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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36497676

RESUMO

To investigate the occurrence and development pattern of large-scale hazardous chemicals emergencies, a statistical analysis of 195 large and above accidents of hazardous chemicals in China during 2000-2020 was conducted. A general description of the characteristics of larger and above accidents based on statistical data was analyzed, and then the system risk of the hazardous chemical industry was calculated and evaluated by the entropy weight method and the TOPSIS method comprehensively. Results show that: (1) The geographical distribution of large and above hazardous chemical accidents (LAHCA) varies significantly; (2) The high-temperature season has high probabilities of having large and above accidents; (3) Human factors and management factors are the main causes of LAHCA; (4) During the period from 2000 to 2020, due to the rapid development of the chemical industry, the overall risk of accidents involving hazardous chemicals were upswing accompanied by volatility, and the risk of serious accidents remains high. The development history of safety regulations in China's hazardous chemical sector and the industry's projected course for future growth were then discussed. Finally, based on the findings of the aforementioned statistics and research, specific recommendations were provided for the safety management of the hazardous chemical sector. This study expects to provide a practical and effective reference for the construction of safety management as well as accident prevention in the hazardous chemical industry.


Assuntos
Vazamento de Resíduos Químicos , Substâncias Perigosas , Humanos , Acidentes , Prevenção de Acidentes , Indústria Química , China/epidemiologia
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 845: 157113, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35787910

RESUMO

The vertical profiles and diurnal variations of air pollutants at different heights in the fine chemical industry park (FCIP) were systematically studied in this study. Air pollutants in a major FCIP in the Yangtze River Delta of China within 500 m above ground level (AGL) detected by a sensor package on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The air pollutants including ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter (PM), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) and carbon monoxide (CO), respectively, had been measured through more than one hundred times of vertical flights from Aug. 2020 to Jul. 2021. The concentrations of NO2 and CO generally decreased with the height while the concentrations of O3 increased with the height within 500 m AGL. The photochemical reaction resulted in a strong inverse relationship between the vertical profiles of O3 and that of NO2. The concentrations of PM2.5 and TVOCs generally decreased with the height below 100 m AGL and were fully mixed above 100 m AGL. The vertical profiles of different particle sizes were well consistent with the R2 value of 0.97 between PM1 and PM2.5 and 0.93 between PM2.5 and PM10. The NO2 and PM2.5 concentrations sometimes increased with height maybe due to the influence of temperature inversion layer or long-distance transportation from northern China. The diurnal variations of NO2, O3, TVOCs and CO concentrations at different heights within 500 m AGL were basically consistent. The diurnal variations range of PM2.5 concentrations below 100 m AGL was large and different from other heights, which should be greatly influenced by the local emissions. The unstable atmospheric stability was accompanied by strong photochemical reactions and convective activities, resulting in low concentrations of NO2 and PM2.5, while high concentrations of O3.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Indústria Química , China , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Rios/química , Dispositivos Aéreos não Tripulados , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742450

RESUMO

Air pollution episodes (APEs) caused by excessive emissions from chemical industry parks (CIPs) have resulted in severe environmental damage in recent years. Therefore, it is of great importance to detect APEs timely and effectively using contaminant measurements from the air quality monitoring network (AQMN) in the CIP. Traditionally, APE can be detected by determining whether the contaminant concentration at any ambient monitoring station exceeds the national environmental standard. However, the environmental standards used are unified in various ambient monitoring stations, which ignores the source-receptor relationship in the CIP and challenges the effective detection of excessive emissions in some scenarios. In this paper, an approach based on a multivariate statistical analysis (MSA) method is proposed to detect the APEs caused by excessive emissions from CIPs. Using principal component analysis (PCA), the spatial relationships hidden among the historical environmental monitoring data are extracted, and the high-dimensional data are projected into only two subspaces. Then, two monitoring indices, T2 and Q, which represent the variability in these subspaces, are utilized to monitor the pollution status and detect the potential APEs in the CIP. In addition, the concept of APE detectability is also defined, and the condition for APE detectability is derived, which explains when the APEs can be detectable. A simulated case for a CIP in Zhejiang province of China is studied to evaluate the performance of this approach. The study indicates that the method can have an almost 100% APE detection rate. The real-world measurements of Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC) at a 10-min time interval from 3 December 2020∼12 December 2020 are also analyzed, and 64 APEs caused by excessive TVOC emissions are detected in a total of 1440 time points.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Indústria Química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 839: 156149, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35643128

RESUMO

Coal is well known as the primary energy consumption in China, and the coal chemical industry (CCI) can serve as an important source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions. However, the characteristics of VOCs emitted from CCI along with their environmental consequences are still poorly understood. To pin down this, an intensive field campaign was carried out at a typical CCI city in northwestern China (Yulin) from February 26 to March 7, 2021. Results showed that VOC compositions in Yulin were distinct from those in the megacities of China as well as in the typical oilfields over the world. The concentration of naphthalene (1.6 ± 1.1 ppbv), an important byproduct of CCI, was significantly higher than that in other cities (<0.2 ppbv). Positive matrix factorization (PMF) model analysis revealed that the direct contribution of the CCI source for VOC emissions is 8.8 ± 1.8%. More importantly, these VOCs emitted from the CCI can account for 17.9 ± 6.8% of ozone (O3) formation potential and 16.9 ± 7.4% of OH reactivity of VOCs, suggesting the significant impacts of the CCI on the air quality and atmospheric oxidizing capacity. During the observation, a rapid increase in O3 concentration after a snowfall was encountered. The changing rate of O3 concentration in the daytime was significantly higher than in its peripheral cities. The increased O3 formation was partially attributed to the CCI, and this enhancement can be further magnified by snow cover due to the increment of surface albedo. These findings deepen the understanding of the characteristics and air quality impact of VOCs related to the CCI and provide valuable insights for the development of air quality control measures in the region influenced by intensive coal chemical production.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Ozônio , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Indústria Química , China , Cidades , Carvão Mineral/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Ozônio/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
5.
Environ Res ; 213: 113601, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660564

RESUMO

In this study, lignite activated coke (LAC) was used as the carrier for the first time, Fe3O4-CuO composite metal oxide was used as the main active material, and the nano-scale magnetic supported composite metal oxide Fe3O4-CuO@LAC catalyst was synthesized for the first time, which can effectively activate the active oxygen in peroxodisulfate (PS). XRD, FTIR, BET, SEM, XPS and other analysis results showed that there was particulate matter with spherical structure on the surface of the active coke, and its diffraction peaks matched well with the characteristic peaks of Fe3O4 and CuO, and it was a mesoporous structure with a specific surface area of 619.090 m2 g-1. By optimizing the experimental conditions, the results showed that more than 92% of hydroquinone can be removed under the conditions of hydroquinone concentration of 50 mg/L, pH = 5, adding 0.1 g/L catalyst and 3 mmol/L PS. EPR and quenching experiments proved that there were four reactive oxygen species in the reaction system ·OH, SO4-·, O2-· and 1O2. According to the degradation products of hydroquinone detected by LC-MS, the possible degradation path was deduced which laid a foundation for solving the problem of difficult treatment of phenol-containing wastewater in coal chemical industry.


Assuntos
Coque , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Indústria Química , Carvão Mineral/análise , Coque/análise , Cobre , Hidroquinonas/análise , Óxidos/análise , Fenóis/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
6.
Ann Work Expo Health ; 66(8): 1022-1032, 2022 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35552627

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Despite a rise in automation, workers in the petroleum refining and petrochemical manufacturing industry are potentially exposed to various chemicals through inhalation while performing routine job duties. Many factors contribute to the degree of exposure experienced in this setting. The study objective was to characterize the impact of workplace conditions, anthropometric variability, and task orientation on exposure for a simulated routine operations task. METHODS: A chemical exposure laboratory simulation study was designed to evaluate the dependent variable of chemical exposure level in the breathing zone for methane and sulfur hexafluoride. The independent variables were (i) posture of the worker, (ii) worker anthropometry, (iii) process configuration, and (iv) gas density. RESULTS: Pipe height was a significant predictor of gas concentration measured in the breathing zone when located in a position that encouraged the gas to enter the breathing zone of the worker. Worker anthropometry had a major impact; tall worker's (male) chemical concentrations exceeded those of the short worker (female) for methane simulations but the opposite resulted for sulfur hexafluoride. Also, worker posture had a significant impact on gas exposure where nonneutral postures were found to have higher levels of chemical concentration. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings indicate that the breathing zone location is altered by posture and worker height, which changes the exposures relative to the emission source depending on the gas density of the chemicals that are present. As a result, qualitative risk assessment cannot be performed accurately without accounting for these factors. Practically, controls may need to account for worker size differences and posture adaptations.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional , Petróleo , Indústria Química , Ergonomia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metano , Postura , Hexafluoreto de Enxofre
8.
New Solut ; 32(2): 155-160, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35570734

RESUMO

Available information suggests that some chemical facilities are reducing the potential for catastrophic chemical releases to nearby communities. However, the actual extent and nature of any technological changes are not well documented, and the pace of change is slow at best. Moreover, major federal programs do not routinely investigate industry practices and communicate lessons learned, thereby missing important opportunities to generate knowledge of solutions that reduce populations at risk.


Assuntos
Indústria Química , Gestão de Riscos , Humanos , Indústrias , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency
9.
Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng ; 13: 347-371, 2022 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35363506

RESUMO

This article presents a review of the application of blockchain and blockchain-based smart contracts in the chemical and related industries. We introduce the basic concepts of blockchain and smart contracts and explain how some of their features are enabled. We review several typical or novel applications of blockchain and smart contract technologies and their enabling concepts and underlying technologies. We classify the selected literature into five categories and discuss their motivations and technical designs. We recognize that the trend of decentralization creates a need to use blockchain and smart contracts to implement trust and distributed control mechanisms. We also speculate on future applications of blockchain and smart contracts. We believe that, in the future, blockchains with different consensus mechanisms will be studied and applied to achieve more efficient and practical decentralized systems. Also, blockchain-based smart contracts will be more widely applied to enhance autonomous distributed controls in decentralized systems.


Assuntos
Blockchain , Indústria Química , Tecnologia
10.
Nature ; 604(7907): 668-676, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35478240

RESUMO

As the chemical industry continues to produce considerable quantities of waste chemicals1,2, it is essential to devise 'circular chemistry'3-8 schemes to productively back-convert at least a portion of these unwanted materials into useful products. Despite substantial progress in the degradation of some classes of harmful chemicals9, work on 'closing the circle'-transforming waste substrates into valuable products-remains fragmented and focused on well known areas10-15. Comprehensive analyses of which valuable products are synthesizable from diverse chemical wastes are difficult because even small sets of waste substrates can, within few steps, generate millions of putative products, each synthesizable by multiple routes forming densely connected networks. Tracing all such syntheses and selecting those that also meet criteria of process and 'green' chemistries is, arguably, beyond the cognition of human chemists. Here we show how computers equipped with broad synthetic knowledge can help address this challenge. Using the forward-synthesis Allchemy platform16, we generate giant synthetic networks emanating from approximately 200 waste chemicals recycled on commercial scales, retrieve from these networks tens of thousands of routes leading to approximately 300 important drugs and agrochemicals, and algorithmically rank these syntheses according to the accepted metrics of sustainable chemistry17-19. Several of these routes we validate by experiment, including an industrially realistic demonstration on a 'pharmacy on demand' flow-chemistry platform20. Wide adoption of computerized waste-to-valuable algorithms can accelerate productive reuse of chemicals that would otherwise incur storage or disposal costs, or even pose environmental hazards.


Assuntos
Indústria Química , Desenho de Fármacos , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Reciclagem
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(40): 60067-60083, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35412182

RESUMO

In China, the proportion of energy consumption and carbon emissions embodied in international trade in chemical industry is high. It is important to consider how international trade policy adjustments in chemical industry will affect the economy and environment so as to achieve the goal of carbon intensity. This study investigates the impact of international trade policy adjustments. We adopt a computable general equilibrium model to simulate the impacts of trade policy adjustment. The result shows all adjustment plans cause economic losses. All plans will promote energy structure toward cleaner. All plans reduce CO2 emissions and energy consumption but cannot realize the carbon intensity and energy intensity target. The adjustment of tariff policy in basic raw materials sector should be smaller than that of other sectors. Raising the export tariff is the best policy choice for achieving the carbon intensity target, but other low-carbon policies should be introduced. In particular, protection measures should be taken for the energy industry.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Comércio , Carbono/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Indústria Química , China , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Meio Ambiente , Internacionalidade , Políticas
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 830: 154787, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35346699

RESUMO

The sustainability of the chemical industry is crucial for achieving global sustainable production. The sustainability performance of global chemical industry is influenced by many issues synergistically and has not been fully quantified. Systematic analysis from multiple perspectives, such as resource savings, economic growth, and environmental improvement, is urgently needed to support effective macro-policy decisions. This study quantifies the variation trend of the sustainability of the global chemical industry during 2004-2014 and identifies the driving forces under the framework of green total factor productivity (GTFP). Results show that most developed countries performed efficiently (with GTFP values equal to 1) in sustainable production of the chemical industry, while the least developed countries usually performed inefficiently (with GTFP values lower than 1). Notably, a polarization of sustainability in the chemical industry has been confirmed among countries with different production capacities. From 2004 to 2014, the sustainability performance of the global chemical industry has generally improved. It was mainly driven by technological progress (resulting from independent technological innovation) rather than efficiency catching-up (derived from technological learning). Furthermore, technological progress was manifested mainly as the improvement in CO2 reduction performance and capital saving performance, while technological learning was manifested mainly as the improvement in labor saving performance. Based on the conclusions of this study, the international world is suggested to take action to strengthen international technology cooperation, and governments should make prioritized and focused policies to effectively promote the sustainability of global chemical industry.


Assuntos
Indústria Química , Desenvolvimento Econômico , China , Eficiência , Políticas , Tecnologia
13.
ChemSusChem ; 15(9): e202102709, 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35238475

RESUMO

The role and power of biocatalysis in sustainable chemistry has been continuously brought forward step by step to its present outstanding position. The problem-solving capabilities of biocatalysis have been realized by numerous substantial achievements in biology, chemistry and engineering. Advances and breakthroughs in the life sciences and interdisciplinary cooperation with chemistry have clearly accelerated the implementation of biocatalytic synthesis in modern chemistry. Resource-efficient biocatalytic manufacturing processes have already provided numerous benefits to sustainable chemistry as well as customer-centric value creation in the pharmaceutical, food, flavor, fragrance, vitamin, agrochemical, polymer, specialty, and fine chemical industries. Biocatalysis can make significant contributions not only to manufacturing processes, but also to the design of completely new value-creation chains. Biocatalysis can now be considered as a key enabling technology to implement sustainable chemistry.


Assuntos
Indústria Química , Indústrias , Biocatálise , Química Verde
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35162727

RESUMO

Grey water footprint is included in the green development efficiency evaluation index system of the chemical industry. From 2002 to 2016, the super efficiency Slack Based Measure (SBM) model was used to measure the green development efficiency of the chemical industry in the Yangtze River Economic Belt. Dagum Gini coefficient and its decomposition method were used to decompose the regional differences of green development efficiency of the chemical industry in the Economic Belt, and the coefficient of variation method and panel data regression model were used to test the convergence characteristics. The following results were obtained. (1) The total grey water footprint of the chemical industry in the Yangtze River Economic Belt showed a fluctuating downward trend from 2002 to 2016. (2) The green development efficiency of the chemical industry in the Yangtze River Economic Belt was significantly improved, and the spatial differentiation law of gradient decline in the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the Economic Belt was shown. (3) The regional difference of green development efficiency of the chemical industry in the Yangtze River Economic Belt initially showed an expanding trend and then a narrowing trend. Regional differences in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River increased while those in the middle reaches first increased and then decreased, whereas those in the lower reaches decreased significantly. The variance in green development efficiency of the chemical industry is the main cause of regional differences. (4) From 2012 to 2016, the Yangtze River Economic Belt had obvious convergence in its whole region, middle reaches, and lower reaches and an inconspicuous convergence in the upstream area. Regional difference of green development efficiency of the chemical industry in the Economic Belt was the combined effect of the results of environmental regulation, industrial structure, foreign investment intensity, and scientific and technological advancements. Our results have high theoretical reference values and practical guiding significance for implementing the green efficiency promotion strategy of the chemical industry in Yangtze River Economic Belt by region and classification.


Assuntos
Rios , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Indústria Química , China , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Eficiência , Água
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(29): 44618-44637, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35133599

RESUMO

Sustainable and safe development is a key issue in petrochemical industry. However, many catastrophic accidents and irreversible environmental pollution have occurred in the petrochemical industry, most of which are caused by human behavior factor. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate and improve the sustainable safety performance of a petrochemical plant from the perspective of human behavior factors. Therefore, this study proposes an extended behavior-based safety (BBS) approach that combines the application of fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) to assess sustainable safety performance of a petrochemical plant. The results show the importance of human behavior factors, and we should pay attention to the practical application of petrochemical industry. Finally, BBS management can reduce occupational injuries and accidents, which will enhance the sustainable safety development of the petrochemical industry.


Assuntos
Indústria Química , Gestão da Segurança , China , Humanos
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(26): 39345-39358, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35099704

RESUMO

In a concentrated area of chemical industry parks (CIPs), emergency relief efficiency is not only affected by the rescue capability of themselves, but also their coordination relationships with other CIPs. Previous studies focus on the location of resource warehouse and the scheduling of logistics transportation, in the relief process after unexpected events, but rarely integrate them ideally in practice. This paper utilizes the super network theory to propose a regional emergency scheduling model to improve collaboration efficiency among primary relief centers (PRC), local relief centers (LRC), and CIPs. So, the proposed super network model fills the research gap of only considering emergency logistic supply chain and provides decision scheme regarding the emergency material dispatch plan. We developed a modified projection algorithm to solve the scheduling problem by turning it to a variational inequality and compare the performance under several disaster scenarios. The practicability of the model is proved by the result of the numerical example given.


Assuntos
Indústria Química , Desastres , Algoritmos , Meios de Transporte
17.
ChemSusChem ; 15(9): e202102628, 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35026060

RESUMO

In the movement to decarbonize our economy and move away from fossil fuels we will need to harness the waste products of our activities, such as waste lignocellulose, methane, and carbon dioxide. Our wastes need to be integrated into a circular economy where used products are recycled into a manufacturing carbon cycle. Key to this will be the recycling of plastics at the resin and monomer levels. Biotechnology is well suited to a future chemical industry that must adapt to widely distributed and diverse biological chemical feedstocks. Our increasing mastery of biotechnology is allowing us to develop enzymes and organisms that can synthesize a widening selection of desirable bulk chemicals, including plastics, at commercially viable productivities. Integration of bioreactors with electrochemical systems will permit new production opportunities with enhanced productivities and the advantage of using a low-carbon electricity from renewable and sustainable sources.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Indústria Química , Biocatálise , Combustíveis Fósseis , Plásticos
18.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 131999, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454225

RESUMO

The lack of stability in catalytic ozonation treatment of reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate from coal chemical industry calls for new advanced oxidation processes. Herein, UV/H2O2 and UV/PDS were employed to remove the bulk recalcitrant organics in the RO concentrate with a focus on the process efficiency and kinetic modeling. Results show that UV/H2O2 overmatched UV/PDS in reducing the COD and DOC of the wastewater and the advantage became more evident in aspects of biodegradability improvement and energy cost. Specifically, the COD and DOC were removed by 62.0% and 55.5% with UV/H2O2 (6 mM) while the BOD5/COD was elevated to 0.54 at a specific energy consumption of 0.83 kWh g-1 (lab-scale). The UV/H2O2 process also exhibited a good adaptability to the fluctuation of wastewater quality. Afterwards, the reaction rate constants of the bulk organics upon UV photolysis and HO• oxidation were calculated based on pseudo-first-order kinetics and radical steady-state approximation of DOC removal in the bench-scale UV/H2O2 reactor. A computational fluid dynamics model was then developed for the analysis of distributions of flow, radiation and chemicals in flow-through reactors which facilitated the practical process efficiency assessment. This work demonstrates the applicability of UV/H2O2 in removing recalcitrant organics in the RO concentrate and presents an approach from bench-scale experiments to flow-through system evaluation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Indústria Química , Carvão Mineral , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Osmose , Oxirredução , Raios Ultravioleta , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
19.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126590, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332477

RESUMO

Inherently safer design is the most proactive approach to manage risk, as referred by scientists and experts. Researchers have adopted various methods in evaluating inherent safety indices like parameter-based indexing, risk-based indexing, consequence-based indexing, etc. However, the existing approaches have their limitations. The present paper focuses on establishing an inherent system safety index (ISSI) to evaluate inherently safer design during the concept development stage. The analysis starts by identifying a non-harmful system's inherent safety characteristics and related parameters. Four subindexes, determined from the non-harmful system's characteristics, are established using their relevant parameters. The safety of the chemical process system, the health of workers, and the environment's safety can be assured by selecting relevant parameters. Parameters are scored based on their deviation from the non-harmful condition. The sum of the deviations of the parameters gives the value of the inherent safety index. The case study looks at various routes of Methyl Methacrylate (MMA). According to the present case study, MMA production followed by Tertiary butyl alcohol is the safest route given health, safety, and environmental perspective. This approach helps overcome the limitation of parameter-based indexing, which arises from selecting predefined fixed parameters that become invalid in case of system variation or significant modification of the system. Besides, it considers the complexity and vulnerability that arises from the interaction of various factors|, which increase predetermined risk calculated at the design stage when the system is in operation. The subindices can be used individually if a focus is needed in a definite section of a system with a particular application or a smaller portion. This method is helpful for the industry in designing a safer plant considering the health, safety, and environmental perspective at the concept development stage.


Assuntos
Indústria Química , Modelos Teóricos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Fenômenos Químicos , Humanos
20.
Ind Health ; 60(2): 146-153, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657895

RESUMO

Employees often prefer 12-hour work shifts but they can increase sleepiness and injury risk. We assessed whether sleep, sleepiness, satisfaction and need for recovery changed after changing from an 8-hour to a 12-hour shift system. The participants were 178 employees of the paper, pulp and chemical industries. Using a quasi-experimental controlled intervention design, 83 employees, who changed from an 8-hour shift schedule to a 12-hour shift schedule were compared to those who remained in the 8-hour shift schedule (n=95). Participants filled in a survey on sleep, sleepiness, satisfaction and need for recovery at baseline and 9-12 months after the shift schedule change. We used generalized estimation equation models adjusted for age, sex, shift work experience in years and baseline shift system. Sleep length was longer in the 12-hour shift schedule before the first morning shift and between morning shifts. Sleepiness during morning shifts was less frequent and satisfaction with the shift system was more prevalent in the 12-hour shift schedule. Also, perceived negative associations of the current shift system with work-life balance were less common in the 12-hour shift schedule. The differences found between the shift systems were minor and the results did not indicate significant disadvantages of the 12-hour fast forward-rotating shift system.


Assuntos
Sonolência , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado , Indústria Química , Humanos , Sono , Vigília
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