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1.
JASA Express Lett ; 3(1): 011201, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36725531

RESUMO

In spring/summer of 2018 and 2021, the Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center Cetacean Research Program deployed drifting acoustic recorders in the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zones surrounding the Mariana Archipelago. Manual assessments revealed a low-frequency (median 473-554 Hz), short-duration (median 0.596 s), stereotypic tonal nocturnal call throughout the Mariana Archipelago. Based on time of year, spatiotemporal patterns, clear division among calls (i.e., no chorusing), comparisons with known vocalizations of whales, turtles, and fish, and presence of Bryde's whale calls, and because the call has not been detected elsewhere, we hypothesize this 500-Hz pulsed call is produced by Bryde's whales (Balaenoptera brydei).


Assuntos
Balaenoptera , Animais , Cetáceos , Fatores de Tempo , Acústica , Estações do Ano
2.
Environ Pollut ; 319: 121001, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36610650

RESUMO

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including brominated flame retardants (BFRs), perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and metals, can accumulate in marine mammals and be transferred to offspring. In this study, we analyzed 64 lipophilic POPs, including four emerging BFRs, in the blubber, liver and muscle of 17 adult common minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from the Barents Sea to investigate occurrence and tissue partitioning. In addition, the placental transfer concentration ratios of 14 PFAS and 17 metals were quantified in the muscle of nine female-fetus pairs to investigate placental transfer. Legacy lipophilic POPs were the dominating compound group in every tissue, and we observed generally lower levels compared to previous studies from 1992 to 2001. We detected the emerging BFRs hexabromobenzene (HBB) and pentabromotoluene (PBT), but in low levels compared to the legacy POPs. We detected nine PFAS, and levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were higher than detected from the same population in 2011, whilst levels of Hg were comparable to 2011. Levels of lipophilic contaminants were higher in blubber compared to muscle and liver on both a wet weight and lipid adjusted basis, but tissue partitioning of the emerging BFRs could not be determined due to the high number of samples below the limit of detection. The highest muscle ΣPFAS levels were quantified in fetuses (23 ± 8.7 ng/g ww), followed by adult males (7.2 ± 2.0 ng/gg ww) and adult females (4.5 ± 1.1 ng/g ww), showing substantial placental transfer from mother to fetus. In contrast, Hg levels in the fetus were lower than the mother. Levels were under thresholds for risk of health effects in the whales. This study is the first to report occurrence and placental transfer of emerging contaminants in common minke whales from the Barents Sea, contributing valuable new data on pollutant levels in Arctic wildlife.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Baleia Anã , Gravidez , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Placenta/química , Animais Selvagens , Cetáceos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental
3.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 67, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658131

RESUMO

Cetaceans are a group of aquatic mammals with the largest body sizes among living animals, including giant representatives such as blue and fin whales. To understand the genetic bases of gigantism in cetaceans, we performed molecular evolutionary analyses on five genes (GHSR, IGF2, IGFBP2, IGFBP7, and EGF) from the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor axis, and four genes (ZFAT, EGF, LCORL, and PLAG1) previously described as related to the size of species evolutionarily close to cetaceans, such as pigs, cows, and sheep. Our dataset comprised 19 species of cetaceans, seven of which are classified as giants because they exceed 10 m in length. Our results revealed signs of positive selection in genes from the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor axis and also in those related to body increase in cetacean-related species. In addition, pseudogenization of the EGF gene was detected in the lineage of toothless cetaceans, Mysticeti. Our results suggest the action of positive selection on gigantism in genes that act both in body augmentation and in mitigating its consequences, such as cancer suppression when involved in processes such as division, migration, and cell development control.


Assuntos
Cetáceos , Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico , Animais , Bovinos , Ovinos , Suínos , Filogenia , Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico/genética , Cetáceos/genética , Evolução Molecular , Hormônio do Crescimento/genética
4.
Proc Biol Sci ; 290(1990): 20221786, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629097

RESUMO

Sand mining, which has tripled in the last two decades, is an emerging concern for global biodiversity. However, the paucity of sand mining data worldwide prevents understanding the extent of sand mining impacts and how it affects wildlife populations and ecosystems, which is critical for timely mitigation and conservation actions. Integrating remote sensing and field surveys over 14 years, we investigated mining impacts on the critically endangered Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis) in Dongting Lake, China. We found that sand mining presented a consistent, widespread disturbance in Dongting Lake. Porpoises strongly avoided mining sites, especially those of higher mining intensity. The extensive sand mining significantly contracted the porpoise's range and restricted their habitat use in the lake. Water traffic for sand transportation further blocked the species's river-lake movements, affecting the population connectivity. In addition, mining-induced loss of near-shore habitats, a critical foraging and nursery ground for the porpoise, occurred in nearly 70% of the water channels of our study region. Our findings provide the first empirical evidence of the impacts of unregulated sand extractions on species distribution. Our spatio-temporally explicit approach and findings support regulation and conservation, yielding broader implications for sustainable sand mining worldwide.


Assuntos
Toninhas , Areia , Animais , Ecossistema , Cetáceos , Toninhas/fisiologia , Lagos , China , Mineração
5.
Curr Biol ; 33(1): 197-205.e2, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36563692

RESUMO

Evolutionary transitions are frequently associated with novel anatomical structures,1 but the origins of the structures themselves are often poorly known. We use developmental, genetic, and paleontological data to demonstrate that the therian sternum was assembled from pre-existing elements. Imaging of the perinatal mouse reveals two paired sternal elements, both composed primarily of cells with lateral plate mesoderm origin. Location, articulations, and development identify them as homologs of the interclavicle and the sternal bands of synapsid outgroups. The interclavicle, not previously recognized in therians,2 articulates with the clavicle and differs from the sternal bands in both embryonic HOX expression and pattern of skeletal maturation. The sternal bands articulate with the ribs in two styles, most clearly differentiated by their association with sternebrae. Evolutionary trait mapping indicates that the interclavicle and sternal bands were independent elements throughout most of synapsid history. The differentiation of rib articulation styles and the subdivision of the sternal bands into sternebrae were key innovations likely associated with transitions in locomotor and respiratory mechanics.3,4 Fusion of the interclavicle and the anterior sternal bands to form a presternum anterior to the first sternebra was a historically recent innovation unique to therians. Subsequent disassembly of the radically reduced sternum of mysticete cetaceans was element specific, reflecting the constraints that conserved developmental programs exert on composite structures.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Esterno , Animais , Camundongos , Mamíferos , Mesoderma , Costelas , Cetáceos
6.
Mar Environ Res ; 184: 105857, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36577309

RESUMO

We analyzed δ13C and δ15N values in different tooth portions (Growth Layer Groups, GLGs) of franciscanas, Pontoporia blainvillei, to investigate their effect on whole tooth (WT) isotopic values and the implications for dietary estimates. Tooth portions included the dentin deposited during the prenatal development (PND), the first year of life (GLG1) deposited during the nursing period and the central part of the tooth with no distinction amongst subsequent GLGs (Center). Isotopic mixing models estimating the contribution of PND, GLG1 and Center to WT showed that GLG1 has a strong effect on WT isotope values in juveniles, while Center only starts to affect WT isotopic values from age four. Isotopic mixing models estimating prey contribution to the diet of juveniles using WT vs Center tooth portions significantly differed in dietary outputs, demonstrating that GLG1 influence on WT isotope values affects dietary estimates in young franciscanas. As the small tooth size and narrowness of the last GLGs hinder the analysis of individual layers, we recommend excluding GLG1 in studies based on teeth isotope composition in franciscanas and caution when interpreting isotopic values from the WT of other small cetaceans.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Animais , Isótopos de Carbono , Isótopos de Nitrogênio , Dieta , Cetáceos , Viés
7.
J Morphol ; 284(2): e21543, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36538588

RESUMO

Embryogenesis of cetaceans (whales, dolphins, porpoises) is best known in Stenella attenuata, the pan-tropical spotted dolphin, based on a remarkably complete and well-studied prenatal ontogenetic series. Our study expands understanding of cetacean embryology by adding two additional cetacean taxa: the beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas, Odontoceti), and the bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus, Mysticeti). We identify key features that characterize these taxa at specific stages and highlight heterochrony between the odontocetes and mysticetes. The toothed whales are more similar in developmental timing to each other than either is to Balaena. The two odontocete taxa, Stenella and Delphinapterus, share similar developmental trajectories while early Balaena specimens differ from the odontocetes. This developmental variation proves challenging to ascribe to the existing Carnegie staging system. Most notably, flippers, hindlimbs, and flukes all provide morphological traits for characterization within the Carnegie staging system. A presomitic Delphinapterus embryo is also described. This study applies the Carnegie staging system to two more cetacean taxa and forms a framework for future research on cetacean developmental genetics and the modeling of fetal growth.


Assuntos
Beluga , Baleia Franca , Golfinhos , Stenella , Animais , Cetáceos , Baleia Franca/anatomia & histologia
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20810, 2022 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36460669

RESUMO

Neurons are connected by complex branching processes-axons and dendrites-that process information for organisms to respond to their environment. Classifying neurons according to differences in structure or function is a fundamental part of neuroscience. Here, by constructing biophysical theory and testing against empirical measures of branching structure, we develop a general model that establishes a correspondence between neuron structure and function as mediated by principles such as time or power minimization for information processing as well as spatial constraints for forming connections. We test our predictions for radius scale factors against those extracted from neuronal images, measured for species that range from insects to whales, including data from light and electron microscopy studies. Notably, our findings reveal that the branching of axons and peripheral nervous system neurons is mainly determined by time minimization, while dendritic branching is determined by power minimization. Our model also predicts a quarter-power scaling relationship between conduction time delay and body size.


Assuntos
Axônios , Neurônios , Animais , Fenômenos Físicos , Sistema Nervoso Periférico , Cetáceos , Dendritos
9.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0278493, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36454861

RESUMO

Due to the huge number of connected Internet of Things (IoT) devices within a network, denial of service and flooding attacks on networks are on the rise. IoT devices are disrupted and denied service because of these attacks. In this study, we proposed a novel hybrid meta-heuristic adaptive particle swarm optimization-whale optimizer algorithm (APSO-WOA) for optimization of the hyperparameters of a convolutional neural network (APSO-WOA-CNN). The APSO-WOA optimization algorithm's fitness value is defined as the validation set's cross-entropy loss function during CNN model training. In this study, we compare our optimization algorithm with other optimization algorithms, such as the APSO algorithm, for optimization of the hyperparameters of CNN. In model training, the APSO-WOA-CNN algorithm achieved the best performance compared to the FNN algorithm, which used manual parameter settings. We evaluated the APSO-WOA-CNN algorithm against APSO-CNN, SVM, and FNN. The simulation results suggest that APSO-WOA-CNf[N is effective and can reliably detect multi-type IoT network attacks. The results show that the APSO-WOA-CNN algorithm improves accuracy by 1.25%, average precision by 1%, the kappa coefficient by 11%, Hamming loss by 1.2%, and the Jaccard similarity coefficient by 2%, as compared to the APSO-CNN algorithm, and the APSO-CNN algorithm achieves the best performance, as compared to other algorithms.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Animais , Heurística , Entropia , Simulação por Computador , Cetáceos
10.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 152(6): 3800, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36586843

RESUMO

This work presents an open-source matlab software package for exploiting recent advances in extracting tonal signals from large acoustic data sets. A whistle extraction algorithm published by Li, Liu, Palmer, Fleishman, Gillespie, Nosal, Shiu, Klinck, Cholewiak, Helble, and Roch [(2020). Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, July 19-24, Glasgow, Scotland, p. 10] is incorporated into silbido, an established software package for extraction of cetacean tonal calls. The precision and recall of the new system were over 96% and nearly 80%, respectively, when applied to a whistle extraction task on a challenging two-species subset of a conference-benchmark data set. A second data set was examined to assess whether the algorithm generalized to data that were collected across different recording devices and locations. These data included 487 h of weakly labeled, towed array data collected in the Pacific Ocean on two National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) cruises. Labels for these data consisted of regions of toothed whale presence for at least 15 species that were based on visual and acoustic observations and not limited to whistles. Although the lack of per whistle-level annotations prevented measurement of precision and recall, there was strong concurrence of automatic detections and the NOAA annotations, suggesting that the algorithm generalizes well to new data.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Animais , Vocalização Animal , Espectrografia do Som , Cetáceos , Software
11.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0275978, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36516145

RESUMO

Environmental data is crucial for planning, permitting, execution and post construction monitoring of marine renewable energy projects. In harsh conditions in which marine renewable energy is harvested, integrated monitoring platforms comprising multibeam imaging sonar systems coupled with other sensors can provide multiparametric data of the marine environment surrounding marine renewable energy installations. The aim of this study was to test the possibilities of observing the occurrence of fish and marine mammals using a multibeam imaging sonar system deployed at a wave power test site. The results obtained from a ten-day data set proved the platform as suitable for long time underwater monitoring and also revealed that the occurrence of fish and marine mammals was distributed across characteristic time and space domains. Large fish [>0.4 m] frequently occurred at night-time and near the benthic zone. Small fish [<0.2 m] frequently occurred during daylight and within the pelagic zone. The occurrence of seals was periodically distributed along a daily cycle, with intervals of 1-2 hours between maxima and minima. In conclusion, the use of multibeam imaging sonar can be a reliable technique for the qualitative and quantitative observations of fish and marine mammals in general and at marine renewable energy sites specifically, including protected and economically important species.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Focas Verdadeiras , Animais , Peixes , Energia Renovável , Som , Cetáceos
12.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 152(4): 2277, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319244

RESUMO

A single-hydrophone ocean glider was deployed within a cabled hydrophone array to demonstrate a framework for estimating population density of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) from a passive acoustic glider. The array was used to estimate tracks of acoustically active whales. These tracks became detection trials to model the detection function for glider-recorded 360-s windows containing fin whale 20-Hz pulses using a generalized additive model. Detection probability was dependent on both horizontal distance and low-frequency glider flow noise. At the median 40-Hz spectral level of 97 dB re 1 µPa2/Hz, detection probability was near one at horizontal distance zero with an effective detection radius of 17.1 km [coefficient of variation (CV) = 0.13]. Using estimates of acoustic availability and acoustically active group size from tagged and tracked fin whales, respectively, density of fin whales was estimated as 1.8 whales per 1000 km2 (CV = 0.55). A plot sampling density estimate for the same area and time, estimated from array data alone, was 1.3 whales per 1000 km2 (CV = 0.51). While the presented density estimates are from a small demonstration experiment and should be used with caution, the framework presented here advances our understanding of the potential use of gliders for cetacean density estimation.


Assuntos
Baleia Comum , Animais , Cetáceos , Probabilidade , Acústica , Aeronaves , Vocalização Animal
13.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6327, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319629

RESUMO

Microparticles, such as microplastics and microfibers, are ubiquitous in marine food webs. Filter-feeding megafauna may be at extreme risk of exposure to microplastics, but neither the amount nor pathway of microplastic ingestion are well understood. Here, we combine depth-integrated microplastic data from the California Current Ecosystem with high-resolution foraging measurements from 191 tag deployments on blue, fin, and humpback whales to quantify plastic ingestion rates and routes of exposure. We find that baleen whales predominantly feed at depths of 50-250 m, coinciding with the highest measured microplastic concentrations in the pelagic ecosystem. Nearly all (99%) microplastic ingestion is predicted to occur via trophic transfer. We predict that fish-feeding whales are less exposed to microplastic ingestion than krill-feeding whales. Per day, a krill-obligate blue whale may ingest 10 million pieces of microplastic, while a fish-feeding humpback whale likely ingests 200,000 pieces of microplastic. For species struggling to recover from historical whaling alongside other anthropogenic pressures, our findings suggest that the cumulative impacts of multiple stressors require further attention.


Assuntos
Euphausiacea , Jubarte , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Plásticos , Microplásticos , Ecossistema , Cetáceos , Peixes , Ingestão de Alimentos
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19702, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36385631

RESUMO

Marine organisms inhabiting coastal waters are known to be driven by periodic cycles such as diel, tidal, and seasonal changes. Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) breed in shallow and warm coastal waters, with males singing complex songs during the breeding season. To investigate periodic variations in humpback whale singing activities, we conducted fixed passive acoustic monitoring in the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, Japan, from winter to spring during 2016-2018. The singing activity and individual number of singers were observed throughout the day and night using a very long baseline passive acoustic array. The occurrence of singers peaked before sunrise and in the evening and was reduced during the daytime. The frequency of song reception depended on the tidal phase. A generalised additive model demonstrated that the occurrence of singers increased during the flood tide and decreased during the ebb tide in the waters west of Chichijima Island. These results suggest that the singing behaviour of humpback whales in breeding areas is affected by the diel and tidal cycles. Male humpback whales may change their behaviour or singing location depending on the strength and direction of the tidal current, considering that the selection of a stable location is beneficial for singing whales.


Assuntos
Jubarte , Canto , Animais , Masculino , Japão , Vocalização Animal , Acústica , Cetáceos
15.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 152: 27-36, 2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36394138

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is a significant threat to endangered Hawaiian wildlife including birds and marine mammals. To estimate the prevalence of T. gondii in stranded cetaceans from 1997 to 2021 in Hawai'i, we tested tissues from 37 stranded spinner dolphins Stenella longirostris and 51 stranded individuals that represented 18 other cetacean species. DNA from cetacean tissue extracts were screened using a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting the Toxoplasmatinae internal transcribed spacer 1 of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. A positive result was obtained in 9 tissues examined for each of 2 spinner dolphins out of 525 tissue samples analyzed by PCR. The PCR-positive spinner dolphins had disseminated acute toxoplasmosis with necrosis, inflammation, and intralesional protozoal cysts and tachyzoites in multiple organs. Discrete positive immunostaining for T. gondii was observed in all tissues tested including the adrenal gland, brain, liver, and lung. Both positive spinner dolphins were negative for cetacean morbillivirus. The T. gondii genotyping was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) based on 10 genetic markers. The PCR-RFLP analysis revealed the T. gondii belonged to PCR-RFLP-ToxoDB genotype #24, previously detected in wild pig Sus scrofa in O'ahu, bobcats Lynx rufus from Mississippi, USA, and chickens Gallus gallus from Costa Rica and Brazil. These cases represent the first report of this genotype in aquatic mammals and the second and third reports of fatal disseminated T. gondii infection in stranded spinner dolphins from Hawai'i. Nearshore species, like spinner dolphins, may be at increased risk of mortality from this parasite in marine coastal waterways via sewage systems, storm water drainage, and freshwater runoff.


Assuntos
Stenella , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Hawaii/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Galinhas , Genótipo , Cetáceos
16.
Sci Data ; 9(1): 682, 2022 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36357425

RESUMO

Long-term monitoring datasets are fundamental to understand physical and ecological responses to environmental changes, supporting management and conservation. The data should be reliable, with the sources of bias identified and quantified. CETUS Project is a cetacean monitoring programme in the Eastern North Atlantic, based on visual methods of data collection. This study aims to assess data quality and bias in the CETUS dataset, by 1) applying validation methods, through photographic confirmation of species identification; 2) creating data quality criteria to evaluate the observer's experience; and 3) assessing bias to the number of sightings collected and to the success in species identification. Through photographic validation, the species identification of 10 sightings was corrected and a new species was added to the CETUS dataset. The number of sightings collected was biased by external factors, mostly by sampling effort but also by weather conditions. Ultimately, results highlight the importance of identifying and quantifying data bias, while also yielding guidelines for data collection and processing, relevant for species monitoring programmes based on visual methods.


Assuntos
Cetáceos , Animais , Cetáceos/fisiologia , Coleta de Dados , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Viés
17.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 185(Pt A): 114222, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334520

RESUMO

Striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) is the most abundant cetacean species in the western Mediterranean Sea. Coastal populations are locally exposed to intense recreational boating, a growing activity over the last thirty years. Dedicated boat surveys carried out since 1988 (13,896 km of effort), enabled to map relative abundance for two periods, 1988-2003 and 2004-2019, which evidenced a significant decrease of habitat use in the inshore part of study area. Coastal traffic was surveyed from a shore lookout located in Cap d'Antibes (French Riviera) during 47 daily sessions from May 2017 to April 2018: traffic flow often exceeded one boat per minute in summer, with a majority of motorboats. Underwater recordings showed that inshore noise was about 10 dB higher than in the open sea, with much energy being propagated by fast boats, including in the medium to high frequency domain. Ambient noise data collected during spring 2020 lockdown evidenced a clear noise level decrease compared to normal situations. Although other stressors may not be neglected, this study suggested that intense motorboat traffic is a likely contributor to the observed striped dolphin partial habitat loss.


Assuntos
Stenella , Esportes Aquáticos , Animais , Mar Mediterrâneo , Cetáceos , Navios
18.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 185(Pt A): 114288, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36330942

RESUMO

Plastic debris is of particular concern due to its abundance, and its persistence in the environment. In Argentina, the impact of plastic debris has been documented with a significant increase during the last years. However, evidence of debris ingestion remains low compared to other regions of the world. Between 2020 and 2022, one of the twenty-three individuals analyzed in this study (seven species: five birds and two marine mammals) had ingested plastic debris. A single macroplastic piece was found in the Great Grebe (Podiceps major). It was a hardy yellow elastic band that appears to be a packaging band in agreement with the debris category with the greatest number of reports. This study is a contribution to the few records of plastic ingestion in birds, on the east coast of South America.


Assuntos
Caniformia , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Humanos , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Resíduos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Argentina , Plásticos , Aves , Cetáceos , Ingestão de Alimentos
19.
Adv Mar Biol ; 93: 3-21, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36435593

RESUMO

Marine mammals are regarded in high esteem by the general public, and are recognized as flagship species for conservation, while at the same time they suffer from anthropogenic impacts on a global scale, and often in extreme ways. It seems there is a huge discrepancy between how we humans think about our fellow creatures in the sea, and how we behave to impact and/or conserve them. Here, I examine why the purely scientific and thus intellectual approach to marine mammal conservation has had limited success over the past decades. While there are some obvious success stories in cetacean conservation, the situation today is, for many species and populations, more dire than it has ever been. The idea of 'we need to know more'-a credo of the scientific community-often is politically misrepresented to postpone necessary conservation decisions. To adapt our path towards more profound and, importantly, more effective marine conservation, as conservationists we need to go deeper and change the narrative of separation, i.e., the concept of humans being set apart from the rest of nature. Instead, there is a need to create a narrative of connectedness, i.e., the consciousness of humans being an integral part of the planetary system. Rather than telling horror stories about the plight of marine mammals, conservationists also need to trigger positive emotions about them in ourselves. More holistic aspects of conservation need to be incorporated in our future efforts, including the fuller integration of traditional knowledge and indigenous wisdom, recognizing ecosystem functions of marine life and protecting the processes they sustain, respecting 'holiness' of nature while focusing on the animals' individuality, personhood and the cultural identity of distinct communities. Effective marine mammal conservation will be possible only on the basis of a profound change of our own values and a fundamental change of the societal system we are living in.


Assuntos
Caniformia , Cefapirina , Animais , Humanos , Ecossistema , Cetáceos , Efeitos Antropogênicos
20.
Microbiologyopen ; 11(5): e1329, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36314752

RESUMO

The Gram-negative bacteria Brucella ceti and Brucella pinnipedialis circulate in marine environments primarily infecting marine mammals, where they cause an often-fatal disease named brucellosis. The increase of brucellosis among several species of cetaceans and pinnipeds, together with the report of sporadic human infections, raises concerns about the zoonotic potential of these pathogens on a large scale and may pose a threat to coastal communities worldwide. Therefore, the characterization of the B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis genetic features is a priority to better understand the pathological factors that may impact global health. Moreover, an in-depth functional analysis of the B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis genome in the context of virulence and pathogenesis was not undertaken so far. Within this picture, here we present the comparative whole-genome characterization of all B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis genomes available in public resources, uncovering a collection of genetic tools possessed by these aquatic bacterial species compared to their zoonotic terrestrial relatives. We show that B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis genomes display a wide host-range infection capability and a polyphyletic phylogeny within the genus, showing a genomic structure that fits the canonical definition of closeness. Functional genome annotation led to identifying genes related to several pathways involved in mechanisms of infection, others conferring pan-susceptibility to antimicrobials and a set of virulence genes that highlight the similarity of B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis genotypes to those of Brucella spp. displaying human-infecting phenotypes.


Assuntos
Brucella , Brucelose , Caniformia , Animais , Humanos , Brucella/genética , Brucelose/microbiologia , Caniformia/microbiologia , Cetáceos/microbiologia
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