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1.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299543

RESUMO

The essential oils of hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa) leaves have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and relaxation properties that are likely associated with the major components such as sabinene, α-terpinyl acetate, limonene, elemol, myrcene, and hibaene. The present study describes the use of a cellulose-dissolving ionic liquid (IL) [C2mim][(MeO)(H)PO2] and low-toxicity solvents called betaine-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) for the efficient extraction of hinoki essential oils. As a control method, organic solvent extraction was performed using either hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), or acetone at 30 °C for 1 h. Both the experimental and control methods were conducted under the same conditions, which relied on partial dissolution of the leaves using the IL and DESs before partitioning the hinoki oils into the organic solvent for analysis. Quantitative analysis was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The results indicated that extraction using the [C2mim][(MeO)(H)PO2]/acetone bilayer system improved the yields of limonene and hibaene, 1.5- and 1.9-fold, respectively, when compared with the control method. In addition, extraction using betaine/l-lactic acid (molar ratio 1:1) gave the greatest yields for both limonene and hibaene, 1.3-fold and 1.5-fold greater, respectively, than when using an organic solvent. These results demonstrate the effective extraction of essential oils from plant leaves under conditions milder than those needed for the conventional method. The less toxic and environmentally begin DESs for the extraction are also applicable to the food and cosmetic industries.


Assuntos
Chamaecyparis/química , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Limoneno/química , Solventes/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sesquiterpenos/química
2.
J Oleo Sci ; 70(3): 431-438, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658471

RESUMO

Essential oils extracted from plants contain protective volatile compounds and are known to processes antibacterial, antifungal, anti-oxidative, and anti-inflammatory effects. This study was conducted to explore the immunomodulatory effects of essential oil extracted from Chamaecyparis obtusa (EOCO) on house dust mite-induced mucosal inflammation. Cultured primary nasal epithelial cells were stimulated with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DP), and Dermatophagoides farina (DF) for 48 h. The production of interleukin (IL)-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the expression levels of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, activator protein (AP)-1, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were determined by western blot analysis. To examine the effect of EOCO on the production of chemical mediators and the expression of transcription factors, epithelial cells were pretreated with EOCO for 1 h before stimulation. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were cultured in nasal epithelial cell conditioned media (NECM) for 72 h, after which the levels of IL-5, interferon (IFN)-γ, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured. DP and DF enhanced the production of IL-25, IL-33, and TSLP, and EOCO pretreatment inhibited their production from nasal epithelial cells. EOCO pretreatment also significantly suppressed the expression of NF-κB and AP-1. NECM induced the production of IL-5, IFN- γ, and TNF-α from PBMCs, and only TNF-α production was significantly inhibited by EOCO pretreatment. EOCO pretreatment inhibited the DP and DF induced nasal epithelial cell derived cytokine production and TNF-α production from PBMCs. These results indicate the potential value of EOCO in the treatment of airway inflammatory or immunological diseases.


Assuntos
Chamaecyparis/química , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos , Mucosa Nasal/citologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Pyroglyphidae/imunologia , Adulto , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Depressão Química , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
3.
Plant Sci ; 304: 110790, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568294

RESUMO

Chamaecyparis formosensis Matsum. is an endemic and precious coniferous species of Taiwan, and is known for a high abundance of specialized metabolites, which contributes to the excellent timber durability. Several terpenoids were identified and isolated from C. formosensis wood and needles, and exhibit anti-fungal and anti-bacterial bioactivities, which may participate in plant defense against pathogens. In various identified compounds, not only cadinene and ferruginol, were identified in C. formosensis extracts but also unique diterpenoids, which include pisferal, totarol, and derivates of isoabienol. To understand the biosynthesis of these specific diterpenoids, we conducted a series of functional characterization of the C. formosensis diterpene synthases (CfdiTPSs), which participate in skeleton formation and differentiation of diterpenes. In this study, we identified eight diTPSs from C. formosensis transcriptome, and they all contain either class I or class II motif, which indicates they are all monofunctional enzymes. These candidates consist of three class II diTPSs and five class I diTPSs, and after conducting in vivo and in vitro assays, class II diTPS CfCPS1 was characterized as a (+)-copalyl diphosphate synthase ((+)-CPS), and class I diTPSs CfKSL1 could further convert (+)-copalyl diphosphate ((+)-CPP) to levopimaradiene. Meanwhile, CfKSL1 also accepted labda-13-en-8-ol diphosphate (LPP) as substrate and formed monoyl oxide. Another class I diTPS, CfKSL4, exhibits a strong enzymatic ability of isoabienol synthase, which is firstly reported in conifer. This finding provides potential participants in the biosynthesis of unique diterpenoids, and with this knowledge, we can further expand our understanding of diterpenoid metabolism in Cupressaceae and their potential role in plant defense.


Assuntos
Alquil e Aril Transferases/metabolismo , Chamaecyparis/enzimologia , Diterpenos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Chamaecyparis/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular , Escherichia coli , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Organismos Geneticamente Modificados
4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22095, 2020 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328522

RESUMO

Chamaecyparis taiwanensis is an endemic plant suffering illegal logging in Taiwan for its high economic value. Lack of direct evidence to correlate stump and timber remains a hurdle for law enforcement. In this report, 23 polymorphic Genomic Simple Sequence Repeat (gSSR) and 12 Expressed Sequence Tag (EST)-SSR markers were developed and their transferability was assessed. The individual identification system built from selected non-linkage 30 SSR markers has a combined probability of identity as 5.596 × 10-12 equivalents to identifying an individual in a population of up to 18 million C. taiwanensis with 99.99% confidence level. We also applied the system in an actual criminal case by selecting 19 of these markers to correlate illegally felled timbers and victim trees. Our data demonstrate that molecular signals from three timbers hit with three victim trees with confidence level more than 99.99%. This is the first example of successfully applying SSR in C. taiwanensis as a court evidence for law enforcement. The identification system adapted advanced molecular technology and exhibits its great potential for natural resource management on C. taiwanensis.


Assuntos
Chamaecyparis/genética , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Etiquetas de Sequências Expressas , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Chamaecyparis/classificação , Chamaecyparis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Humanos , Ilegitimidade , Aplicação da Lei , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie , Taiwan
5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20650, 2020 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33244113

RESUMO

Cypresses are characterized by their longevity and valuable timber. In Taiwan, two endemic cypress species, Chamaecyparis formosensis and C. obtusa var. formosana, are threatened by prevalent illegal logging. A DNA barcode system is urgently needed for reforestation and conservation of these two cypresses. In this study, both plastomes and 35S rDNAs from 16, 10, and 6 individuals of C. formosensis, C. obtusa var. formosana, and C. obtusa var. obtusa were sequenced, respectively. We show that the loss of plastid trnT-GGU readily distinguishes C. formosensis from its congeneric species. We demonstrate that entire sequences of plastomes or 35S rDNAs are capable of correctly identifying cypress species and varieties, suggesting that they are effective super-barcodes. We also discover three short hypervariable loci (i.e., 3'ETS, ITS1, and trnH-psbA) that are promising barcodes for identifying cypress species and varieties. Moreover, nine species-specific indels of > 100 bp were detected in the cypress plastomes. These indels, together with the three aforementioned short barcodes, constitute an alternative and powerful barcode system crucial for identifying specimens that are fragmentary or contain degraded/poor DNA. Our sequenced data and barcode systems not only enrich the genetic reference for cypresses, but also contribute to future reforestation, conservation, and forensic investigations.


Assuntos
Cupressus/genética , DNA de Plantas/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Chamaecyparis/genética , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Especificidade da Espécie , Taiwan
6.
Molecules ; 25(19)2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023110

RESUMO

The present study aims to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of essential oil from Chamaecyparis obtusa (EOCO) in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic rhinitis (AR) mouse model. BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally sensitized and stimulated with OVA. From day 22 to 35, 0.01% and 0.1% ECOC was intranasally administered 1 h before OVA stimulation. Nasal symptoms, as well as serum total and OVA-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels, were measured. Interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, interferon (IFN)-γ, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels in nasal lavage fluid (NLF) and their production by activated splenocytes were measured. Histological changes in the sinonasal mucosa were evaluated through hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-Schiff staining procedure. Th cytokines and their transcription factor mRNA expressions were determined using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Intranasal EOCO administration significantly suppressed allergic symptoms, OVA-specific IgE level, sinonasal mucosal inflammatory cell infiltration, and mucus-producing periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) positive cell count. EOCO also significantly inhibited IL-4, IL-10, and TNF-α levels in NLF and activated splenocytes. Th2 and Treg related cytokines and their transcription factors in sinonasal mucosa were significantly suppressed through intransal EOCO instillation. In conclusion, repetitive EOCO intranasal instillation showed anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects by suppressing nasal symptoms and inhibiting the production and expression of inflammatory mediators in the OVA-induced AR mouse model.


Assuntos
Chamaecyparis/química , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Rinite Alérgica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Líquido da Lavagem Nasal , Mucosa Nasal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Nasal/patologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Ovalbumina/imunologia , Rinite Alérgica/sangue , Baço/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14341, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868796

RESUMO

Temperature is an important factor for the cambial growth in temperate trees. We investigated the way daily temperatures patterns (maximum, average and minimum) from late winter to early spring affected the timing of cambial reactivation and xylem differentiation in stems of the conifer Chamaecyparis pisifera. When the daily temperatures started to increase earlier from late winter to early spring, cambial reactivation occurred earlier. Cambium became active when it achieves the desired accumulated temperature above the threshold (cambial reactivation index; CRI) of 13 °C in 11 days in 2013 whereas 18 days in 2014. This difference in duration required for achieving accumulated temperature can be explained with the variations in the daily temperature patterns in 2013 and 2014. Our formula for calculation of CRI predicted the cambial reactivation in 2015. A hypothetical increase of 1-4 °C to the actual daily maximum temperatures of 2013 and 2014 shifted the timing of cambial reactivation and had different effects on cambial reactivation in the two consecutive years because of variations in the actual daily temperatures patterns. Thus, the specific annual pattern of accumulation of temperature from late winter to early spring is a critical factor in determining the timing of cambial reactivation in trees.


Assuntos
Chamaecyparis/fisiologia , Caules de Planta/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
8.
Skin Pharmacol Physiol ; 33(3): 82-92, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Essential oil derived from Chamaecyparis obtusa (EOCO) has been used as an alternative treatment for allergy-related diseases due to its immune-modulating characteristics. Clothing has the longest and most intense contact with human skin, and functional fabrics with intrinsic properties have been increasingly implemented in medical applications. Specially designed fabrics may support atopic dermatitis (AD) treatment. In this study, the effects of fabric containing EOCO on AD were investigated using an NC/Nga mouse model. METHODS: The fabric was applied for 6 h per day for 14 days. The therapeutic effects were evaluated according to measurements of skin lesion severity (modified SCORAD score), transepidermal water loss (TEWL), serum IgE and inflammatory cytokine levels, lesion thickness measured after hematoxylin and eosin staining, and immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis for skin epidermal differentiation protein. RESULTS: The EOCO group exhibited significantly reduced modified SCORAD score, TEWL, and serum IgE levels. Among the inflammatory cytokines analyzed, only the mean values of regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted were observed to be decreased compared with other control groups. The histological analysis of the skin also revealed that the EOCO group expressed reduced epidermal hyperplasia and recovered filaggrin, involucrin, and loricrin expression. CONCLUSIONS: It was confirmed that fabric containing EOCO has anti-atopic and anti-inflammatory properties. The study data show that fabric containing EOCO can be implemented as an alternative functional clothing for people suffering from AD.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Chamaecyparis , Vestuário , Dermatite Atópica/terapia , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Fibra de Algodão , Citocinas/sangue , Dermatite Atópica/sangue , Dermatite Atópica/metabolismo , Dermatite Atópica/patologia , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Proteínas de Filamentos Intermediários/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Fitoterapia , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia
9.
Clin Immunol ; 210: 108310, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743749

RESUMO

Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) with Japanese cedar (JCe) pollinosis was expected to be effective for Japanese cypress (JCy) pollinosis. However, only a half of JCy pollinosis patients clinically improved. Therefore, we examined the immunological effect of SLIT for JCy pollinosis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with JCe and JCy pollinosis who did and did not receive SLIT were incubated with Cry j 1, Cha o 1 and Cha o 3 antigens. Basophil activation test (BAT) were performed. Production of IL-5 and IL-17 induced by antigens was inhibited in the SLIT group. Cry j 1-specific production of IL-10 was increased, and serum Cry j 1-specific IgE and -IgG4 were elevated. However, Cha o 1- or Cha o 3-specific production of IL-10 and specific IgG4 was not increased. Antigens-specific BAT did not decrease after SLIT. New SLIT with JCe and JCy is needed for patients with combined JCe and JCy pollinosis.


Assuntos
Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/terapia , Imunoterapia Sublingual/métodos , Adulto , Antígenos de Plantas/imunologia , Teste de Degranulação Basófila , Células Cultivadas , Chamaecyparis/imunologia , Cryptomeria/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Extratos Vegetais/imunologia , Proteínas de Plantas/imunologia , Pólen/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/imunologia
11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11479, 2019 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391490

RESUMO

Trees produce pollen during specific times of the year. Pollen can induce pollinosis, a type of allergic rhinitis, in humans. In Japan, allergenic pollen is mainly dispersed from February to May. Using data collected at 120 observation sites managed by the Japanese Ministry of the Environment, we studied the annual patterns of airborne allergenic pollen. The allergenic pollen showed an alternating ON-OFF cycle, but the length of the cycle differed among regions. We used an in-phase/out-of-phase analysis to quantify two characteristic features of the synchronisation. The degrees of phase synchronisation were strong in eastern and weak in western Japan. The pattern of allergenic pollen dispersal throughout Japan is typical intermittent synchronisation. This is the first study to evaluate allergenic pollen's distribution from a phase synchronisation viewpoint.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Chamaecyparis/fisiologia , Cryptomeria/fisiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pólen/imunologia , Humanos , Japão , Polinização/fisiologia , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/imunologia , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/prevenção & controle , Estações do Ano , Análise Espacial , Árvores/fisiologia
12.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 142: 405-414, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408844

RESUMO

Chamaecyparis formosensis (Cupressaceae) is among the most precious endemic conifers in Taiwan. Field study was conducted on seasonal variations in emission rates and compositions of terpenoids from this tree species of two different ages. A total of 21 terpenoids were detected, of which there were 13 monoterpenoids (MTs), 4 sesquiterpenoids (STs), and 4 diterpenoids (DTs). MTs dominated the emissions in both saplings and adult trees and produced more than 80% of terpene emissions. Contrasting seasonal pattern between saplings and adult trees was found. Total actual emissions from saplings were higher in cold seasons (range, 64.40 ±â€¯13.18 to 140.74 ±â€¯18.90 ng g-1 h-1) than in warm seasons (range, 55.63 ±â€¯15.84 to 63.48 ±â€¯11.85 ng g-1 h-1). Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was found to be the most important factor affecting terpene emissions from saplings. On the contrary, higher emissions were found in warm seasons for adult trees (range, 101.49 ±â€¯12.29 to 181.35 ±â€¯80.15 ng g-1 h-1), and the emissions were mainly in response to temperature. Some compounds in C. formosensis of both ages (e.g., ß-myrcene, α-terpinene, trans-ß-ocimene, terpinen-4-ol, α-cedrene and trans-ß-farnesene) showed comparably higher contents in cold seasons. Results presented here provide important fundamental information for better understanding of forest bathing and estimating air quality in Taiwan.


Assuntos
Chamaecyparis/metabolismo , Terpenos/metabolismo , Envelhecimento , Chamaecyparis/fisiologia , Diterpenos/metabolismo , Monoterpenos/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Taiwan , Temperatura
13.
Tree Physiol ; 39(6): 971-982, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086983

RESUMO

Evergreen tree species that maintain positive carbon balance during the late growing season may subsidize extra carbon in a mixed forest. To test this concept of 'carbon subsidy', leaf gas exchange characteristics and related leaf traits were measured for three gymnosperm evergreen species (Chamaecyparis thyoides, Tsuga canadensis and Pinus strobus) native to the oak-hickory deciduous forest in northeast USA from March (early Spring) to October (late Autumn) in a single year. All three species were photosynthetically active in Autumn. During the Summer-Autumn transition, photosynthetic capacity (Amax) of T. canadensis and P. strobus increased (T-test, P < 0.001) and was maintained in C. thyoides (T-test, P = 0.49), while dark respiration at 20 °C (Rn) and its thermal sensitivity were generally unchanged for all species (one-way ANOVA, P > 0.05). In Autumn, reductions in mitochondrial respiration rate in the daylight (RL) and the ratio of RL to Rn (RL/Rn) were observed in P. strobus (46.3% and 44.0% compared to Summer, respectively). Collectively, these physiological adjustments resulted in higher ratios of photosynthesis to respiration (A/Rnand A/RL) in Autumn for all species. Across season, photosynthetic biochemistry and respiratory variables were not correlated with prevailing growth temperature. Physiological adjustments allowed all three gymnosperm species to maintain positive carbon balance into late Autumn, suggesting that gymnosperm evergreens may benefit from Autumn warming trends relative to deciduous trees that have already lost their leaves.


Assuntos
Ciclo do Carbono , Chamaecyparis/fisiologia , Pinus/fisiologia , Árvores/fisiologia , Tsuga/fisiologia , New York , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Transpiração Vegetal , Estações do Ano
14.
Food Funct ; 10(5): 2691-2700, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31026007

RESUMO

ß-Thujaplicin, a natural monoterpenoid, has been demonstrated to exert health beneficial activities in chronic diseases. However, it has not been studied in regulating estrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancer. Here, we investigated the effect of ß-thujaplicin on inhibiting ER-negative basal-like breast cancer and the underlying mechanism of action using an in vitro and in vivo xenograft animal model. ß-Thujaplicin induced G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest and regulated cell cycle mediators, cyclin D1, cyclin E, and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK 4), leading to the inhibition of the proliferation of ER-negative basal-like MCF10DCIS.com human breast cancer cells. It also modulated the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3ß) and the protein level of ß-catenin. In an MCF10DCIS.com xenograft animal model, ß-thujaplicin significantly inhibited tumor growth, reduced tumor weight, and regulated the expression of cell cycle proteins, phosphorylation of AKT and GSK-3ß, and protein level of ß-catenin in the tumor tissues. These results demonstrate that ß-thujaplicin can suppress basal-like mammary tumor growth by regulating GSK-3ß/ß-catenin signaling, suggesting that ß-thujaplicin may be a potent chemopreventive agent against the basal-like subtype of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Monoterpenos/administração & dosagem , Tropolona/análogos & derivados , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/fisiopatologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Chamaecyparis/química , Ciclina D1/genética , Ciclina D1/metabolismo , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Feminino , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G1 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/genética , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Thuja/química , Tropolona/administração & dosagem , beta Catenina/genética
15.
Tree Physiol ; 39(2): 320-331, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29474703

RESUMO

At stand level, carbon translocation in tree stems has to match canopy photosynthesis and carbohydrate requirements to sustain growth and the physiological activities of belowground sinks. This study applied the Hagen-Poiseuille equation to the pressure-flow hypothesis to estimate phloem carbon translocation and evaluate what percentage of canopy photosynthate can be transported belowground in a hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. et Zucc.) stand. An anatomical study revealed that, in contrast to sieve cell density, conductive phloem thickness and sieve cell hydraulic diameter at 1.3 m in height increased with increasing tree diameter, as did the concentration of soluble sugars in the phloem sap. At tree level, hydraulic conductivity increased by two orders of magnitude from the smallest to the largest trees in the stand, resulting in a stand-level hydraulic conductance of 1.7 × 10-15 m Pa-1 s-1. The osmotic potential of the sap extracted from the inner bark was -0.75 MPa. Assuming that phloem water potential equalled foliage water potential at predawn, the turgor pressure in the phloem at 1.3 m in height was estimated at 0.22 MPa, 0.59 MPa lower than values estimated in the foliage. With this maximal turgor pressure gradient, which would be lower during day-time when foliage water potential drops, the estimated stand-level rate of carbon translocation was 2.0 gC m-2 day-1 (30% of daily gross canopy photosynthesis), at a time of the year when aboveground growth and related respiration is thought to consume a large fraction of photosynthate, at the expense of belowground activity. Despite relying on some assumptions and approximations, this approach, when coupled with measurements of canopy photosynthesis, may further be used to provide qualitative insight into the seasonal dynamics of belowground carbon allocation.


Assuntos
Carbono/metabolismo , Chamaecyparis/metabolismo , Floema/metabolismo , Árvores/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Chamaecyparis/anatomia & histologia , Floema/anatomia & histologia , Fotossíntese , Árvores/anatomia & histologia , Água/metabolismo
16.
Int J Mol Med ; 43(1): 393-403, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30387810

RESUMO

To date, Korean hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa), has been widely used for household and commercial purposes. Although the medicinal efficacy of hinoki cypress essential oil has been observed, that of the essential oil­derived terpenes, which exhibit a mechanism that acts against lung inflammation, remains to be fully elucidated. The present study investigated the anti­inflammatory effect of hinoki cypress leaf extracted essential oil on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)­stimulated WI38 fibroblast cells by inhibiting the nuclear factor κ­light­chain­enhancer of activated B cells (NF­κB) pathway, which exhibited lung tissue protection through the olfactory administration of essential oil in Sprague­Dawley rats. GC/MS analysis derived 24 terpenes from the essential oil. The morphological observations revealed that, upon LPS stimulation of WI38 fibroblast cells, inflammation was induced, whereas the condition of the cells reverted to normal in the essential oil extract pre­treated group. The results of western blot analysis revealed the inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase, activation of cyclooxygnase­2, and the degradation of cytosolic p65 and inhibitor of NF­κB­α in the LPS­stimulated group. Additionally, confocal imaging of nuclei revealed the translocation of phosphorylated p65, which was recovered in the cytosol in the phytoncide essential oil pre­treated group. Histopathological observation revealed that the alveolar capacity was enhanced in the essential oil olfactory administered rat group, compared with that in the normal rat group. These findings suggest that terpenes in essential oil from the Chamaecyparis obtusa leaf have therapeutic potential against respiratory inflammation­related disease.


Assuntos
Chamaecyparis/química , Fibroblastos/patologia , Inflamação/patologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Respiração/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração por Inalação , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Alvéolos Pulmonares/efeitos dos fármacos , Alvéolos Pulmonares/patologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Terpenos/análise
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30274160

RESUMO

We clarified the physiological effects of tactile stimulation of the soles of the feet with the wood of the Hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) based on measurements of prefrontal cortex and autonomic nervous activities. Nineteen female university-attending students (age: 21.2 ± 0.3 years) were included. Oxy-hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) concentrations in the prefrontal cortex were determined by using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy. The high frequency (HF) indicating parasympathetic nervous activity and the ratio of low frequency (LF)/HF indicating sympathetic nervous activity were measured using heart rate variability. To evaluate the psychological effects caused by contact with the materials, the modified semantic differential method was used. The soles of the participants' feet were touched to a 600 × 600-mm plate made of Hinoki, which was finished in non-coating and brushing for 90 s. A marble plate served as the control. Next, subjective evaluation tests were administered to the participants. Compared with touching marble, touching Hinoki significantly (1) decreased the oxy-Hb concentrations in the left and right prefrontal cortices, which indicates decreased prefrontal cortex activity, (2) increased ln(HF), which indicates increased parasympathetic nervous activity, (3) decreased ln(LF/HF) ratio, which indicates decreased sympathetic nervous activity. Additionally, (4) according to subjective evaluations, the participants perceived themselves as being more "comfortable," "relaxed," "natural," "warm," "uneven," "dry," and "soft" after touching Hinoki. Thus, our cumulative findings indicate that touching Hinoki with the soles of the feet induces physiological relaxation.


Assuntos
Chamaecyparis , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Relaxamento/fisiologia , Relaxamento/psicologia , Toque Terapêutico/métodos , Madeira , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudantes , Adulto Jovem
18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13590, 2018 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30206246

RESUMO

Despite the relevance of leaf area index (LAI) to forest productivity, few studies have focused on the interannual variability of LAI of an evergreen stand and its relationship with stand growth and meteorological factors. We estimated the change in LAI of an evergreen conifer (Chamaecyparis obtusa) stand over 19 years from a dataset using allometric methods. The LAI varied between 7.1 and 8.8 m2 m-2, with a 95% confidence interval of <1.1 m2 m-2 over the 19 years. This LAI range was maintained such that the gradual increase in leaf area (LA) of the largest trees counterbalanced the gradual loss in LA of the smallest trees. Meanwhile, more trees showed a temporary decrease in LA in years with low summer precipitation. The LAI and current-year mean temperature for July and August (TJA) were weakly correlated, whereas the correlation coefficient increased (r = 0.93) when LAI was correlated with the moving average TJA over the previous 6 years, which agreed with the estimated turnover time of canopy foliage. The annual stem biomass growth rate was significantly positively correlated with summer precipitation, but not with LAI. These results will be useful for refining models in studies on forest growth and global climate change.


Assuntos
Chamaecyparis/fisiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Árvores/fisiologia , Biomassa , Clima , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Ecossistema , Florestas , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Chuva , Estações do Ano , Temperatura , Árvores/anatomia & histologia
19.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0201233, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30052657

RESUMO

The essential oil of Chamaecyparis obtusa (C. obtusa), which is used in soap, toothpaste, and aromatic agents, has been known to have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated the effects of microencapsulated C. obtusa essential oil on airborne fungus-induced dendritic cell (DC) activation and Th immune responses. We stimulated monocyte-derived DCs with Alternaria alternate and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To determine the anti-inflammatory effects, we pre-treated DCs with various concentrations of microencapsulated C. obtusa essential oil and collected the supernatants to measure interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and we determined the expression of cell surface molecules. The effects of the essential oil on CD4+ T cells polarization was determine by culturing stimulated DCs and autologous CD4+ T cells. Alternaria enhanced the production of IL-6 and TNF-α from DCs, and pretreating DCs with 0.001, 0.01, and 0.05% of the essential oil significantly inhibited their production. Increased CD80 and CD86 expression by Alternaria was significantly inhibited with 0.05% of the essential oil. Alternaria-induced IL-5, IL-10, and interferon-gamma from CD4+ T cells were significantly inhibited with C. obtusa essential oil in a dose dependent manner. C. obtusa influenced both Alternaria- and LPS-induced Th1 and Th2 polarization of CD4+ T cells. These results suggest a novel pharmacological use for C. obtusa essential oil to treat inflammatory airway diseases.


Assuntos
Chamaecyparis/química , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia , Alternaria/química , Cápsulas , Células Dendríticas/citologia , Humanos , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Monócitos/citologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Células Th1/citologia , Células Th2/citologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
20.
Clin Dermatol ; 36(3): 299-305, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29908571

RESUMO

Complementary and alternative medicine approaches are popular among some patient segments due to the perception that they are "natural" and thus are believed to be less likely to be dangerous, to be less toxic, or to cause fewer side effects. In dermatology, these can include aromatherapy, botanicals, and essential oils (plant extracts). Preliminary evidence, biological activity studies, and small pilot clinical trials conducted outside of North America, mostly in young adults, suggest that some may have value in acne treatment. When additional research and larger clinical trials are conducted, both clinicians and patients will be able to understand the risks and benefits compared with allopathic remedies.


Assuntos
Acne Vulgar/tratamento farmacológico , Aromaterapia , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Chamaecyparis , Humanos , Óleos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Rosmarinus , Sesquiterpenos/uso terapêutico , Óleo de Melaleuca/uso terapêutico
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