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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20502, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654867

RESUMO

The COVID-19 is difficult to contain due to its high transmissibility rate and a long incubation period of 5 to 14 days. Moreover, more than half of the infected patients were young and asymptomatic. Virus transmission through asymptomatic patients is a major challenge to disease containment. Due to limited treatment options, preventive measures play major role in controlling the disease spread. Gargling with antiseptic formulation may have potential role in eliminating the virus in the throat. Four commercially available mouthwash/gargle formulations were tested for virucidal activity against SARS-CoV-2 in both clean (0.3 g/l BSA) and dirty (0.3 g/l BSA + 3 mL/L human erythrocytes) conditions at time points 30 and 60 s. The virus was isolated and propagated in Vero E6 cells. The cytotoxicity of the products to the Vero E6 was evaluated by kill time assay based on the European Standard EN14476:2013/FprA1:2015 protocol. Virus titres were calculated as 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50/mL) using the Spearman-Karber method. A reduction in virus titer of 4 log10 corresponds to an inactivation of ≥ 99.99%. Formulations with cetylperidinium chloride, chlorhexidine and hexitidine achieved > 4 log10 reduction in viral titres when exposed within 30 s under both clean and dirty conditions. Thymol formulations achieved only 0.5 log10 reduction in viral titres. In addition, salt water was not proven effective. Gargle formulations with cetylperidinium chloride, chlorhexidine and hexetidine have great potential in reducing SAR-CoV-2 at the source of entry into the body, thus minimizing risk of transmission of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Eritrócitos/virologia , Antissépticos Bucais , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Antivirais , Cetilpiridínio , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Clorexidina/química , Chlorocebus aethiops , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Timol/química , Células Vero , Carga Viral , Água
2.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 124: 104838, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555621

RESUMO

To develop antimicrobial restorative materials for root caries, we assessed a 4-META/MMA-TBB resin (Bondfill SB Plus, Sun Medical) containing benzalkonium chloride (BAC) or cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) at 1.25, 2.5, and 5.0 wt%. The same resin without antibacterial agent was used as control. The degree of conversion was measured by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The 3-point flexural strength test was conducted according to ISO 4049. The antimicrobial effect against three oral bacteria (Streptococcus mutans, S. sobrinus, and Actinomyces naeslundii) was assessed using agar diffusion tests. The shear bond strength to root dentin was assessed after 24 h of storage in water with or without 10,000 thermal cycles. The shear bond strength data were statistically compared using a linear mixed-effects model (α = 0.05). The specimen with 5.0 wt% BAC showed a significantly higher degree of conversion than the control, but it also had significantly lower flexural strength and lower shear bond strength after thermal cycling than the other specimens. When BAC or CPC was added at ≥ 2.5 wt%, the resins inhibited the growth of the three investigated microbes. In conclusion, both BAC and CPC showed significant antimicrobial effects when added at 5.0 wt% to the 4-META/MMA-TBB resin. Up to 2.5 wt%, neither antimicrobial agent affected the degree of conversion, flexural strength, or shear bond strength of the resin.


Assuntos
Colagem Dentária , Cárie Radicular , Actinomyces , Antibacterianos , Compostos de Benzalcônio/farmacologia , Compostos de Boro , Cetilpiridínio/farmacologia , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Metacrilatos , Metilmetacrilatos , Cimentos de Resina , Resistência à Tração
3.
J Dent Res ; 100(11): 1265-1272, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282982

RESUMO

Oral mouthwashes decrease the infectivity of several respiratory viruses including SARS-CoV-2. However, the precise agents with antiviral activity in these oral rinses and their exact mechanism of action remain unknown. Here we show that cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), a quaternary ammonium compound in many oral mouthwashes, reduces SARS-CoV-2 infectivity by inhibiting the viral fusion step with target cells after disrupting the integrity of the viral envelope. We also found that CPC-containing mouth rinses decreased more than a thousand times the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro, while the corresponding vehicles had no effect. This activity was effective for different SARS-CoV-2 variants, including the B.1.1.7 or Alpha variant originally identified in United Kingdom, and in the presence of sterilized saliva. CPC-containing mouth rinses could therefore represent a cost-effective measure to reduce SARS-CoV-2 infectivity in saliva, aiding to reduce viral transmission from infected individuals regardless of the variants they are infected with.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Antissépticos Bucais , Cetilpiridínio/farmacologia , Humanos , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 379(1): 96-107, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253645

RESUMO

In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, drug repurposing has been highlighted for rapid introduction of therapeutics. Proposed drugs with activity against SARS-CoV-2 include compounds with positive charges at physiologic pH, making them potential targets for the organic cation secretory transporters of kidney and liver, i.e., the basolateral organic cation transporters, OCT1 and OCT2; and the apical multidrug and toxin extruders, MATE1 and MATE2-K. We selected several compounds proposed to have in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2 (chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, quinacrine, tilorone, pyronaridine, cetylpyridinium, and miramistin) to test their interaction with OCT and MATE transporters. We used Bayesian machine learning models to generate predictions for each molecule with each transporter and also experimentally determined IC50 values for each compound against labeled substrate transport into CHO cells that stably expressed OCT2, MATE1, or MATE2-K using three structurally distinct substrates (atenolol, metformin and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium) to assess the impact of substrate structure on inhibitory efficacy. For the OCTs substrate identity influenced IC50 values, although the effect was larger and more systematic for OCT2. In contrast, inhibition of MATE1-mediated transport was largely insensitive to substrate identity. Unlike MATE1, inhibition of MATE2-K was influenced, albeit modestly, by substrate identity. Maximum unbound plasma concentration/IC50 ratios were used to identify potential clinical DDI recommendations; all the compounds interacted with the OCT/MATE secretory pathway, most with sufficient avidity to represent potential DDI issues for secretion of cationic drugs. This should be considered when proposing cationic agents as repurposed antivirals. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Drugs proposed as potential COVID-19 therapeutics based on in vitro activity data against SARS-CoV-2 include compounds with positive charges at physiological pH, making them potential interactors with the OCT/MATE renal secretory pathway. We tested seven such molecules as inhibitors of OCT1/2 and MATE1/2-K. All the compounds blocked transport activity regardless of substrate used to monitor activity. Suggesting that plasma concentrations achieved by normal clinical application of the test agents could be expected to influence the pharmacokinetics of selected cationic drugs.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions Orgânicos/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Compostos de Benzalcônio/farmacologia , Células CHO , Cetilpiridínio/farmacologia , Cloroquina/análogos & derivados , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Naftiridinas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions Orgânicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinacrina/farmacologia , Tilorona/farmacologia
5.
Infect Dis Now ; 51(5): 488-491, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965679

RESUMO

Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are opportunistic pathogens commonly colonizing hospital water systems, and may be responsible for healthcare-associated infections (HAI). Investigation of HAI and outbreaks caused by NTM necessitates water analyses. However, NTM are slow-growing bacteria within the mesophilic community present in water, and are difficult to detect. Prior to culture on specific media, their recovery usually requires decontamination and concentration steps. We assessed the effectiveness of filtration as regards the recovery of 7 NTM species in hospital water samples. We also compared the use of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) at different concentrations and Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) 4% in decontamination of water samples with mesophilic bacteria. Our laboratory protocol showed that membrane filtration was suitable for concentration and recovery of NTM from water. Sample decontamination with CPC was more NTM-preservative than NaOH. A combination of CPC at 0.005% and filtration allowed detection of NTM at low concentrations, ranging from 3 to 98 CFU/100mL according to the NTM species.


Assuntos
Cetilpiridínio , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas , Meios de Cultura , Hospitais , Água
6.
J Hosp Infect ; 113: 30-43, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865974

RESUMO

Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the cellular receptor for SARS-CoV-2, so ACE2-expressing cells can act as target cells and are susceptible to infection. ACE2 receptors are highly expressed in the oral cavity, so this may be a potential high-risk route for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, the virus can be detected in saliva, even before COVID-19 symptoms appear, with the consequent high risk of virus transmission in asymptomatic/presymptomatic patients. Reducing oral viral load could lead to a lower risk of transmission via salivary droplets or aerosols and therefore contribute to the control of the pandemic. Our aim was to evaluate the available evidence testing the in-vitro and in-vivo effects of oral antiseptics to inactivate or eradicate coronaviruses. The criteria used were those described in the PRISMA declaration for performing systematic reviews. An electronic search was conducted in Medline (via PubMed) and in Web of Sciences, using the MeSH terms: 'mouthwash' OR 'oral rinse' OR 'mouth rinse' OR 'povidone iodine' OR 'hydrogen peroxide' OR 'cetylpyridinium chloride' AND 'COVID-19' OR 'SARS-CoV-2' OR 'coronavirus' OR 'SARS' OR 'MERS'. The initial search strategy identified 619 articles on two electronic databases. Seventeen articles were included assessing the virucidal efficacy of oral antiseptics against coronaviruses. In conclusion, there is sufficient in-vitro evidence to support the use of antiseptics to potentially reduce the viral load of SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses. However, in-vivo evidence for most oral antiseptics is limited. Randomized clinical trials with a control group are needed to demonstrate its clinical efficacy.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Cetilpiridínio/farmacologia , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Boca , Pandemias , Povidona-Iodo/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Saliva/virologia
7.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916013

RESUMO

Periodontal diseases like gingivitis and periodontitis are primarily caused by dental plaque. Several antiplaque and anti-microbial agents have been successfully incorporated into toothpastes and mouthwashes to control plaque biofilms and to prevent and treat gingivitis and periodontitis. The aim of this article was to review recent developments in the antiplaque, anti-gingivitis, and anti-periodontitis properties of some common compounds in toothpastes and mouthwashes by evaluating basic and clinical studies, especially the ones published in the past five years. The common active ingredients in toothpastes and mouthwashes included in this review are chlorhexidine, cetylpyridinium chloride, sodium fluoride, stannous fluoride, stannous chloride, zinc oxide, zinc chloride, and two herbs-licorice and curcumin. We believe this comprehensive review will provide useful up-to-date information for dental care professionals and the general public regarding the major oral care products on the market that are in daily use.


Assuntos
Antissépticos Bucais/análise , Antissépticos Bucais/química , Doenças Periodontais/prevenção & controle , Cremes Dentais/análise , Cremes Dentais/química , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/química , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Cetilpiridínio/química , Cetilpiridínio/farmacologia , Cloretos/química , Cloretos/farmacologia , Humanos , Doenças Periodontais/etiologia , Doenças Periodontais/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Fluoreto de Sódio/química , Fluoreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Fluoretos de Estanho/análise , Fluoretos de Estanho/química , Fluoretos de Estanho/farmacologia , Compostos de Zinco/química , Compostos de Zinco/farmacologia
9.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 345: 109150, 2021 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735782

RESUMO

Glycerol monolaurate (GML) is a monoglycerol ester of the fatty lauric acids, which has a wide-spectrum antimicrobial capacity, but fails to inactivate Gram-negative bacteria, especial Salmonella. To enhance the population reduction rate of GML for Salmonella, this reagent was combined with three disinfectants: lactic acid (LA), cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), and trisodium phosphate (TSP), which can present acid, neutral, and alkaline in solution, respectively. The results showed that the 1% GML and a complex disinfectant (0.5% GML-0.025% LA) could powerfully inactivate Salmonella. Their population reduction rates respectively were able to achieve 99.92% and 98.29% with the vortex treatment, indicating that the vortex treatment could improve GML to destruct the outer membrane of Salmonella. During the simulation test of the soaking and rinse processing of chicken, for a short time (0 h), the effect of 0.5% GML-0.025% LA compound was better and more suitable for instantaneous inactivation than others, while for a long time (4 h), 1% GML exhibited a better bactericidal effect, which indicated it to be more suitable for long-term bacteriostasis. The characterization of color and texture for chicken samples were determined using Colormeter Ci7600, TA.XT Plus and Hyper-spectral Imager, which demonstrated that all samples treated by these complex disinfectants were not significantly different from untreated group. In conclusion, GML is a potential and superior disinfectant for the chicken process.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Lauratos/farmacologia , Monoglicerídeos/farmacologia , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cetilpiridínio/farmacologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Ácido Láctico/farmacologia , Fosfatos/farmacologia
10.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557189

RESUMO

The physical and mechanical properties of nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) composites with N-cetylpyridinium bromide-carbon black (CPB-CB) were investigated. Addition of 5 parts per hundred rubber (phr) of CPB-CB into NBR improved the tensile strength by 124%, vulcanization rate by 41%, shore hardness by 15%, and decreased the volumetric wear by 7% compared to those of the base rubber-CB composite.


Assuntos
Butadienos/química , Cetilpiridínio/química , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Nitrilas/química , Fenômenos Físicos , Borracha/química , Fuligem/química
11.
Sci Data ; 8(1): 70, 2021 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637768

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, in which acute respiratory infections are associated with high socio-economic burden. We applied high-content screening to a well-defined collection of 5632 compounds including 3488 that have undergone previous clinical investigations across 600 indications. The compounds were screened by microscopy for their ability to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 cytopathicity in the human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line, Caco-2. The primary screen identified 258 hits that inhibited cytopathicity by more than 75%, most of which were not previously known to be active against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. These compounds were tested in an eight-point dose response screen using the same image-based cytopathicity readout. For the 67 most active molecules, cytotoxicity data were generated to confirm activity against SARS-CoV-2. We verified the ability of known inhibitors camostat, nafamostat, lopinavir, mefloquine, papaverine and cetylpyridinium to reduce the cytopathic effects of SARS-CoV-2, providing confidence in the validity of the assay. The high-content screening data are suitable for reanalysis across numerous drug classes and indications and may yield additional insights into SARS-CoV-2 mechanisms and potential therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , COVID-19 , Células CACO-2 , Cetilpiridínio , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Ésteres , Guanidinas , Humanos , Lopinavir , Mefloquina , Papaverina
12.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562133

RESUMO

Bymeans of spectrophotometric titration and NMR spectroscopy, the selective binding ability ofthe Co(III)-5,15-bis-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-10,20-bis-(4-sulfophenyl)porphyrin (Со(III)Р1) andCo(III)-5,15-bis-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-10,20-bis-(4-sulfophenyl)porphyrin (Со(III)Р2) towards imidazole derivatives of various nature (imidazole (L1), metronidazole (L2), and histamine (L3)) in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) has been studied. It was found that in the case of L2, L3 the binding of the "first" ligand molecule by porphyrinatesCo(III)P1 and Co(III)P2 occurs with the formation of complexes with two binding sites (donor-acceptor bond at the center and hydrogen bond at the periphery of the macrocycle), while the "second" ligand molecule is added to the metalloporphyrin only due to the formation of the donor-acceptor bond at the macrocycle coordination center. The formation of stable complexes with two binding sites has been confirmed by density functional theory method (DFT) quantum chemical calculations and two-dimensional NMR experiments. It was shown that among the studied porphyrinates, Co(III)P2 is more selective towards to L1-L3 ligands, and localization of cobalt porphyrinates in cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) micelles does not prevent the studied imidazole derivatives reversible binding. The obtained materials can be used to develop effective receptors for recognition, delivery, and prolonged release of drug compounds to the sites of their functioning. Considering that cetylpyridinium chloride is a widely used cationic biocide as a disinfectant, the designed materials may also prove to be effective antimicrobial agents.


Assuntos
Cetilpiridínio/química , Cobalto/química , Imidazóis/química , Metaloporfirinas/química , Fosfatos/química , Tampões (Química) , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Soluções
13.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 19(1): 157-167, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600092

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the positive effects of a CPC-, GK2-, and TXA-based (CPC/GK2/TXA) mouthwash after implant placement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients (n = 20) who underwent posterior implant-placement surgery were randomly and evenly allocated to the study or the placebo group. After the mouthwash was used 3x/day for 7 to 10 days postoperatively, sutures were analysed by counting the colony-forming units (CFU) for total aerobes, total G [-] anaerobes, total enterobacteria and total H. influenzae, followed by Real-Time PCR of bacterial-specific DNAs of A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, T. denticola, P. intermedia, P. micra, F. nucleatum, C. rectus, and E. corrodens. In vitro resistance of P. gingivalis, S. aureus, and P. aeruginosa was analysed. The compatibility of the mouthwash with Straumann SLA implant surfaces was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). RESULTS: Sixteen patients (n = 16) completed the trial. A statistically significantly greater number of CFU was found in the placebo group for almost all species, especially for total G [-] anaerobes. No statistically significant in vitro resistance was found for P. gingivalis, S. aureus, and P. aeruginosa. SEM revealed no surface alteration after exposure to the mouthwash. CONCLUSION: The use of a CPC/GK2/TXA mouthwash inhibited propagation of the bacteria extracted from the post-surgical sutures after implant placement.


Assuntos
Cetilpiridínio , Ácido Tranexâmico , Ácido Glicirrízico , Humanos , Antissépticos Bucais , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Staphylococcus aureus
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022380

RESUMO

The present study was assessed to determine the in vivo toxic effects of a cationic surfactant, cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), and an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in terms of oxidative stress biomarkers in benthic oligochaete worm Tubifex tubifex for 14 days. The investigation demonstrated that sublethal concentrations of CPC (0.0213, and 0.0639 mg L-1) and SDS (1.094 and 3.092 mg L-1)induced paramount alterations in the oxidative stress enzymes in Tubifex tubifex. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) exhibited an initial notable increase in their activities in the surfactants exposed worms at 1d and 7d of exposure period followed by consequential reduction at 14d exposure period with respect to control, while catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) activities markedly incremented gradually throughout the exposure periods. Through the construction of the correlation matrix and integrated biomarker response (IBR), the effects of CPC and SDS on Tubifex tubifex were distinguished. These results indicate that exposure to these cationic and anionic surfactants modulates the levels of oxidative stress enzymes in Tubifex tubifex.


Assuntos
Cetilpiridínio/farmacologia , Oligoquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Dodecilsulfato de Sódio/farmacologia , Tensoativos/farmacologia , Animais , Ânions/química , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Cátions/química , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Oligoquetos/fisiologia , Dodecilsulfato de Sódio/química , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Tensoativos/química
15.
Clin Oral Investig ; 25(2): 745-757, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185736

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to systematically review the literature about the interproximal anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis efficacy of cetylpyrydinium chloride (CPC) mouthrinse compared to placebo solution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three databases (PUBMED, SCOPUS, and EMBASE) were searched for randomized clinical trials that compared the interproximal anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis effect of CPC and placebo mouthrinses as an adjunct to toothbrushing, after a minimum of 6 weeks. Individuals with any periodontal diagnosis were considered. Two meta-analyses were performed for the Turesky modification of the Quigley-Hein plaque index and the Löe and Silness gingival index. For both analyses, the mean differences (MD) between baseline and 6-weeks were calculated using a random-effect model. RESULTS: Eight studies were included. All included studies showed significant improvement in at least one of the parameters, favoring the CPC mouthrinse when compared to placebo. The meta-analysis demonstrated that groups that used CPC displayed a significantly greater reduction in the plaque index score (MD; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: - 0.70; - 0.83 to - 0.57) and in the gingival index (MD; 95%CI: - 0.38; - 0.47 to - 0.28) when compared to placebo. However, high heterogeneity was observed in both analyses (I2 = 89% and I2 = 98%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: When considering interproximal surfaces, CPC is efficacious both in plaque and gingival inflammatory parameters, demonstrating the potential to compensate for the limitations of interproximal plaque control. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: CPC may be a good alternative to compensate interproximal plaque removal, improving interproximal gingivitis.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Gengivite , Cetilpiridínio/uso terapêutico , Índice de Placa Dentária , Gengivite/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Inflamação , Antissépticos Bucais , Escovação Dentária
16.
Clin Oral Investig ; 25(4): 1729-1741, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737664

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of a 0.03% chlorhexidine (CHX) and 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) mouth rinse, as an adjunct to professional plaque removal (PPR) and mechanical hygiene, in the treatment of peri-implant mucositis (PiM) and gingivitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients displaying PiM in, at least, one implant were included in this randomized, double-blinded, clinical trial. Subjects received PPR (at baseline and 6-month visits) and were instructed to rinse, twice daily, during 1 year with the tested mouth rinse or a placebo. Clinical and patient-reported outcomes were recorded at baseline and 6 and 12 months. RESULTS: Fifty-four patients were included in the study and 46 attended the final visit. In the teeth and implants with inflammation, a higher reduction in BOP was observed in the test group. Statistically significant differences between groups were only observed in the lingual sites of the teeth with gingivitis (mean difference = 11.96%; 95% confidence interval [1.09; 22.83]; p = 0.03). Overall, compliance and satisfaction were good, even though staining were higher for the test group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The combined use of mechanical debridement with a 0.03% CHX and 0.05% CPC mouth rinse may have adjunctive benefits in the management of gingivitis, and it is associated with a higher degree of staining. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The control of gingivitis can be improved, after professional mechanical debridement, with toothbrushing and the supplementary use of a 0.03% CHX and 0.05% CPC mouth rinse at home. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03533166.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Implantes Dentários , Placa Dentária , Gengivite , Cetilpiridínio/uso terapêutico , Clorexidina , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Índice de Placa Dentária , Método Duplo-Cego , Gengivite/tratamento farmacológico , Gengivite/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Inflamação , Antissépticos Bucais
17.
Infection ; 49(2): 305-311, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315181

RESUMO

PURPOSE: One of the key approaches to minimize the risk of COVID-19 transmission would be to reduce the titres of SARS-CoV-2 in the saliva of infected COVID-19 patients. This is particularly important in high-risk procedures like dental treatment. The present randomized control trial evaluated the efficacy of three commercial mouth-rinse viz. povidone-iodine (PI), chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), in reducing the salivary SARS-CoV-2 viral load in COVID-19 patients compared with water. METHODS: A total of 36 SARS-CoV-2-positive patients were recruited, of which 16 patients were randomly assigned to four groups-PI group (n = 4), CHX group (n = 6), CPC group (n = 4) and water as control group (n = 2). Saliva samples were collected from all patients at baseline and at 5 min, 3 h and 6 h post-application of mouth-rinses/water. The samples were subjected to SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR analysis. RESULTS: Comparison of salivary Ct values of patients within each group of PI, CHX, CPC and water at 5 min, 3 h and 6 h time points did not show any significant differences. However, when the Ct value fold change of each of the mouth-rinse group patients were compared with the fold change of water group patients at the respective time points, a significant increase was observed in the CPC group patients at 5 min and 6 h and in the PI group patients at 6 h. CONCLUSION: The effect of decreasing salivary load with CPC and PI mouth-rinsing was observed to be sustained at 6 h time point. Within the limitation of the current study, as number of the samples analyzed, the use of CPC and PI formulated that commercial mouth-rinses may be useful as a pre-procedural rinse to help reduce the transmission of COVID-19. ISRCTN (ISRCTN95933274), 09/09/20, retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Saliva/virologia , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/transmissão , COVID-19/virologia , Cetilpiridínio/análise , Cetilpiridínio/uso terapêutico , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Clorexidina/análise , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antissépticos Bucais/química , Povidona-Iodo/análise , Povidona-Iodo/uso terapêutico , Singapura , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 152(2): 105-114, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The authors of this study aimed to evaluate the clinical antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of 3 oral hygiene regimens: toothbrushing with standard fluoride toothpaste and manual toothbrush and using a mouthrinse containing cetylpyridinium chloride, zinc lactate, and fluoride (CPC + Zn + F) in an alcohol-free base; toothbrushing with standard fluoride toothpaste and manual toothbrush and using a mouthrinse containing essential oils (EO) in an alcohol-free base; and toothbrushing with manual toothbrush and standard fluoride toothpaste and manual toothbrush (control). METHODS: The participants (N = 120) were randomly assigned to study groups and followed the assigned regimens twice daily for 6 weeks. The participants were examined by a calibrated examiner for the Quigley-Hein plaque index (Turesky modification) and Löe-Silness gingival index at baseline, week 4, and week 6. Statistical analyses were performed separately for plaque and gingival indexes by means of analysis of variance, paired t test, and analysis of covariance (α = 0.05). RESULTS: At week 4, the CPC + Zn + F group presented additional reductions in dental plaque compared with EO and control groups of (21.4% [P < .001] and 31.4% [P < .001], respectively). After 6 weeks, these values were 26.7% (P < .001) and 44.8% (P < .001), respectively. For Löe-Silness gingival index, additional reduction in the CPC + Zn + F group compared with EO were 10.6% (P < .001) and 13.7% (P < .001) at 4 and 6 weeks, respectively. Compared with control, these reductions were 13.6% (P < .001) and 17.8% (P < .001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The regimen including a mouthrinse containing CPC + Zn + F presented higher antiplaque and antigingivitis effects than EO and control regimens. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: A mouthrinse containing CPC + Zn + F is an effective protocol for the control of dental plaque and gingivitis.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Placa Dentária , Gengivite , Óleos Voláteis , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Cetilpiridínio/uso terapêutico , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Índice de Placa Dentária , Gengivite/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactatos , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Escovação Dentária , Zinco/uso terapêutico
20.
Am J Dent ; 33(5): 235-238, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017524

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial effect of low- and high-viscosity experimental mouthrinses containing cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and 4-isopropyl-3-methylphenol (IPMP) on Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans. METHODS: Low- and high-viscosity experimental mouthrinses containing 0.05% CPC and 0.1% IPMP were fabricated. Non-viscous mouthrinses containing either CPC- or IPMP were used as controls. The antimicrobial activity (sterilization or exposure time) of mouthrinses was evaluated based on the bactericidal criterion of <10¹ viable cells in 0.1 mL of culture medium. RESULTS: The sterilization time of the low-viscosity experimental mouthrinse was shorter than that of the high-viscosity mouthrinse. However, whereas a 10-minute exposure to the low-viscosity mouthrinse resulted in no viable cells of C. albicans, neither the CPC- or IPMP mouthrinses had an antimicrobial effect for the same exposure time. These findings show that the low-viscosity experimental mouthrinse containing anodal CPC and neutral IPMP exhibited superior antimicrobial effects against pneumonia- and oral infection-related bacteria compared with the control mouthrinses. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: In Japan, the oral care with the low-viscosity experimental mouthrinse containing CPC and IPMP as alternatives to those based on chlorhexidine are available for preventing the development of pneumonia- and oral infection-related bacteria.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Cetilpiridínio/farmacologia , Cresóis , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Viscosidade
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