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1.
Virology ; 565: 65-72, 2022 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739918

RESUMO

Fish papillomaviruses form a newly discovered group broadly recognized as the Secondpapillomavirinae subfamily. This study expands the documented genomes of the fish papillomaviruses from six to 16, including one from the Antarctic emerald notothen, seven from commercial market fishes, one from data mining of sea bream sequence data, and one from a western gull cloacal swab that is likely diet derived. The genomes of secondpapillomaviruses are ∼6 kilobasepairs (kb), which is substantially smaller than the ∼8 kb of terrestrial vertebrate papillomaviruses. Each genome encodes a clear homolog of the four canonical papillomavirus genes, E1, E2, L1, and L2. In addition, we identified open reading frames (ORFs) with short linear peptide motifs reminiscent of E6/E7 oncoproteins. Fish papillomaviruses are extremely diverse and phylogenetically distant from other papillomaviruses suggesting a model in which terrestrial vertebrate-infecting papillomaviruses arose after an evolutionary bottleneck event, possibly during the water-to-land transition.


Assuntos
Peixes/virologia , Papillomaviridae/classificação , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Evolução Biológica , Charadriiformes/virologia , DNA Viral , Genoma Viral , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Papillomaviridae/genética , Proteínas E7 de Papillomavirus/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
2.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118358, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653585

RESUMO

Migratory bird species may serve as vectors of contaminants to Antarctica through the local deposition of guano, egg abandonment, or mortality. To further investigate this chemical input pathway, we examined the contaminant burdens and profiles of the migratory South polar skua (Catharacta maccormicki) and compared them to the endemic Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae). A range of persistent organic pollutants were targeted in muscle and guano to facilitate differentiation of likely exposure pathways. A total of 56 of 65 targeted analytes were detected in both species, but there were clear profile and magnitude differences between the species. The South polar skua and Adélie penguin muscle tissue burdens were dominated by p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (mean 5600 ng g-1 lw and 330 ng g-1 lw respectively) and hexachlorobenzene (mean 2500 ng g-1 lw and 570 ng g-1 lw respectively), a chemical profile characteristic of the Antarctic and Southern Ocean region. Species profile differences, indicative of exposure at different latitudes, were observed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), with lower chlorinated congeners and deca-chlorinated PCB-209 detected in South polar Skua, but not in Adélie penguins. Notably, the more recently used perfluoroalkyl substances and the brominated flame retardants, hexabromocyclododecane and tetrabromobisphenol A, were detected in both species. This finding suggests local exposure, given the predicted slow and limited long-range environmental transport capacity of these compounds to the eastern Antarctic sector.


Assuntos
Charadriiformes , Poluentes Ambientais , Bifenilos Policlorados , Spheniscidae , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluentes Orgânicos Persistentes , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150137, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788941

RESUMO

In this study, eggs of black-tailed gull (Larus crassirostris), a top trophic level predator of marine ecosystem were, for the first time, monitored to assess the temporal and spatial trends of emerging pollutants in South Korea. Two Island regions, namely, Baekryeong-do (Site A) and Hong-do (Site B) were investigated from 2012 to 2018, and the total levels of short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), medium chain CPs (MCCPs), and organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) for both Site A and B were 1180-2931 and 694-2023 ng/g lipid weight (lw), 1287-4898 and 1034-3075 ng/g lw, and 203-499 and 233-409 ng/g lw, respectively. The time-trends of the concentration of pollutants showed an increasing tendency from 2012 to 2018, with the levels predicted to be doubled within three years, following the results of regression analysis. A shift in temporal-trends from shorter to longer chain CPs was noted, suggesting the effect of industrial-related contamination. Especially, significantly high levels of CPs and OPFRs were found in the site adjacent to China, which is reasonable as China is the largest producer and consumer of FRs and plasticizers worldwide. This study is valuable to understand the temporal increment of emerging pollutants as the alternatives of phased-out FRs and plasticizers, while raising the need for continuous environmental management.


Assuntos
Charadriiformes , Retardadores de Chama , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Animais , China , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Organofosfatos , Parafina/análise
4.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260339, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34972114

RESUMO

Many long-distance migratory birds use habitats that are scattered across continents and confront hazards throughout the annual cycle that may be population-limiting. Identifying where and when populations spend their time is fundamental to effective management. We tracked 34 adult whimbrels (Numenius phaeopus) from two breeding populations (Mackenzie Delta and Hudson Bay) with satellite transmitters to document the structure of their annual cycles. The two populations differed in their use of migratory pathways and their seasonal schedules. Mackenzie Delta whimbrels made long (22,800 km) loop migrations with different autumn and spring routes. Hudson Bay whimbrels made shorter (17,500 km) and more direct migrations along the same route during autumn and spring. The two populations overlap on the winter grounds and within one spring staging area. Mackenzie Delta whimbrels left the breeding ground, arrived on winter grounds, left winter grounds and arrived on spring staging areas earlier compared to whimbrels from Hudson Bay. For both populations, migration speed was significantly higher during spring compared to autumn migration. Faster migration was achieved by having fewer and shorter stopovers en route. We identified five migratory staging areas including four that were used during autumn and two that were used during spring. Whimbrels tracked for multiple years had high (98%) fidelity to staging areas. We documented dozens of locations where birds stopped for short periods along nearly all migration routes. The consistent use of very few staging areas suggests that these areas are integral to the annual cycle of both populations and have high conservation value.


Assuntos
Migração Animal/fisiologia , Charadriiformes/fisiologia , Animais , Canadá , Geografia , Comunicações Via Satélite , Estações do Ano , Estados Unidos
5.
Zootaxa ; 5027(4): 489-514, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811157

RESUMO

During the first amphibian and reptile survey of Timor-Leste, we discovered a population of groundsnakes, genus Stegonotus, in the last remnant of lowland coastal forest along the countrys southern coast, which represents a new species. This sexually dimorphic species can be differentiated from all other Wallacean Stegonotus by a combination of 17-17-15 dorsals, ventrals (female 206; males 197207), paired subcaudals (female 61; males 7175), the gull wing + condition of the rostral, large squared prefrontals that each are 2.5 times the area of the internasals and two-thirds the size of the frontal, a snout-scale ratio of near 0.4 and a frontal-parietal suture ratio of ≤ 1.0, a labial scale formula of 73+4 | 94, five gulars separating the posterior genial and the anteriormost ventral, and an overall brown body coloration that lightens progressively from the vertebral scale row in a dorsallateral direction and features color gradients of dark brown posterior edges to lighter brown anterior edges on individual scales. The species is most similar in overall morphology to S. modestus from the central Moluccas and to S. lividus, a species known only from tiny Semau Island that lies off the western end of Timor Island, in close proximity to Kupang, the capital of the Indonesian province of East Nusa Tenggara.


Assuntos
Charadriiformes , Colubridae , Animais , Feminino , Florestas , Masculino , Timor-Leste
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 226: 112845, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627042

RESUMO

Avian biovector transport is an important mechanism for the movement of contaminants and nutrients to remote locations, usually bird colonies, through excretion, molting and decomposition of carcasses. Methylmercury (MeHg) is a bioaccumulative neurotoxin and endocrine disruptor which is present in many remote ecosystems. We collected guano samples biweekly from a herring gull (Larus smithsoniansus) colony over two summers and analyzed MeHg, total mercury (THg), water-extractable phosphate (PO43-) and sulfate (SO42-). Concentrations of THg in guano declined through the summer months while %MeHg significantly increased (ranging from 12% to 100% of THg), suggesting a switch in diet as gull nutritional needs or food availability changed through the summer. The percentage of PO43- in dry guano increased throughout the summer (ranging from 2.8% to 4.4% of dry weight) and SO42- varied throughout the season (ranging from 0.1% to 0.8% of dry weight). These data indicate that gulls are transporting considerable amounts of MeHg, PO43-, and likely other contaminants to Big Meadow Bog, Nova Scotia.


Assuntos
Charadriiformes , Mercúrio , Compostos de Metilmercúrio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mercúrio/análise , Fosfatos , Sulfatos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Áreas Alagadas
7.
Biol Lett ; 17(10): 20210398, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637637

RESUMO

In many animals, recent evidence indicates that the gut microbiome may be acquired during early development, with possible consequences on newborns' health. Thus, it has been hypothesized that a healthy microbiome protects telomeres and genomic integrity against cellular stress. However, the link between the early acquired microbiome and telomere dynamics has not hitherto been investigated. In birds, this link may also be potentially modulated by the transfer of maternal glucocorticoids, since these substances dysregulate microbiome composition during postnatal development. Here, we examined the effect of the interplay between the microbiome and stress hormones on the telomere length of yellow-legged gull hatchlings by using a field experiment in which we manipulated the corticosterone content in eggs. We found that the hatchling telomere length was related to microbiome composition, but this relationship was not affected by the corticosterone treatment. Hatchlings with a microbiome dominated by potential commensal bacteria (i.e. Catellicoccus and Cetobacterium) had larger telomeres, suggesting that an early establishment of the species-specific microbiome during development may have important consequences on offspring health and survival.


Assuntos
Charadriiformes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Corticosterona , Telômero , Encurtamento do Telômero
8.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0252561, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669725

RESUMO

To grow, survive and reproduce under anthropogenic-induced changes, individuals must respond quickly and favourably to the surrounding environment. A species that feeds on a wide variety of prey types (i.e. generalist diet) may be comprised of generalist individuals, specialist individuals that feed on different prey types, or a combination of the two. If individuals within a population respond differently to an environmental change, population-level responses may not be detectable. By tracking foraging movements of great black-backed gulls (Larus marinus), a generalist species, we compared group-level and individual-level responses to an increase in prey biomass (capelin; Mallotus villosus) during the breeding season in coastal Newfoundland, Canada. As hypothesized, shifts in prey availability resulted in significantly different individual responses in foraging behaviour and space use, which was not detectable when data from individuals were combined. Some individuals maintained similar foraging areas, foraging trip characteristics (e.g., trip length, duration) and habitat use with increased capelin availability, while others shifted foraging areas and habitats resulting in either increased or decreased trip characteristics. We show that individual specialization can be non-contextual in some gulls, whereby these individuals continuously use the same feeding strategy despite significant change in prey availability conditions. Findings also indicate high response diversity among individuals to shifting prey conditions that a population- or group-level study would not have detected, emphasizing the importance of examining individual-level strategies for future diet and foraging studies on generalist species.


Assuntos
Charadriiformes/fisiologia , Animais , Cruzamento/métodos , Dieta/métodos , Ecossistema , Terra Nova e Labrador , Estações do Ano
9.
J Craniofac Surg ; 32(6): 2008-2011, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516068

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to investigate how "Gull in Flight" appearance and alar-columellar relationship change following maxillary surgery. Thirty-three patients who underwent Le Fort I osteotomy with or without mandibular osteotomy were included in this retrospective study. Measurements which were angle of columella triangle, alar-rim angle, columella lobular angle, and distance of points forming "Gull in Flight" appearance were evaluated on pre and postoperative frontal and lateral photos of patients. Data was submitted to statistical analysis and significance level was determined as 0.05. Following Le Fort I surgery, distance of points forming "Gull in Flight" appearance with respect to canthus was decreased significantly (P < 0.05). Positions of these points to each other were not changed (P > 0.05). Every 1 mm maxillary impaction led to 0.58 mm reduction in y3 (the distance from the point that illustrates Gull's body) (P = 0.032). There was a decrease in angle of columella triangle, alar-rim angle and increase in columella lobular angle. However, these changes were not found significant (P > 0.05). Angle of columella triangle was increased 2.51 degree for every 1 mm maxillary advancement (P = 0.028). In conclusion, maxillary surgery had an impact on nasal region from frontal view. However, "Gull in Flight" appearance which is one of the aesthetic parameters in nose was not changed following maxillary surgery.


Assuntos
Charadriiformes , Animais , Cefalometria , Estética Dentária , Humanos , Maxila/cirurgia , Septo Nasal , Osteotomia de Le Fort , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Oecologia ; 197(2): 395-409, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550445

RESUMO

Animals explore and prospect space searching for resources and individuals may disperse, targeting suitable patches to increase fitness. Nevertheless, dispersal is costly because it implies leaving the patch where the individual has gathered information and reduced uncertainty. In social species, information gathered during the prospection process for deciding whether and where to disperse is not only personal but also public, i.e. conspecific density and breeding performance. In empty patches, public information is not available and dispersal for colonisation would be more challenging. Here we study the prospecting in a metapopulation of colonial Audouin's gulls using PTT platform terminal transmitters tagging for up to 4 years and GPS tagging during the incubation period. A large percentage of birds (65%) prospected occupied patches; strikingly, 62% of prospectors also visited empty patches that were colonised in later years. Frequency and intensity of prospecting were higher for failed breeders, who dispersed more than successful breeders. Prospecting and dispersal also occurred mostly to neighbouring patches where population density was higher. GPSs revealed that many breeders (59%) prospected while actively incubating, which suggests that they gathered information before knowing the fate of their reproduction. Prospecting may be enhanced in species adapted to breed in ephemeral habitats, such as Audouin's gulls. Interestingly, none of the tracked individuals colonised an empty patch despite having prospected over a period of up to three consecutive years. Lack of public information in empty patches may drive extended prospecting, long time delays in colonisation and non-linear transient phenomena in metapopulation dynamics and species range expansion.


Assuntos
Charadriiformes , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Aves , Cruzamento , Ecossistema , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional , Reprodução
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4780, 2021 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362899

RESUMO

Globally, bird migration is occurring earlier in the year, consistent with climate-related changes in breeding resources. Although often attributed to phenotypic plasticity, there is no clear demonstration of long-term population advancement in avian migration through individual plasticity. Using direct observations of bar-tailed godwits (Limosa lapponica) departing New Zealand on a 16,000-km journey to Alaska, we show that migration advanced by six days during 2008-2020, and that within-individual advancement was sufficient to explain this population-level change. However, in individuals tracked for the entire migration (50 total tracks of 36 individuals), earlier departure did not lead to earlier arrival or breeding in Alaska, due to prolonged stopovers in Asia. Moreover, changes in breeding-site phenology varied across Alaska, but were not reflected in within-population differences in advancement of migratory departure. We demonstrate that plastic responses can drive population-level changes in timing of long-distance migration, but also that behavioral and environmental constraints en route may yet limit adaptive responses to global change.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Migração Animal/fisiologia , Aves/fisiologia , Charadriiformes/fisiologia , Alaska , Animais , Ásia , Cruzamento , Mudança Climática , Feminino , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Estações do Ano
12.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 172: 112843, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399276

RESUMO

Many studies have quantified plastic loads in seabirds' stomachs but provide imprecise estimates of retention time. Quantifying retention time is fundamental for assessing biological impact and for the use of plastic as bioindicators of plastic pollution. Presumably, plastic is retained in the grinding section of the stomach (gizzard or ventriculus) until ground small enough and particles then pass into intestines and are defecated. We assume that particle size is related to time in the ventriculus and compared size of plastic particles in juveniles, which were exposed to plastic for a known time, to non-juveniles which were exposed for an unknown longer period. Plastic particles from Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) were of similar size between groups suggesting similar wear and retention time. Cassin's Auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus) juveniles contained larger particles than adults suggesting particles retained in adults were worn down and thus held for a longer period.


Assuntos
Charadriiformes , Plásticos , Animais , Aves , Monitoramento Ambiental , Tamanho da Partícula , Estômago
13.
Biol Lett ; 17(8): 20210200, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403643

RESUMO

Migratory birds experience bouts of muscle growth and depletion as they prepare for, and undertake prolonged flight. Our studies of migratory bird muscle physiology in vitro led to the discovery that sanderling (Calidris alba) muscle satellite cells proliferate more rapidly than other normal cell lines. Here we determined the proliferation rate of muscle satellite cells isolated from five migratory species (sanderling; ruff, Calidris pugnax; western sandpiper, Calidris mauri; yellow-rumped warbler, Setophaga coronata; Swainson's thrush, Catharus ustulatus) from two families (shorebirds and songbirds) and with different migratory strategies. Ruff and sanderling satellite cells exhibited rapid proliferation, with population doubling times of 9.3 ± 1.3 and 11.4 ± 2 h, whereas the remaining species' cell doubling times were greater than or equal to 24 h. The results indicate that the rapid proliferation of satellite cells is not associated with total migration distance but may be related to flight bout duration and interact with lifespan.


Assuntos
Charadriiformes , Aves Canoras , Migração Animal , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Músculos
14.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452362

RESUMO

The revealed prevalence of coronaviruses in wild bird populations in Poland was 4.15% and the main reservoirs were birds from orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes, with a prevalence of 3.51% and 5.59%, respectively. Gammacoronaviruses were detected more often than deltacoronaviruses, with detection rates of 3.5% and 0.7%, respectively. Gammacoronaviruses were detected in birds belonging to six orders, including Anseriformes, Charadriiformes, Columbiformes, Galliformes, Gruiformes, and Passeriformes, indicating a relatively wide host range. Interestingly, this was the only coronavirus detected in Anseriformes (3.51%), while in Charadriiformes, the prevalence was 3.1%. The identified gammacoronaviruses belonged to the Igacovirus and Brangacovirus subgeneras. Most of these were igacoviruses and formed a common phylogenetic group with a Duck Coronavirus 2714 and two with an Avian Coronavirus/Avian Coronavirus9203, while the viruses from the pigeons formed a distinct "pigeon-like" group, not yet officially represented. The presence of deltacoronaviruses was detected in birds belonging to three orders, Charadriiformes, Galliformes, and Suliformes indicating a narrower host range. Most identified deltacoronaviruses belonged to the Buldecovirus subgenus, while only one belonged to Herdecovirus. Interestingly, the majority of buldecoviruses were identified in gulls, and they formed a distinct phylogenetic lineage not represented by any officially ratified virus species. Another separate group of buldecoviruses, also not represented by the official species, was formed by a virus identified in a common snipe. Only one identified buldecovirus (from common pheasant) formed a group with the ratified species Coronavirus HKU15. The results obtained indicate the high diversity of detected coronaviruses, and thus also the need to update their taxonomy (establishing new representative virus species). The serological studies performed revealed antibodies against an infectious bronchitis virus in the sera of white storks and mallards.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Biodiversidade , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Gammacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Animais Selvagens/classificação , Anseriformes/virologia , Charadriiformes/virologia , Columbiformes/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Patos/virologia , Galliformes/virologia , Gammacoronavirus/classificação , Gammacoronavirus/genética , Filogenia , Polônia
16.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(3): e20191577, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231755

RESUMO

The aim of this communication was to establish if Enterobacterales associated with gulls in Argentina harbored antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes. We analyzed cloacal swabs in two contrasting areas: Ensenada, Buenos Aires province (26 Larus dominicanus and 22 Chroicocephalus maculipennis) and Puerto Madryn, Chubut province (20 L. dominicanus). In Ensenada, bla CTX-M and mcr-1 genes, were isolated from both gull species, whereas in the Puerto Madryn, only bla CTX-M gene was found. We report for the first time C. maculipennis as carrier of AMR. The finding of AMR in wildlife constitutes a useful tool in evaluating the anthropogenic impact on environmental health.


Assuntos
Charadriiformes , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Argentina , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , América do Sul
17.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 170: 112650, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217056

RESUMO

Here, we present the first findings of anthropogenic debris (AD) used as nest material by the Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus) on a small semi-desert coastal ecosystem in northern Argentine Patagonia. Anthropogenic debris was found in ca. 40% of the 259 active nests, with an average of 2.80 ± 2.60 items per nest (n = 126) with >1 item recorded in >50% of surveyed nests containing debris. The average weight of AD per nest was 4.58 ± 12.74 g; the heaviest debris item weighed 82.58 g. Fragmented plastics were more abundant than unbroken items. Plastic followed by paper dominated the fraction of AD, with flexible plastic items dominating at both sites (nests: 97%, adjacent beach: 82%). Mega-sized plastics (>10 cm in length) and white/clear debris prevailed at both gull nests and the adjacent beach; fisheries and recreational activities were identified as the main sources of AD.


Assuntos
Charadriiformes , Kelp , Animais , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Plásticos , Resíduos/análise
18.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 922, 2021 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326442

RESUMO

The factors underlying gene flow and genomic population structure in vagile seabirds are notoriously difficult to understand due to their complex ecology with diverse dispersal barriers and extensive periods at sea. Yet, such understanding is vital for conservation management of seabirds that are globally declining at alarming rates. Here, we elucidate the population structure of the Atlantic puffin (Fratercula arctica) by assembling its reference genome and analyzing genome-wide resequencing data of 72 individuals from 12 colonies. We identify four large, genetically distinct clusters, observe isolation-by-distance between colonies within these clusters, and obtain evidence for a secondary contact zone. These observations disagree with the current taxonomy, and show that a complex set of contemporary biotic factors impede gene flow over different spatial scales. Our results highlight the power of whole genome data to reveal unexpected population structure in vagile marine seabirds and its value for seabird taxonomy, evolution and conservation.


Assuntos
Charadriiformes/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/veterinária , Animais , Canadá , Feminino , Islândia , Masculino , Noruega , Dinâmica Populacional , Escócia
19.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 87: 103718, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329803

RESUMO

Exposure to the antimicrobial agent Triclosan (TCS) induces oxidative stress in diverse organisms, including birds. However, whether TCS-induced oxidative stress effectively translates into detrimental effects is still unclear. The present study examined whether prenatal TCS exposure induces oxidative stress and telomere shortening in the brain and the liver of near-term embryos of the yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis). Prenatal TCS exposure caused a significant overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the brain, but no oxidative damage occurred. Telomeres of TCS-exposed embryos had brain telomeres 30 % shorter compared to controls, probably because the relatively modest antioxidant defenses of this organ during prenatal development cannot counteract the impact of the TCS-induced ROS. No telomere shortening was observed in the liver. Our results demonstrated that prenatal exposure to TCS in wild bird species can modulate the oxidative status and induce telomere shortening in the brain of the yellow-legged gull embryos.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/toxicidade , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Charadriiformes/embriologia , Charadriiformes/genética , Encurtamento do Telômero/efeitos dos fármacos , Triclosan/toxicidade , Animais , Encéfalo/embriologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254686, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270622

RESUMO

Knowledge of non-breeding distributions is a crucial component to seabird conservation, as conditions during the non-breeding period can play an important role in regulating seabird populations. Specifically, if seabirds from different colonies share the same wintering grounds, conditions in that shared region could have a widespread impact on multiple breeding populations. Red-legged kittiwakes (Rissa brevirostris) are endemic to the Bering Sea and may be especially susceptible to effects of climate change due to a restricted breeding range, small population size, and specialized diet. To examine whether red-legged kittiwakes from different breeding colonies overlapped in winter distribution and activity patterns, we used geolocation loggers to simultaneously track individuals from the two largest red-legged kittiwake breeding colonies in Alaska (separated by over 1000 km) during two consecutive non-breeding periods. We found that non-breeding activity patterns were generally similar between birds originating from the two colonies, but birds employed different migratory strategies during the early winter. Kittiwakes from Buldir Island in the western Aleutian Islands left the colony in September and immediately headed west, spending October through December around the Sea of Okhotsk and the Kuril Islands. In contrast, birds from St. George Island in the Pribilof Islands remained in the eastern Bering Sea or around the eastern Aleutian Islands for a couple months before traveling farther west. During late winter however, from January through March, birds from both colonies converged south of Kamchatka and east of the Kuril Islands over the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and in the Western Subarctic Gyre before returning to their respective colonies in the spring. This late winter overlap in distributions along the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench suggests the region is a winter hotspot for red-legged kittiwakes and highlights the importance of this region for the global kittiwake population.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Charadriiformes/fisiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Alaska , Animais , Geografia , Estações do Ano
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