definition of these different binding pocket architectures explains why PZQ shows high therapeutic effectiveness against specific fluke and tapeworm infections and will help the development of better tailored therapies toward other parasitic infections of humans, livestock, and fish.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Platelmintos , Canais de Cátion TRPM , Trematódeos , Animais , Praziquantel/farmacologia , Schistosoma , Canais de Cátion TRPM/metabolismo
3.
Folia Parasitol (Praha) ; 692022 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36458586

RESUMO

Taxonomic issues within Trypanorhyncha, e.g., the inaccurate light microscopic visualisation of the hook patterns, are solvable by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). We applied CLSM imaging to study Trygonicola macropora (Shipley et Hornell, 1906) and Dollfusiella michiae (Southwell, 1929) from Neotrygon caeruliopunctata Last, White et Séret from Bali, Indonesia. To illustrate the strength and limitations of CLSM, images of Otobothrium cysticum (Mayer, 1842) and Symbothriorhynchus tigaminacantha Palm, 2004, both permanent mounts from a collection, were also processed. The CLSM created image stacks of many layers, and edited with IMARIS Software, these layers resulted in three-dimensional images of the armature patterns and internal organs of both species. BABB (benzylalcohol and benzylbenzuolate) clearing was applied to T. macropora. We conclude that trypanorhynch cestodes stained with Mayer-Schuberg's acetic carmine permanently mounted in Canada balsam are suitable for CLSM, allowing detailed analyses of museum type-material as well as freshly collected and processed worms. BABB resulted in imaging the testes in detail, suggesting other stains to be used for CLSM in trypanorhynch cestode research. Application of CLSM for studies of other cestode groups is highly recommended.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Microscopia Confocal , Platelmintos , Rajidae , Animais , Museus
4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1045468, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36466892

RESUMO

Anoplocephala perfoliata is a common tapeworm in horses causing colic and even mortalities. Current diagnostic tests to detect A. perfoliata infections have their limitations and an improved method is needed. Immunoreactive excretory/secretory proteins (E/S proteome) of this parasite can provide promising candidates for diagnostic tests. We compared E/S proteins produced by small (length < 20 mm, width < 5 mm) and large (length 20 to 40 mm, width 5 to 10 mm) A. perfoliata worms in vitro by label-free quantitative proteomics using a database composed of related Hymenolepis diminuta, Echinococcus multilocularis/granulosus and Taenia aseatica proteins for protein identifications. Altogether, 509 E/S proteins were identified after incubating the worms in vitro for three and eight hours. The greatest E/S proteome changes suggested both worm size- and time-dependent changes in cytoskeleton remodeling, apoptosis, and production of antigens/immunogens. The E/S proteins collected at the three-hour time point represented the natural conditions better than those collected at the eight-hour time point, and thereby contained the most relevant diagnostic targets. Immunoblotting using antibodies from horses tested positive/negative for A. perfoliata indicated strongest antigenicity/immunogenicity with 13-, 30- and 100-kDa proteins, involving a thioredoxin, heat-shock chaperone 90 (Hsp90), dynein light chain component (DYNLL), tubulin-specific chaperone A (TBCA) and signaling pathway modulators (14-3-3 and Sj-Ts4). This is among the first studies identifying new diagnostic targets and A. perfoliata antigens eliciting a IgG-response in horses.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais , Cestoides , Echinococcus granulosus , Cavalos , Animais , Proteoma , Proteômica , Immunoblotting
5.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 463, 2022 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36514137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dipylidium caninum is the causal agent of dipylidiasis affecting mainly cats and dogs worldwide. Human cases of dipylidiasis are rare, and the diagnosis is prevalently based on morphological features of the parasite. Here we report the diagnosis of dipylidiasis through morphological and molecular characterization of D. caninum infecting an 11-month-old boy in Cajicá, Colombia. METHODS: Fresh faecal samples were obtained from the infant, and morphological identification of the parasite was performed through faecal smears. DNA was extracted from proglottids and used in PCR analyses for amplification of a 653-bp fragment of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (rRNA) encoding the 28S rRNA gene. A phylogeny study to better characterize the obtained DNA sequence was inferred using the maximum likelihood method and the Tamura-Nei model. RESULTS: After morphological and molecular analyses, D. caninum was identified as the etiological agent causing the infection in the infant. Results of phylogenetical analyses showed that the obtained sequence clusters within the feline genotype clade. After the diagnosis of the parasite, effective treatment with praziquantel was administered to the infant. CONCLUSIONS: This is the third human case of dipylidiasis reported in Colombia, and the first study in South America to provide a molecular identification of D. caninum.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Infecções por Cestoides , Parasitos , Masculino , Gatos , Animais , Lactente , Humanos , Cães , Colômbia , Cestoides/genética , Infecções por Cestoides/diagnóstico , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico
6.
Ann Parasitol ; 68(3): 507-518, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36584360

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the body condition, and the number of parasites in the gastrointestinal tract of the tufted duck (Aythya fuligula), using the Akaike information criterion. Absolute and relative measurements of 197 ducks were taken. Liver mass was positively associated with the number of parasites in the duodenum (ß = 0.5). Heart mass affected positively the number of parasites in the rectum (ß = 2.3), the number of nematodes in the jejunum (ß = 7.45), the total number of trematodes (ß = 1.7), their number in the ceca (ß = 7.3) and rectum (ß = 4.2), and the number of cestodes in the ceca (ß = 8.2). Beak length influenced the number of nematodes in the rectum (ß = 1.7). Left tarsometatarsus length (ß = 1.4) and relative head height (ß = -2.0) affected the number of trematodes in the ceca. Tail length influenced negatively the number of cestodes in the ileum (ß = -0.2). Similarly, a ratio of body mass to body length was negatively associated with the total number of parasites (ß = -0.1), their number in the ceca (ß = -0.2) and rectum (ß = -0.3), the total number of trematodes (ß = -0.3), and their number in the ceca (ß = -0.5) and rectum (ß = -0.4). A ratio of keel-skin length to keel length affected differently the total number of parasites in the ceca (ß = 9.1), the number of nematodes in the jejunum (ß = -17.9) and the number of trematodes in the duodenum (ß = -5.8). A ratio of fat mass to body length affected the number of cestodes in the jejunum (ß = 1.8). The present study indicates some morphological and anatomical parameters that may be useful for determining the correlation between the body condition and the level of parasitic infection.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Parasitos , Trematódeos , Animais , Patos/parasitologia , Trato Gastrointestinal
7.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277420, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36378663

RESUMO

Helminth infections are cryptic and can be difficult to study in wildlife species. Helminth research in wildlife hosts has historically required invasive animal handling and necropsy, while results from noninvasive parasite research, like scat analysis, may not be possible at the helminth species or individual host levels. To increase the utility of noninvasive sampling, individual hosts can be identified by applying molecular methods. This allows for longitudinal sampling of known hosts and can be paired with individual-level covariates. Here we evaluate a combination of methods and existing long-term monitoring data to identify patterns of cestode infections in gray wolves in Yellowstone National Park. Our goals were: (1) Identify the species and apparent prevalence of cestodes infecting Yellowstone wolves; (2) Assess the relationships between wolf biological and social characteristics and cestode infections; (3) Examine how wolf samples were affected by environmental conditions with respect to the success of individual genotyping. We collected over 200 wolf scats from 2018-2020 and conducted laboratory analyses including individual wolf genotyping, sex identification, cestode identification, and fecal glucocorticoid measurements. Wolf genotyping success rate was 45%, which was higher in the winter but decreased with higher precipitation and as more time elapsed between scat deposit and collection. One cestode species was detected in 28% of all fecal samples, and 38% of known individuals. The most common infection was Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (primarily E. canadensis). Adult wolves had 4x greater odds of having a cestode infection than pups, as well as wolves sampled in the winter. Our methods provide an alternative approach to estimate cestode prevalence and to linking parasites to known individuals in a wild host system, but may be most useful when employed in existing study systems and when field collections are designed to minimize the time between fecal deposition and collection.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Infecções por Cestoides , Helmintos , Parasitos , Lobos , Animais , Lobos/parasitologia , Prevalência , Infecções por Cestoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia
8.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 438, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36419194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Praziquantel is the drug of choice for treating the tapeworm Dipylidium caninum in dogs; however, resistance is possible, and regular, non-targeted administration of praziquantel may select for anthelminthic-resistant populations. METHODS: The zinc sulfate fecal floatation procedure was conducted. Gross visualization was used to identify Dipylidium spp. segments, and capsule endoscopy was used to visualize adult tapeworms within the intestinal tract. RESULTS: An 18-month-old spayed female terrier mix was presented due to diarrhea, hematochezia and weight loss. The dog received appropriate anthelmintic therapy for Giardia spp., Ancylostoma spp. and Dipylidium spp. The dog's clinical signs resolved, and elimination of Ancylostoma spp. was confirmed by subsequent fecal analysis. However, Dipylidium spp. segments were repeatedly present in the stool. Observation of the segments confirmed the presence of adult Dipylidium spp in feces. Treatment with praziquantel and epsiprantel were unsuccessful in eliminating the organism but was apparently successful in flea prevention. A single dose of nitrosconate was administered and eliminated Dipylidium spp. infection in the dog. CONCLUSIONS: Nitrosconate can be an effective treatment for praziquantel-resistant dipylidiasis in dogs. The novel application of capsule endoscopy confirmed the anthelmintic efficacy of this treatment.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Cestoides , Infecções por Cestoides , Doenças do Cão , Cães , Feminino , Animais , Praziquantel , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Cestoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Infecções por Cestoides/diagnóstico , Ancylostoma
10.
Folia Parasitol (Praha) ; 692022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36185031

RESUMO

Ligula intestinalis (Linnaeus, 1758) is a tapeworm parasite with a worldwide distribution that uses a wide variety of fish species as its second intermediate host. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence and population genetic structure of plerocercoids of L. intestinalis in five common cyprinoid species, roach Rutilus rutilus (Linnaeus), freshwater bream Abramis brama (Linnaeus), white bream Blicca bjoerkna (Linnaeus), bleak Alburnus alburnus (Linnaeus), and rudd Scardinius erythrophthalmus (Linnaeus), collected in six water bodies of the Czech Republic (Milada, Most, Medard, Jordán, Rímov and Lipno). Of the six study sites, the highest frequency of parasitism was recorded in Lake Medard (15%). The overall prevalence rate among the species was as follows: roach > rudd ≥ freshwater bream > bleak > white bream. Two mitochondrial genes (cytb and COI) were used to compare the population genetic structure of parasite populations using selected samples from the five fish species. The results of the phylogenetic analysis indicated that all populations of L. intestinalis were placed in Clade A, previously identified as the most common in Europe. At a finer scale, haplotype network and PCoA analyses indicated the possible emergence of host specificity of several mtDNA haplotypes to the freshwater bream. Moreover, pairwise Fixation indices (FST) revealed a significant genetic structure between the parasite population in freshwater bream and other host species. Parasite populations in roach not only showed the highest rate of prevalence but also depicted a maximum number of shared haplotypes with populations from bleak and rudd. Our results suggest that recent ecological differentiation might have influenced tapeworm populations at a fine evolutionary scale. Thus, the differences in prevalence between fish host species in different lakes might be influenced not only by the parasite's ecology, but also by its genetic diversity.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Infecções por Cestoides , Cyprinidae , Doenças dos Peixes , Parasitos , Animais , Cestoides/genética , Infecções por Cestoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Cyprinidae/parasitologia , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , DNA Mitocondrial , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Estruturas Genéticas , Genética Populacional , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Lagos , Filogenia , Prevalência , Água
11.
J Parasitol ; 108(5): 500-510, 2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36302370

RESUMO

The Lecanicephalidea represents one of 11 currently recognized elasmobranch-hosted tapeworm lineages. It is quite speciose, with nearly 100 validly recognized species to date. Yet spermatozoon features have been fully characterized for only a single species; spermatozoon characters for a second species were previously included in a data matrix used to infer phylogenetic relationships among cestode orders, but data are limited and no images were provided. Specimens of Tetragonocephalum sp. were collected from the whipray, Urogymnus asperrimus 1, from the Solomon Sea off the Solomon Islands. The mature spermatozoa of Tetragonocephalum sp. are distinctly different from the other lecanicephalidean species for which spermatozoon ultrastructure has been thoroughly investigated. Tetragonocephalum sp. spermatozoa represent the Type IV (sensu Levron, 2010) morphology possessing a single axoneme, crested bodies, cortical microtubules running parallel to the axoneme, and nucleus, which is helical to the axoneme. Although spermatozoa for both lecanicephalideans examined to date are of the Type IV spermatozoon morphology, they differ in the number of crested bodies and cortical microtubules, the relative size of the spermatozoon-specifically as it relates to the nuclear region-and the presence or absence of the anterior spiral structure. Significant spermatozoon character variation is present across these 2 representatives of 2 lecanicephalidean families, indicating that additional studies of representatives of the other families in the order are needed to better understand the extent of character variation present in the Lecanicephalidea. Overall, spermatozoon ultrastructure is understudied in elasmobranch-hosted tapeworm lineages compared to other vertebrate-hosted tapeworm orders at both the species and family levels.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Infecções por Cestoides , Rajidae , Humanos , Masculino , Animais , Filogenia , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Espermatozoides/ultraestrutura
13.
J Helminthol ; 96: e70, 2022 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36148561

RESUMO

Plerocerci of the trypanorhynch cestode Progrillotia dasyatidis Beveridge, Neifar & Euzet, (Progrillotiidae) were isolated from the gallbladder of the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus from a small freshwater marsh in the Lake Atanasovsko Wetlands, a coastal area adjacent to the Black Sea coast, Bulgaria. The parasite was recorded in five out of 134 fish individuals studied (prevalence 3.73%, intensity 1-7, mean intensity 2.40 ± 1.17 and mean abundance 0.09 ± 0.06). A description of the plerocerci is presented, expanding data on intraspecific variation. The present report is the first record of P. dasyatidis from G. aculeatus (new host record) and from Bulgaria (new geographical record). Recording only plerocerci with evaginated scoleces in the sticklebacks is consistent with the hypothesis that teleosts are paratenic hosts and not intermediate hosts of P. dasyatidis.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Infecções por Cestoides , Doenças dos Peixes , Parasitos , Smegmamorpha , Animais , Bulgária/epidemiologia , Infecções por Cestoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Lagos , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Smegmamorpha/parasitologia , Áreas Alagadas
14.
Parasitology ; 149(13): 1769-1774, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36165289

RESUMO

Although Joyeuxiella pasqualei is frequently detected in cats from Mediterranean Europe, information on its biology is still scarce. This cestode is relatively less frequently reported in dogs, possibly because it is often misdiagnosed with the better-known Dipylidium caninum. The occurrence of J. pasqualei proglottids in a dog living in a closed environment triggered us to delve into the biology of this cestode by collecting biological samples from lizards and a road-killed cat. Two reptile species, Podarcis siculus (Lacertidae), and Tarentola mauritanica (Geckonidae) were also collected in the garden and its surroundings. In addition, experimental infections with eggs obtained from gravid proglottids were performed in laboratory mice, and Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) beetles. Proglottids from the dog's feces and adult cestodes detected at necroscopy of a cat were morphologically identified as J. pasqualei. Two out of 13 T. mauritanica collected in the garden had natural infections of J. pasqualei cysts in the liver and attached to the intestine. All P. siculus lizards and experimentally infected rodents and beetles were negative. DNA sequences obtained from J. pasqualei showed the highest nucleotide similarities with Versteria sp., Echinococcus sp., Raillietina sonini, Taenia polyacantha and D. caninum. Data herein provided show the inability of rodents to become infected by direct ingestion of gravid proglottids, suggesting a need for an invertebrate first intermediate host in the life cycle. Thus, more research study is advocated to better understand the biology of J. pasqualei such as its first intermediate host and its mechanism of transmission in reptiles and rodents.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Cestoides , Infecções por Cestoides , Camundongos , Cães , Gatos , Animais , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Infecções por Cestoides/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Cestoides/genética , Fezes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia
15.
J Helminthol ; 96: e65, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36065626

RESUMO

In this study, we report the first complete mitochondrial genome of the tapeworm Nippotaenia mogurndae in the order Nippotaeniidea Yamaguti, 1939. This mitogenome, which is 14,307 base pairs (bp) long with an A + T content of 72.2%, consists of 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, two rRNA genes, and two non-coding regions. Most tRNAs have a conventional cloverleaf structure, but trnS1 and trnR lack dihydrouridine arms of tRNA. The two largest non-coding regions, NCR1 (220 bp) and NCR2 (817 bp), are located between trnY and trnS2 and between nad5 and trnG, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of mitogenomic data indicate that N. mogurndae is closely related to tapeworms in the order Cyclophyllidea.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Infecções por Cestoides , Genoma Mitocondrial , Animais , Cestoides/genética , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Filogenia , RNA de Transferência/genética
16.
Zootaxa ; 5159(2): 281-293, 2022 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095547

RESUMO

A list of the type specimens of helminth endoparasites in the Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense (MZB), Indonesia, is presented. There are types of 93 helminth endoparasite species consisting of 63 species of nematodes, 22 species of cestodes, and 8 species of trematodes that have been deposited in MZB. Altogether, there are currently 211 deposited numbers of type-specimens at MZB, which contain 817 specimens wet preserved and 85 specimens mounted. The list has now been added to the scientific publication record and museum catalog.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Helmintos , Nematoides , Animais , Indonésia , Museus
17.
Acta Parasitol ; 67(4): 1626-1633, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074238

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Tape worm infection is common among sheep at SRRC, Mannavanur, Palani hills, Tamil Nadu, India. The aim of the present study is to find out the cestode species infecting the sheep being maintained at SRRC, Mannavanur, by means of molecular method. METHODS: During the second week of June 2021, the hogget flock of sheep (comprising both Bharat Merino and Avikalin sheep breeds) was drenched on empty stomach with commercial preparation of anthelmintic drug containing Niclosamide plus Albendazole, as per the standard dose specified by the manufacturer (Niclozole™: each 5 ml contains 500 mg of Niclosamide and 150 mg of Albendazole: dose for sheep-10 ml/15 kg body weight). The tapeworms expelled in dung by the drug-treated sheep were collected, washed in PBS (pH 7.2), and fixed in between two glass slides using 10% formalin. Furthermore, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (Cox-I) gene-based PCR was carried out. Only partial sequence (1593 bp) of Cox-I gene of Moniezia expansa from Sheep at SRRC, Mannavanur, Tamil Nadu, India was obtained by PCR. The PCR amplified fragment was cloned into pGEM-T vector and the recombinant plasmid was sequenced. The obtained nucleotide sequences of Cox-I gene of the M. expansa from Indian sheep were analysed with that of 27 more cestode species from different mammalian species (available in GenBank) using bioinformatics tools. RESULTS: The species of the tapeworm was identified as Moniezia species by the Department of Veterinary Parasitology, VC& RI, Orathanadu, TANUVAS by the standard Acidic alum carmine staining method. Due to the ambiguity in the conventional method, Cox-I gene-based PCR and subsequent gene sequencing protocols were used for the identification of the species of cestode infecting sheep at SRRC, Mannavanur, and it was confirmed as M. expansa upon BLAST analysis. Moniezia expansa from SRRC, Mannavanur is having 100% sequence identity at nucleotide level with that of M. expansa from Sengal/Ethiopia. M. benedeni shared 87-88% nucleotide identity with Indian M. expansa. With taenids, the share of percent nucleotide identity of Indian M. expansa ranged from 79 to 81%. M. expansa from Indian sheep was clustering with other anaplocephalids from various mammalian species in the analysis of phylogenetic tree based on Cox-I nucleotide sequences. CONCLUSION: From the present study, it is concluded that M. expansa is the anoplocephalid cestode infecting the sheep at Mannavanur, Tamil Nadu, India. To our knowledge, this is the first report on partial nucleotide sequences of Cox-I gene of M. expansa from Sheep of Indian peninsula. An investigation on the involvement of oribatid mites as the vector in the transmission of M. expansa among sheep at SRRC, Mannavanur needs to be carried out.


Assuntos
Albendazol , Cestoides , Ovinos , Animais , Filogenia , Niclosamida , Índia/epidemiologia , Cestoides/genética , Nucleotídeos , Mamíferos
18.
Acta Parasitol ; 67(4): 1612-1625, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074239

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The stomachs and spiral valves of sharks and rays were examined for their trypanorhynch (Cestoda) parasite fauna and dietary items to infer feeding ecology. In Indonesia, sharks and rays have been experiencing increasing awareness and conservation in the recent years due to high fisheries activities and to avoid future species extinction. METHODS: The samples were collected in 2009 from two different sampling sites at the southern coasts of Java and Bali in Indonesia. The parasite fauna was studied for 41 elasmobranch fishes. Amongst these, three shark species, Carcharhinus sorrah, Carcharhinus sp. I and Squalus megalops and seven ray species, Brevitrygon heterura, B. cf. heterura, Gymnura zonura, Maculabatis gerrardi, Mobula kuhlii, Neotrygon cauruleopuncatata and Rhinobatos penggali were studied. Four additional specimens, belonging to the shark species Carcharhinus sp. II and Mustelus cf. manazo and the ray species Maculabatis gerrardi were studied from the waters of South Bali. RESULTS: Analyses of the feeding ecology of the ray M. gerrardi revealed distinct differences between both sampling sites, indicating the presence of ecological differences between the geographically independent regions. A total of 11 different trypanorhynch species/taxa belonging to the five families Eutetrarhynchidae (5), Gilquiniidae (1), Lacistorhynchidae (1), Pterobothriidae (1) and Tentaculariidae (3) were found. Ten trypanorhynch species from Penyu Bay and four species from South Bali could be identified. Two taxa that might represent new species were collected: Dollfusiella sp. from Brevitrygon heterura and Prochristianella sp. from Maculabatis gerrardi. CONCLUSIONS: The present paper gives insights in using the trypanorhynch cestode community in combination with feeding ecology analyses to support conservation of elasmobranchs in Indonesian waters.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Parasitos , Tubarões , Rajidae , Animais , Tubarões/parasitologia , Indonésia , Peixes
19.
Science ; 377(6611): 1206-1211, 2022 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074841

RESUMO

Parasites impose fitness costs on their hosts. Biologists often assume that natural selection favors infection-resistant hosts. Yet, when the immune response itself is costly, theory suggests that selection may sometimes favor loss of resistance, which may result in alternative stable states where some populations are resistant and others are tolerant. Intraspecific variation in immune costs is rarely surveyed in a manner that tests evolutionary patterns, and there are few examples of adaptive loss of resistance. Here, we show that when marine threespine stickleback colonized freshwater lakes, they gained resistance to the freshwater-associated cestode Schistocephalus solidus. Extensive peritoneal fibrosis and inflammation are a commonly observed phenotype that contributes to suppression of cestode growth and viability but also imposes a substantial cost on fecundity. Combining genetic mapping and population genomics, we find that opposing selection generates immune system differences between tolerant and resistant populations, consistent with divergent optimization.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Doenças dos Peixes , Smegmamorpha , Animais , Cestoides/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Imunidade , Lagos , Smegmamorpha/genética
20.
J Helminthol ; 96: e63, 2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36004491

RESUMO

Rodentolepis (sensu lato) asymmetrica (Janicki, 1904) is redescribed on the basis of materials from Microtus agrestis, Microtus arvalis and Myodes glareolus from Eastern Europe (Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Ukraine and the north-eastern part of Russia). A new genus, Kontrimavichusia n. g., is proposed for it based on morphological and molecular evidence. The unique morphological diagnostic characters of this currently monotypic genus include the presence of an armature on the suckers, ventral osmoregulatory canals connected with irregularly spaced transverse anastomoses, an internal seminal vesicle with circular musculature and uterus with numerous diverticula, situated dorsally to the genital ducts, extending bilaterally beyond the longitudinal osmoregulatory canals. In addition, the new genus differs from morphologically related genera of the Rodentolepis clade by the structure of its vagina. The copulatory part of the vagina in specimens of Kontrimavichusia n. g. is surrounded by circular musculature and covered externally by a dense layer of intensely-stained cells; the conductive part of the vagina is clearly distinguishable from the seminal receptacle. Molecular analysis of the partial 28S rRNA gene fully supports the erection of Kontrimavichusia n. g. as a distinct lineage.


Assuntos
Arvicolinae , Cestoides , Animais , Feminino , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética , Roedores , Federação Russa
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