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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e243238, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360207

RESUMO

The use of alternative nutritional sources is an important topic for animal production such as poultry. This study examined the effect of replacing soybean meal with sunflower leaf meal in the diet of laying shaver brown pullets. A total of 30 laying birds were assigned to three treatments of 0% (as control group), 10% and 15% MSFLM inclusion. Four eggs per replicate were randomly taken for three consecutive days at two weeks interval for five times, and 18 weeks individuals were selected after 40 days of experimental time. External parameters of the eggs (egg weight, egg length, egg breadth and egg shape index, shell thickness), and body parameters (Final body weight, weight gain), feed intake and hen day production were measured. For egg length, egg breadth and shell thickness showed significant difference (p< 0.05) in from the control birds. Final body weight, weight gain, feed intake and hen day production showed comparable results with values from eggs of birds on control diet. The study revealed the ability of birds to easily utilize the nutrients in the protein sources. MSFLM utilization up to 15% in pullets' diet revealed no detrimental effect on the performance of the laying birds and the external qualities of eggs produced.


O uso de fontes nutricionais alternativas é um tópico importante para a produção animal, como a avicultura. Este estudo examinou o efeito da substituição do farelo de soja por farelo de folha de girassol na dieta de frangas marrons barbeadoras poedeiras. Um total de 30 aves poedeiras foram designadas a três tratamentos de 0% (como grupo controle), 10% e 15% de inclusão MSFLM. Quatro ovos por repetição foram retirados aleatoriamente por três dias consecutivos em intervalos de duas semanas por cinco vezes, e indivíduos de 18 semanas foram selecionados após 40 dias do tempo experimental. Parâmetros externos dos ovos (peso do ovo, comprimento do ovo, largura do ovo e índice de forma do ovo, espessura da casca) e parâmetros corporais (peso corporal final, ganho de peso), consumo de ração e produção diária da galinha foram medidos. Para comprimento do ovo, largura do ovo e espessura da casca apresentaram diferença significativa (p <0,05) nas aves controle. Peso corporal final, ganho de peso, consumo de ração e produção de dia de galinha mostraram resultados comparáveis ​​com valores de ovos de aves em dieta controle. O estudo revelou a capacidade das aves de utilizar facilmente os nutrientes das fontes de proteína. A utilização de MSFLM até 15% na dieta das frangas não revelou nenhum efeito prejudicial no desempenho das aves poedeiras e nas qualidades externas dos ovos produzidos.


Assuntos
Animais , Aves Domésticas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta , Helianthus
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250517, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355859

RESUMO

Abstract Lactobacilli are probiotics with Aflatoxin (AF) detoxification ability, found in fermented products, GIT of animals and environment. Purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of broiler isolates of Lactobacillus against Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). For this purpose, 5 isolates of Lactobacillus from broiler gut were incubated with 100 ppb AFB1 in aqueous environment and effect of different parameters (cell fractions, time, temperature, pH) on detoxification was determined by HPLC. The ameliorative effect of Lactobacillus salivarius (LS) against AFB1 was studied in broiler. The results revealed that LS (CR. 4) showed the best results (in vitro) as compared to other isolates (L. salivarius (CR. 3, CR, 4), L. agilis (CE. 2.1, CE. 3.1) and L. crispatus (CE. 28). Cell debris of CR. 4 showed significantly higher detoxification (P<0.05). Maximum amount of AFB1 was detoxified at 30°C (97%), pH 4.0 (99%) and 6 h (99.97%). In vivo study showed that AFB1 decreased weight gain (1,269 ± 0.04 gm/ bird), feed consumed (2,161 ± 0.08 gm/ bird), serum total protein (2.42 ± 0.34 gm/ dl), serum albumin (0.5 ± 0.2 2 gm/dl) and antibody titer (4.2 ± 0.83). Liver function enzymes were found (alanine transaminase (ALT): 32 ± 10.7 U/L) and aspartate transaminase (AST): 314.8 ± 27 U/L) elevated in AFB1 fed broilers. Treatment with 1% LS not only decreased the toxic effects of AFB1 (group D) but also improved the overall health of broilers due to its probiotic effects (p<0.05) as compared to control negative (group A). The detoxification ability of LS was better than commercial binder (CB) (0.2% Protmyc). It was concluded that detoxification of AFB1 by Lactobacillus was strain, temperature, pH and time dependent. LS has detoxification ability against AFB1 in vivo.


Resumo Os lactobacilos são probióticos com capacidade de desintoxicação da Aflatoxina (AF), encontrados em produtos fermentados, TGI de animais e meio ambiente. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a capacidade de isolados de frango de corte de Lactobacillus contra a Aflatoxina B1 (AFB1). Para tanto, 5 isolados de Lactobacillus de intestino de frango foram incubados com 100 ppb AFB1 em meio aquoso, e o efeito de diferentes parâmetros (frações celulares, tempo, temperatura, pH) na desintoxicação foi determinado por CLAE. O efeito melhorador de Lactobacillus salivarius (LS) contra AFB1 foi estudado em frangos de corte. Os resultados revelaram que LS (CR. 4) apresentou os melhores resultados (in vitro) em comparação com outros isolados [L. salivarius (CR. 3, CR. 4), L. agilis (CE. 2.1, CE. 3.1) e L. crispatus (CE. 28)]. Detritos celulares de CR. 4 mostraram desintoxicação significativamente maior (P < 0.05). A quantidade máxima de AFB1 foi desintoxicada a 30 °C (97%), pH 4.0 (99%) e 6 h (99,97%). O estudo in vivo mostrou que AFB1 diminuiu o ganho de peso (1,269 ± 0.04 g / ave), alimento consumido (2,161 ± 0.08 g / ave), proteína total sérica (2.42 ± 0.34 g / dl), albumina sérica (0.5 ± 0.22 gm / dl) e título de anticorpo (4.2 ± 0.83). As enzimas da função hepática foram encontradas (alanina transaminase (ALT): 32 ± 10.7 U / L) e aspartato transaminase (AST): 314.8 ± 27 U / L) elevadas em AFB1 alimentados com frangos. O tratamento com 1% LS não só diminuiu os efeitos tóxicos de AFB1 (grupo D), mas também melhorou a saúde geral dos frangos devido aos seus efeitos probióticos (p < 0.05) em comparação com o controle negativo (grupo A). A capacidade de desintoxicação do LS foi melhor do que o aglutinante comercial (CB) (0.2% Protmyc). Concluiu-se que a desintoxicação de AFB1 por Lactobacillus foi dependente da cepa, temperatura, pH e tempo. LS tem capacidade de desintoxicação contra AFB1 in vivo.


Assuntos
Animais , Aflatoxina B1/análise , Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Probióticos , Galinhas , Lactobacillus , Ração Animal/análise
3.
BMC Vet Res ; 19(1): 13, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) is a serious anaerobic enteric pathogen causing necrotic enteritis (NE) in broiler chickens. Following the ban on antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feedstuffs, there has been a remarkable rise in occurrence of NE which resulted in considering alternative approaches, particularly vaccination. The objective of this work was to evaluate the recombinant Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) expressing the C-terminal domain of α-toxin from C. perfringens as a potential probiotic-based vaccine candidate to immunize the broiler chickens against NE. RESULTS: The broiler chickens immunized orally with recombinant vaccine strain were significantly protected against experimental NE challenge, and developed specific serum anti-α antibodies. Additionally, the immunized birds showed higher body weight gains compared with control groups during the challenge experiment. CONCLUSIONS: The current study showed that oral immunization of broiler chickens with a safe probiotic-based vector vaccine expressing α-toxin from C. perfringens could provide protective immunity against NE in birds.


Assuntos
Infecções por Clostridium , Enterite , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Clostridium perfringens , Galinhas , Infecções por Clostridium/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Vacinas Bacterianas , Enterite/veterinária , Imunização/veterinária , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Sintéticas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Necrose/veterinária
4.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280040, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36662683

RESUMO

The availability of sexed day-old broiler chicks is becoming an issue as feather sexing is no longer possible. This has great implications for broiler researchers as the use of randomly distributed mixed-sex birds may result in a greater between-pen variation and thus less statistical power than the use of single-sex birds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of including sex proportion as a covariate in an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) on the statistical power compared to analysis of variance (ANOVA) where sex was not considered. The statistical parameters examined include mean square error (MSE), the F-statistic, model fit, model significance and observed power. A total of 4 separate experiments that used mixed-sex broilers with unequal numbers of male and female birds per pen were conducted during which performance of the birds was measured. The male % in each pen was recorded during each experiment and corrected for mortality. The performance results were analysed by ANOVA and the statistical parameters were then compared to ANCOVA where sex proportion was included as a covariate. The results showed that a set of assumptions first needed to be met to run ANCOVA. In addition, if the ANOVA results show a high level of model significance and power, then ANCOVA may not be necessary. In other circumstances where the assumptions are met and model significance and observed power are low, the inclusion of sex proportion as a covariate in the analysis will help to reduce MSE, increase the F-statistic value and improve the model significance, model fit and observed power. Therefore, it is suggested that sex proportion should be considered as a covariate in ANCOVA to improve statistical power in nutritional experiments when male and female broilers are unequally and randomly distributed in pens.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
5.
Anim Sci J ; 94(1): e13806, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36627207

RESUMO

The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) on Eimeria tenella infection in laying hens. Oocyst shedding and histopathology were evaluated. A reduced oocyst shedding was observed 5 and 7 days post-infection (dpi) in the 5-ALA-administered group, but the total number of oocysts during the first infection period was not different between control and 5-ALA-treated groups. After E. tenella attack infection, the period of oocyst shedding in the 5-ALA-administered group lasted less long than that in controls. During the attack infection period, the total number of fecal oocysts in the 5-ALA-treated group was significantly lower than that in the control group. However, the parasite burden score in hens receiving 5-ALA was higher than that in controls after E. tenella attack infection. The lesion scores at 5 and 30 dpi in the control group were significantly lower than those in the 5-ALA-administered group. Therefore, 5-ALA administration might be beneficial against E. tenella infection in laying hens.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Eimeria tenella , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Feminino , Coccidiose/veterinária , Galinhas , Ácido Aminolevulínico/farmacologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Oócitos , Oocistos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Inflamação/veterinária
6.
BMC Vet Res ; 19(1): 5, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36624468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fowl adenovirus is of major concern to the poultry industry worldwidely. In order to monitor the prevalent status of Fowl adenovirus in China, a total of 1920 clinical samples from apparently healthy birds in the 25 sites of poultry flocks, Slaughterhouse and living bird markets from 8 provinces in eastern China were collected and detected by PCR, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. RESULTS: The epidemiological survey showed that Fowl adenoviruses were detected in living bird markets, and circulating in a variety of fowl species, including chickens, ducks, goose and pigeons. Among the 1920 clinical samples, 166 samples (8.65%) were positive in the fowl adenovirus PCR detection. In this study, totally all the 12 serotypes (serotypes of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8A, 8B, 9, 10 and 11) fowl adenoviruses were detected, the most prevalent serotype was serotype 1. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that 166 FAdVs of 12 serotypes were divided into 5 fowl adenovirus species (Fowl aviadenovirus A, B, C, D, E). CONCLUSIONS: In the epidemiological survey, 8.65% of the clinical samples from apparently healthy birds were positive in the fowl adenovirus PCR detection. Totally all the 12 serotypes fowl adenoviruses were detected in a variety of fowl species, which provided abundant resources for the research of fowl adenoviruses in China. The newly prevalent FAdV serotypes provides valuable information for the development of an effective control strategy for FAdV infections in fowls.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae , Aviadenovirus , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Epidemiologia Molecular , Filogenia , Galinhas , Aviadenovirus/genética , China/epidemiologia , Sorogrupo
7.
BMC Microbiol ; 23(1): 15, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36647025

RESUMO

Escherichia coli (E. coli) are typically present as commensal bacteria in the gastro-intestinal tract of most animals including poultry species, but some avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strains can cause localized and even systematic infections in domestic poultry. Emergence and re-emergence of antimicrobial resistant isolates (AMR) constrain antibiotics usage in poultry production, and development of an effective vaccination program remains one of the primary options in E. coli disease prevention and control for domestic poultry. Thus, understanding genetic and pathogenic diversity of the enzootic E. coli isolates, particularly APEC, in poultry farms is the key to designing an optimal vaccine candidate and to developing an effective vaccination program. This study explored the genomic and pathogenic diversity among E. coli isolates in southern United States poultry. A total of nine isolates were recovered from sick broilers from Mississippi, and one from Georgia, with epidemiological variations among clinical signs, type of housing, and bird age. The genomes of these isolates were sequenced by using both Illumina short-reads and Oxford Nanopore long-reads, and our comparative analyses suggested data from both platforms were highly consistent. The 16 s rRNA based phylogenetic analyses showed that the 10 bacteria strains are genetically closer to each other than those in the public database. However, whole genome analyses showed that these 10 isolates encoded a diverse set of reported virulence and AMR genes, belonging to at least nine O:H serotypes, and are genetically clustered with at least five different groups of E. coli isolates reported by other states in the United States. Despite the small sample size, this study suggested that there was a large extent of genomic and serological diversity among E. coli isolates in southern United States poultry. A large-scale comprehensive study is needed to understand the overall genomic diversity and the associated virulence, and such a study will be important to develop a broadly protective E. coli vaccine.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Estados Unidos , Escherichia coli , Virulência/genética , Aves Domésticas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Genômica
8.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 504, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36627389

RESUMO

Since only female chicks are used in layer hens, usually hatched male chicks are killed. It is estimated that around 7 billion chicks per year are killed immediately after hatching. In addition to being unethical, this situation also causes great financial losses. Sex determination in chicks can be done before or after hatching. Of course, determinations made before hatching are more advantageous, but the prediction rate is relatively low. The morphology of an egg is expressed in terms of the Shape Index (SI), which is the ratio of the short diameter to the long diameter. In this study, male and female chicks were predicted by using the shape index of the eggs using the RUSBoost Classifier using Shape Index. Although SI varied according to the egg type, a significant correlation (r = 0.78) was observed between chick sex and SI. Therefore, it was possible to estimate gender by utilizing SI in chickens, even if the accuracy of classification was not as high as in ducks. Besides the SI, mass, short axis, long axis, ovality, volume, eccentricity parameters were obtained and used for the results. With this features, females classified with 80% and males classified 81% correctly. The model predictions were applied to the probability of female chick hatching equation from the previous studies, 71% of the estimations were correctly classified according to this equation.With this work, around 80% of accurate predictions were made. In this case, killing 5.65 billion chicks can be prevented. Likewise, many eggs are not wasted. 1.13 billion USD loss can be prevented.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Ovos , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Óvulo
9.
Vet Res ; 54(1): 4, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36694192

RESUMO

In 2019 a low pathogenic H3N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) caused an outbreak in Belgian poultry farms, characterized by an unusually high mortality in chickens. Influenza A viruses of the H1 and H3 subtype can infect pigs and become established in swine populations. Therefore, the H3N1 epizootic raised concern about AIV transmission to pigs and from pigs to humans. Here, we assessed the replication efficiency of this virus in explants of the porcine respiratory tract and in pigs, using virus titration and/or RT-qPCR. We also examined transmission from directly, intranasally inoculated pigs to contact pigs. The H3N1 AIV replicated to moderate titers in explants of the bronchioles and lungs, but not in the nasal mucosa or trachea. In the pig infection study, infectious virus was only detected in a few lung samples collected between 1 and 3 days post-inoculation. Virus titers were between 1.7 and 4.8 log10 TCID50. In line with the ex vivo experiment, no virus was isolated from the upper respiratory tract of pigs. In the transmission experiment, we could not detect virus transmission from directly inoculated to contact pigs. An increase in serum antibody titers was observed only in the inoculated pigs. We conclude that the porcine respiratory tract tissue explants can be a useful tool to assess the replication efficiency of AIVs in pigs. The H3N1 AIV examined here is unlikely to pose a risk to swine populations. However, continuous risk assessment studies of emerging AIVs in pigs are necessary, since different virus strains will have different genotypic and phenotypic traits.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Aviária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Humanos , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Galinhas , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Pulmão , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
10.
J Bras Pneumol ; 48(6): e20220441, 2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36651442
11.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 616, 2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36635321

RESUMO

Coccidiosis is an economically significant disease in the global poultry industry, but little is known about the mechanisms of bone defects caused by coccidiosis; thus, the study focused on effects of coccidiosis on the bone homeostasis of young broiler chickens. A total of 480 male Cobb500 broilers were randomly allocated into four treatment groups, including an uninfected control consuming diet ad libitum, two infected groups were orally gavaged with two different concentrations of sporulated Eimeria oocysts, and an uninfected pair-fed group fed the same amount of feed as the high Eimeria-infected group consumed. Growth performance and feed intake were recorded, and samples were collected on 6 days post infection. Results indicated that coccidiosis increased systemic oxidative status and elevated immune response in bone marrow, suppressing bone growth rate (P < 0.05) and increasing bone resorption (P < 0.05) which led to lower bone mineral density (P < 0.05) and mineral content (P < 0.05) under Eimeria infection. With the same amount of feed intake, the uninfected pair-fed group showed a distinguished bone formation rate and bone resorption level compared with the Eimeria infected groups. In conclusion, inflammatory immune response and oxidative stress in broilers after Eimeria infection were closely associated with altered bone homeostasis, highlighting the role of inflammation and oxidative stress in broiler bone homeostasis during coccidiosis.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Eimeria , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Masculino , Ração Animal/análise , Galinhas/fisiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Eimeria/fisiologia , Osteogênese
12.
J Anim Sci ; 1012023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36638081

RESUMO

Individual background and demographics affect student perceptions of animal production. Understanding how science-based education alters these opinions is a critical aspect of improving university instruction as well as increasing consumer engagement in the poultry industry. The study objectives were to quantify the effects of student background, career interests, and science-based instruction on opinions regarding current issues in the poultry industry. Undergraduate students enrolled in a one semester poultry science course at Iowa State University between 2018 and 2021 were anonymously surveyed at the start and end of the semester as part of a 4-yr study. Students who opted to take the survey answered three demographic questions indicating their 1) livestock experience, 2) sex, and 3) career goals. The body of the survey consisted of 16 "poultry issue statements" where students were directed to mark a vertical dash on a 130 mm horizontal line indicating their level of agreement with each statement. Post-survey collection, the line was separated into 5 sections for discussion: responses within 0%-20% indicated strongly disagree, 21%-40% disagree, 41%-60% neutral, 61%-80% agree, and 81%-100% indicated strongly agree. Responses were analyzed using Proc Mixed in SAS Version 9.4 with a Tukey-Kramer adjustment for all pairwise comparisons using main effects including demographic categories, education (pre- or post-instruction), and year the survey was taken. Responses to various issue statements were affected by students' livestock experience (P < 0.05; 6 out of 16 statements affected), sex (P < 0.05; 5 out of 16 statements), and ultimate career goals (P < 0.05; 4 out of 16 statements). Pre- vs. post-education responses differed significantly in 6 out of 16 statements (P < 0.05), and in 2 out of 16 poultry issue statements, the year of instruction affected student response (P < 0.05). These data indicate that individual student background, sex, and differing career interests impact opinions of current topics in the broiler and layer industries. Further, science-based education as well as the year the course was taken over consecutive semesters significantly altered student opinions.


Individual experience and demographics affect perceptions of animal production. Understanding how science-based education alters these opinions is a critical aspect of improving instruction and increasing consumer engagement in the poultry industry. Undergraduate students enrolled in a poultry science course at Iowa State University between 2018 and 2021 were surveyed at the start and end of the semester as part of a 4-yr study. Students answered three demographic questions and indicated their agreeability with 16 "poultry issue statements." Responses to various issue statements were affected by students' livestock experience (6 out of 16 statements), sex (5 out of 16 statements), and ultimate career goals (4 out of 16 statements). Pre- vs. post-education responses changed in 6 out of 16 statements, and in 2 out of 16 poultry issue statements, the year of instruction affected student response. Individual student background, sex, and career interests impacted opinions on current topics in the broiler and layer industries, including laying hen housing systems, selective poultry breeding, environmental enrichment availability, culling practices, commercial stocking density, purchasing decisions, and more. Science-based instruction with hands-on farm experience as well as the year the course was taken over consecutive semesters significantly altered student opinions.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Aves Domésticas , Animais , Humanos , Atitude , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Anim Sci J ; 94(1): e13808, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36653884

RESUMO

Iranian native chicken, including Fars indigenous chicken, is an important genetic resource due to its adaptation to stressful environmental conditions, good endurance and resistance to disease. The aim of this research was to determine the genetic infrastructure of Fars indigenous chicken using several nonlinear functions. The dataset included body weight at hatch (BW1), body weight at the 8th week (BW8), body weight at the 12th week (BW12), weight at sexual maturity (WSM), age at sexual maturity (ASM), number of eggs in the first 12 weeks of laying period (EN), egg weight at the first day of laying (EW1), average egg weight at the 28thday of laying (EW28), and average egg weight at weeks 28, 30, and 32 of the laying period (AEW). Growth models were fitted using the NLIN procedure and WOMBAT software was used to predict variance components for the best fit model parameters. Results suggested three-parameter models, for example, Gompertz, fitted better to the data than others. The maturity weight (A), initial weight (B), and maturity rate (K) parameters in the Gompertz model were 1996.8 ± 6.63, 4.11 ± 0.03, and 0.021 ± 0.0001, respectively. The heritability of A, B, and K parameters were 0.03, 0.05, and 0.12, respectively.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Óvulo , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Irã (Geográfico) , Reprodução/genética , Peso Corporal/genética
14.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e269137, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629548

RESUMO

Soil is the base of any ecosystem since it conserves nutrients and water for plant roots including agriculture and plantations. In dry and semi-arid places across the world, including the UAE, sandy soils are common. Their fertility is extremely low, and production is hampered by a number of agronomic challenges. Soil conditioner sources like bentonite and chicken manure might be used to improve the poor sandy soil attributes and hence boost soil productivity. From November 2019 to March 2020, an experiment was conducted to investigate the growth rates of Bougainvillea following bentonite and chicken manure amendments to sandy soil taken from Lehbab, Dubai. Bougainvillea was evaluated for its plant height (cm), max length of primary branch (cm), the number of leaves per plant, number of secondary branches, shoot weight (g), root length (cm), root weight (g), root/shoot ratio, chlorophyll contents, and chlorophyll a* and b*. In this experiment, a complete randomized design (CRD) with five treatments was used (10 replications per treatment). According to the findings, bentonite and chicken manure additions considerably influence the productive properties of sandy soil, as indicated by Bougainvillea growth. Additionally, the research suggests that Bougainvillea may be efficiently planted with 10% bentonite and 15% chicken manure applied to sandy soil, resulting in the healthiest plants compared to other amendments.


Assuntos
Bentonita , Solo , Animais , Galinhas , Clorofila A , Ecossistema , Esterco , Aves Domésticas , Areia
15.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 55(1): 40, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36645529

RESUMO

Modern commercial broiler is growing very rapidly and its amino acid requirement is not fulfilling. An experimental trial was conducted to study the effect of super-dosing of lysine in fish meal-based diets (50% fish meal and 50% SBM) on production performance, protein digestibility and economic efficiency in male and female broiler chickens. Four hundred and eighty (480) one-day-old male and female broiler chicks were divided into forty experimental units of 12 birds each. Five levels of dietary lysine i.e. 90, 100, 110, 120 and 130% of Ross-308 recommendation in male and female birds were separately used. Weight gain and feed intake were higher (p < 0.05) in birds received 100 and 110% recommended lysine than other levels. Feed conversion ratio and EPEF were improved (p < 0.05) in birds received 100% recommended lysine than other levels. Higher (p < 0.05) CP digestibility and lower production cost per kg live weight were noted for birds fed diet containing lysine 100, 110 and 120% than 90 and 130%. Male birds had higher (p < 0.05) WG, FI, EPEF, protein digestibility and lower production cost per kg live weight than female birds. In conclusion, lysine levels below 100% and above 110% of Ross recommended levels had poor production performance, protein digestibility and economic efficiency.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Lisina , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Galinhas/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Proteínas/metabolismo
16.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280811, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36662890

RESUMO

Manufactured influenza vaccines have to contain a defined amount of hemagglutinin (HA) antigen. Therefore, vaccine viruses with a high HA antigen yield (HAY) are preferable for manufacturing vaccines, particularly vaccines in response to a pandemic, when vaccines need to be rapidly produced. However, the viral properties associated with a high HAY have not yet been fully clarified. To identify the HAY-associated traits, we first propagated 26 H5 candidate vaccine viruses (CVVs) in eggs, which were previously developed based on genetic reassortment methods using master viruses, to determine their total protein yield (TPY), ratio of HA to total viral protein (%-HA content) and HAY. The results revealed that the HAY was correlated with the TPY but not with the %-HA content. We further found that altering the sequences of the 3' noncoding region of HA vRNA or replacing the master virus improved the HAYs and TPYs of the low-HAY CVVs to approximately double the values of the original CVVs but did not change the %-HA content, which a previous study suggested was associated with the HAY. Analyses based on real-time PCR assays and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the virus samples with an improved HAY contained more copies of the virus genome and viral particles than the original samples. The results suggest that an improvement in virus growth (i.e., an increase in the amount of viral particles) leads to an increase in the TPY and thus in the HAY, regardless of the %-HA content. The approximately twofold increase in the HAY shown in this study may not appear to represent a large improvement, but the impact will be significant given the millions of chicken eggs used to produce vaccines. These findings will be informative for developing high-HAY vaccine viruses.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza , Orthomyxoviridae , Animais , Hemaglutininas/genética , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza , Galinhas , Anticorpos Antivirais
17.
Toxins (Basel) ; 15(1)2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36668868

RESUMO

The estrogenic mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) is a common contaminant of animal feed. Effective strategies for the inactivation of ZEN in feed are required. The ZEN-degrading enzyme zearalenone hydrolase ZenA (EC 3.1.1.-, commercial name ZENzyme®, BIOMIN Holding GmbH, Getzersdorf, Austria) converts ZEN to hydrolyzed ZEN (HZEN), thereby enabling a strong reduction in estrogenicity. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of ZenA added to feed to degrade ZEN in the gastrointestinal tract of three monogastric animal species, i.e., pigs, chickens, and rainbow trout. For each species, groups of animals received (i) feed contaminated with ZEN (chickens: 400 µg/kg, pigs: 200 µg/kg, rainbow trout: 2000 µg/kg), (ii) feed contaminated with ZEN and supplemented with ZenA, or (iii) uncontaminated feed. To investigate the fate of dietary ZEN in the gastrointestinal tract in the presence and absence of ZenA, concentrations of ZEN and ZEN metabolites were analyzed in digesta of chickens and rainbow trout and in feces of pigs. Upon ZenA administration, concentrations of ZEN were significantly decreased and concentrations of the degradation product HZEN were significantly increased in digesta/feces of each investigated animal species, indicating degradation of ZEN by ZenA in the gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, upon addition of ZenA to the diet, the concentration of the highly estrogenic ZEN metabolite α-ZEL was significantly reduced in feces of pigs. In conclusion, ZenA was effective in degrading ZEN to HZEN in the gastrointestinal tract of chickens, pigs, and rainbow trout, and counteracted formation of α-ZEL in pigs. Therefore, ZenA could find application as a ZEN-degrading feed additive for these animal species.


Assuntos
Micotoxinas , Oncorhynchus mykiss , Zearalenona , Suínos , Animais , Zearalenona/metabolismo , Oncorhynchus mykiss/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise
18.
Genet Sel Evol ; 55(1): 5, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36670351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In poultry, the population structure of local breeds is usually complex mainly due to unrecorded breeding. Local chicken breeds offer an interesting proxy to understand the complexity of population structure in the context of human-mediated development of diverse morphologies and varieties. We studied 37 traditional Dutch chicken breeds to investigate population structure and the corresponding genomic impact using whole-genome sequence data. RESULTS: Looking at the genetic differences between breeds, the Dutch chicken breeds demonstrated a complex and admixed subdivided structure. The dissection of this complexity highlighted the influence of selection adhering to management purposes, as well as the role of geographic distance within subdivided breed clusters. Identification of signatures of genetic differentiation revealed genomic regions that are associated with diversifying phenotypic selection between breeds, including dwarf size (bantam) and feather color. In addition, with a case study of a recently developed bantam breed developed by crossbreeding, we provide a genomic perspective on the effect of crossbreeding. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the complex population structure of local traditional Dutch chicken, and provides insight into the genomic basis and the factors involved in the formation of this complexity.


Assuntos
Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Aves Domésticas , Animais , Humanos , Aves Domésticas/genética , Genômica , Hibridização Genética , Galinhas/genética , Geografia
19.
Biomolecules ; 13(1)2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36671539

RESUMO

The current study aimed to monitor the impact of H2O2-induced oxidative stress on avian bone formation during the early stage of embryonic development. Fertilized Cobb broiler eggs were divided into five treatment groups and micro-injected with varying concentrations of H2O2, i.e., control (PBS; 0 nM), 10 nM, 30 nM, 100 nM, and 300 nM, on embryonic day 3, with continued incubation thereafter. The treatment concentrations were selected based on the level of lipid peroxidation and the survival rate of embryo. Embryos were collected at 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h post-injection. The mRNA expression levels of apoptotic markers, antioxidant enzymes, and early bone formation gene markers were measured. The results showed that the microinjection of H2O2 altered the expression pattern of antioxidant enzymes' mRNA during early embryogenesis and decreased the expression of COL1A2 and COL2A1 at 6 h and 24 h post-injection. Decreased expression of BMP, BGLAP, and RUNX2 was observed 48 h post-injection. Additionally, a shorter embryo length was observed in the 100 nM and 300 nM H2O2 treatment groups 72 h post-injection. In conclusion, H2O2-induced oxidative stress suppressed the expression of bone formation gene markers, with chronic effects on avian embryonic development.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Galinhas , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Osteogênese , Estresse Oxidativo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
20.
Genes (Basel) ; 14(1)2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36672882

RESUMO

Egg production is a vital biological and economic trait for poultry breeding. The 'hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis' determines the egg production, which affects the layer hens industry income. At the organism level, the HPO axis is influenced by the factors related to metabolic and nutritional status, environment, and genetics, whereas at the cellular and molecular levels, the HPO axis is influenced by the factors related to endocrine and metabolic regulation, cytokines, key genes, signaling pathways, post-transcriptional processing, and epigenetic modifications. MiRNAs and lncRNAs play a critical role in follicle selection and development, atresia, and ovulation in layer hens; in particular, miRNA is known to affect the development and atresia of follicles by regulating apoptosis and autophagy of granulosa cells. The current review elaborates on the regulation of the HPO axis and its role in the laying performance of hens at the organism, cellular, and molecular levels. In addition, this review provides an overview of the interactive network regulation mechanism of the HPO axis in layer hens, as well as comprehensive knowledge for successfully utilizing their genetic resources.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Ovário , Feminino , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Ovário/fisiologia , Folículo Ovariano/metabolismo , Ovulação , Células da Granulosa
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