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1.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 831, 2022 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36357831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Each day, an estimated 800 women die from preventable pregnancy and childbirth related complications, where 99% of these avoidable deaths happen in low-and middle-income countries. Skilled attendance during antenatal care (ANC) plays a role in reducing maternal and child mortality. However, the factors that predict the utilisation of skilled ANC services in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains sparsely investigated. Therefore, we examined women's utilisation of skilled ANC services in SSA. METHODS: The research used pooled data from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 32 countries in SSA between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2019. Binary logistic regression was used to examine the predictors of skilled ANC services utilisation. The results are presented as crude and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: The prevalence of skilled ANC services utilisation in SSA was 76.0%, with the highest and lowest prevalence in Gambia (99.2%) and Burundi (8.4%), respectively. Lower odds of ANC from skilled providers was found among women aged 45-49 compared to those aged 20-24 (aOR = 0.86, CI = 0.79-0.94); widowed women compared to married women (aOR = 0.84, CI = 0.72-0.99); women who consider getting permission to visit the health facility as a big problem compared to those who consider that as not a big problem (aOR = 0.74, CI = 0.71-0.77); women who consider getting money needed for treatment as not a big problem compared to those who consider that as a big problem (aOR = 0.84, CI = 0.72-0.99); and women who consider distance to the health facility as a big problem compared to those who consider that as not a big problem (aOR = 0.75, CI = 0.72-0.77). CONCLUSION: SSA has relatively high prevalence of skilled ANC services utilisation, however, there are substantial country-level disparities that need to be prioritised. Increasing maternal reproductive age being widowed and far distance to health facility were factors that predicted lower likelihood of skilled ANC services utilisation. There is, therefore, the need to intensify female formal education, invest in community-based healthcare facilities in rural areas and leverage on the media in advocating for skilled ANC services utilisation.


Assuntos
Utilização de Instalações e Serviços , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Criança , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Instalações de Saúde , Mortalidade da Criança , Razão de Chances , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos
2.
Global Health ; 18(1): 84, 2022 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36224610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aligns with Sustainable Development Goal 3 which borders on "good health and well-being for people by ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all at all ages". It contributes to the health literature by evaluating the roles of health expenditures and educational quality on three health outcomes (infant mortality, maternal mortality and life expectancy at birth). METHODS: The study uses the panel spatial correlation consistent (PSCC) approach on balanced panel data on 25 selected sub-Saharan African countries from 2000 to 2020 to interrogate the nexus. RESULTS: The following findings are documented. First, health expenditures reveal significant asymmetric quadratic effects on health outcomes. Second, the interactions between health expenditures and educational quality reduce infant and maternal mortalities while enhancing life expectancy. Third, the threshold points from the interaction effects indicate that enhancing educational quality beyond some critical thresholds of 1.51 and 1.49 can induce a drop in maternal and child mortalities while a point beyond 1.84 exerts an improvement in life expectancy. CONCLUSIONS: Hence, policy makers should ensure that both health expenditures and educational quality exceed the established thresholds for sustainable health outcomes.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde , Expectativa de Vida , Criança , Mortalidade da Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde
3.
Soc Sci Med ; 314: 115459, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36302297

RESUMO

What explains variation across countries in the effect of democratization on child mortality rates? Democratic transitions, on average, improve health outcomes but there is substantial variation across countries in whether democratization leads to lower-than-expected child mortality post-transition. As yet, there is no convincing quantitative explanation for this variation. In this paper, we argue that whether you have a protest-led or violence-led democratic transition alters the trajectory of child mortality post-transition. Our paper makes two contributions. First, we offer a more detailed account of how the type of resistance movement promoting regime change affects health post-transition. We also draw on novel data to categorise the movements producing democratic transitions as violent or peaceful, moving beyond earlier work which operationalised peaceful democratizations in terms of battle-related deaths. Second, we extend earlier research by examining whether the nature of the democratization movement constitutes a necessary cause of higher or lower-than-expected child mortality following democratization. Across 51 transitions, countries that have a protest-led transition have lower-than-expected child mortality rates after the transition to democracy than countries with other kinds of movements (ß = -0.17, p = 0.003). Countries with violence-led transitions, meanwhile, have, on average, higher-than-expected child mortality rates after their transition (ß = 0.20, p = 0.001). These associations hold when we adjust for covariates (including all possible combinations of various confounding variables). We also find evidence that protest-led transitions may be a necessary condition for avoiding increased child mortality post-transition. Finally, we conduct a deviant case analysis of transitions that appear to be contrary to our theory, finding that these cases are likely instances of measurement error. Democratization may not always improve health, but such health improvements are more likely when regime change is protest-led. This is because such movements are more likely to build broad coalitions committed to consensual politics post-transition, a critical feature of successful democracies.


Assuntos
Mortalidade da Criança , Política , Criança , Humanos , Violência , Democracia
4.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275659, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36197924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, under-five mortality rates have dropped, but in Ethiopia, the under-five mortality rate is still high. In Amhara region, the death of children under the age of five is still a public health problem. This study assessed the risk factors of mortality among children under age five in Awi Zone. METHOD: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from December 1, 2020, up to April 30, 2021. Data entry and analysis were conducted using SPSS version 26 and Stata version 16, respectively. A zero-inflated Poisson regression model was fitted to identify the risk factors of under-five mortality. RESULT: Out of the 1,340 mothers in the Awi zone, 11.9% of women lost at least one child. Single births (IRR = 0.598, 95% CI: 0.395, 0.906), fathers whose level of education is secondary or above(IRR = 0.223, 95% CI: 0.064, 0.782), mothers who completed their secondary and above education level(IRR = 0.116, 95% CI: 0.014, 0.971), mothers who have birth interval greater than 24 months (IRR = 0.619,95% CI: 0.417, 0.917), 8 and above family size the households (IRR = 0.543, 95% CI: 0.302, 0.976), 31 and above mother age groups (IRR = 0.296, 95% CI: 0.093, 0.943), medium households of mothers (IRR = 0.540, 95% CI: 0.316, 0.920), working mothers (IRR = 1.691, 95% CI: 1.040, 2.748) and mothers who had not antenatal visits during pregnancy (IRR = 2.060, 95% CI: 1.259, 3.371) were significant factors of under-five mortality. CONCLUSION: Mother's age group, preceding birth interval, family size, wealth index, duration of pregnancy, antenatal visits during pregnancy, types of birth, mother's education level, husband's education level, and place of delivery were significant factors of under-five mortality in Awi zone. So, Awi zone public health institute, Awi zone children's and youth office, and other relevant bodies should work to reduce under-five mortality by focusing on child mortality issues.


Assuntos
Mortalidade da Criança , Mães , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
5.
Front Public Health ; 10: 967920, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36276367

RESUMO

Introduction: Recent reviews summarize evidence that some vaccines have heterologous or non-specific effects (NSE), potentially offering protection against multiple pathogens. Numerous economic evaluations examine vaccines' pathogen-specific effects, but less than a handful focus on NSE. This paper addresses that gap by reporting economic evaluations of the NSE of oral polio vaccine (OPV) against under-five mortality and COVID-19. Materials and methods: We studied two settings: (1) reducing child mortality in a high-mortality setting (Guinea-Bissau) and (2) preventing COVID-19 in India. In the former, the intervention involves three annual campaigns in which children receive OPV incremental to routine immunization. In the latter, a susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered model was developed to estimate the population benefits of two scenarios, in which OPV would be co-administered alongside COVID-19 vaccines. Incremental cost-effectiveness and benefit-cost ratios were modeled for ranges of intervention effectiveness estimates to supplement the headline numbers and account for heterogeneity and uncertainty. Results: For child mortality, headline cost-effectiveness was $650 per child death averted. For COVID-19, assuming OPV had 20% effectiveness, incremental cost per death averted was $23,000-65,000 if it were administered simultaneously with a COVID-19 vaccine <200 days into a wave of the epidemic. If the COVID-19 vaccine availability were delayed, the cost per averted death would decrease to $2600-6100. Estimated benefit-to-cost ratios vary but are consistently high. Discussion: Economic evaluation suggests the potential of OPV to efficiently reduce child mortality in high mortality environments. Likewise, within a broad range of assumed effect sizes, OPV (or another vaccine with NSE) could play an economically attractive role against COVID-19 in countries facing COVID-19 vaccine delays. Funding: The contribution by DTJ was supported through grants from Trond Mohn Foundation (BFS2019MT02) and Norad (RAF-18/0009) through the Bergen Center for Ethics and Priority Setting.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Poliomielite , Criança , Humanos , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Mortalidade da Criança , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Programas de Imunização , Vacina Antipólio Oral
6.
J Glob Health ; 12: 04080, 2022 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36243953

RESUMO

Background: Millions of children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) experience illness or trauma amenable to emergency medical interventions, but local resources are not sufficient to treat them. Emergency medical services (EMS), including ambulance transport, bridge the gap between local services and higher-level hospital care, and data collected by EMS could be used to elucidate patterns of paediatric health care need and use. Here we conducted a retrospective observational study of patterns of paediatric use of EMS services by children who used EMS in India, a leader in maternal and child EMS development, to inform public health needs and system interventions to improve EMS effectiveness. Methods: We analysed three years (2013-2015) of data from patients <18 years of age from a large prehospital EMS system in India, including 1 101 970 prehospital care records across 11 states and a union territory. Results: Overall, 38.3% of calls were for girls (n = 422 370), 40.5% were for adolescents (n = 445 753), 65.9% were from rural areas (n = 726 154), and most families were from a socially disadvantaged caste or lower economic status (n = 834 973, 75.8%). The most common chief complaints were fever (n = 247 594, 22.5%), trauma (n = 231 533, 21.0%), and respiratory difficulty (n = 161 120, 14.6%). However, transport patterns, including patient sex and age and type of destination hospital, varied by state, as did data collection. Conclusions: EMS in India widely transports children with symptoms of the leading causes of child mortality and provides access to higher levels of care for geographically and socioeconomically vulnerable populations, including care for critically ill neonates, mental health and burn care for girls, and trauma care for adolescents. EMS in India is an important mechanism for overcoming transport and cost as barriers to access, and for reducing the urban-rural gap found across causes of child mortality. Further standardisation of data collection will provide the foundation for assessing disparities and identifying targets for quality improvement of paediatric care.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Adolescente , Criança , Mortalidade da Criança , Dispneia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pobreza , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(10): e2237689, 2022 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36269354

RESUMO

Importance: Although child mortality trends have decreased worldwide, deaths among children younger than 5 years of age remain high and disproportionately circumscribed to sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia. Tailored and innovative approaches are needed to increase access, coverage, and quality of child health care services to reduce mortality, but an understanding of health system deficiencies that may have the greatest impact on mortality among children younger than 5 years is lacking. Objective: To investigate which health care and public health improvements could have prevented the most stillbirths and deaths in children younger than 5 years using data from the Child Health and Mortality Prevention Surveillance (CHAMPS) network. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used longitudinal, population-based, and mortality surveillance data collected by CHAMPS to understand preventable causes of death. Overall, 3390 eligible deaths across all 7 CHAMPS sites (Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, Sierra Leone, and South Africa) between December 9, 2016, and December 31, 2021 (1190 stillbirths, 1340 neonatal deaths, 860 infant and child deaths), were included. Deaths were investigated using minimally invasive tissue sampling (MITS), a postmortem approach using biopsy needles for sampling key organs and fluids. Main Outcomes and Measures: For each death, an expert multidisciplinary panel reviewed case data to determine the plausible pathway and causes of death. If the death was deemed preventable, the panel identified which of 10 predetermined health system gaps could have prevented the death. The health system improvements that could have prevented the most deaths were evaluated for each age group: stillbirths, neonatal deaths (aged <28 days), and infant and child deaths (aged 1 month to <5 years). Results: Of 3390 deaths, 1505 (44.4%) were female and 1880 (55.5%) were male; sex was not recorded for 5 deaths. Of all deaths, 3045 (89.8%) occurred in a healthcare facility and 344 (11.9%) in the community. Overall, 2607 (76.9%) were deemed potentially preventable: 883 of 1190 stillbirths (74.2%), 1010 of 1340 neonatal deaths (75.4%), and 714 of 860 infant and child deaths (83.0%). Recommended measures to prevent deaths were improvements in antenatal and obstetric care (recommended for 588 of 1190 stillbirths [49.4%], 496 of 1340 neonatal deaths [37.0%]), clinical management and quality of care (stillbirths, 280 [23.5%]; neonates, 498 [37.2%]; infants and children, 393 of 860 [45.7%]), health-seeking behavior (infants and children, 237 [27.6%]), and health education (infants and children, 262 [30.5%]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, interventions prioritizing antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal care could have prevented the most deaths among children younger than 5 years because 75% of deaths among children younger than 5 were stillbirths and neonatal deaths. Measures to reduce mortality in this population should prioritize improving existing systems, such as better access to antenatal care, implementation of standardized clinical protocols, and public education campaigns.


Assuntos
Mortalidade da Criança , Morte Perinatal , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Criança , Masculino , Humanos , Gravidez , Pré-Escolar , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Estudos Transversais , Atenção à Saúde
8.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(10)2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36253018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To facilitate mass distribution of azithromycin, trachoma control programmes use height instead of weight to determine dose for children 6 months to 15 years old. WHO has recommended azithromycin distribution to children 1-11 months old to reduce mortality in high mortality settings under carefully monitored conditions. Weight was used to determine dose in children 1-5 months old in studies of azithromycin distribution for child survival, but a simplified approach using age or height for all aged 1-11 months old could increase programme efficiency in real-world settings. METHODS: This secondary analysis used data from two cluster randomised trials of azithromycin distribution for child mortality in Niger and Burkina Faso. An exhaustive search algorithm was developed to determine the optimal dose for different age groups, using tolerance limits of 10-20 mg/kg for children 1-2 months old and 15-30 mg/kg for children 3-11 months old. Height-based dosing was evaluated against the existing trachoma dosing pole and with a similar exhaustive search. RESULTS: The optimal two-tiered age-based approach suggested a dose of 80 mg (2 mL) for children 1-2 months old and 160 mg (4 mL) for children 3-11 months old. Under this schedule, 89%-93% of children would have received doses within tolerance limits in both study populations. Accuracy was 93%-94% with a three-tiered approach, which resulted in doses of 80 mg (2 mL), 120 mg (3 mL) and 160 mg (4 mL) for children 1-2, 3-4 and 5-11 months old, respectively. For children 1-5 months old, the existing height pole would result in 70% of doses within tolerance limits. The optimisation identified height-based dosing options with 95% accuracy, although this would require changes to the existing dosing pole as well as additional training to measure infants lying flat. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, an age-based approach with two age tiers resulted in high accuracy while considering both concerns about overdosing in this young population and simplicity of field operations.


Assuntos
Azitromicina , Tracoma , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Estatura , Criança , Mortalidade da Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Tracoma/tratamento farmacológico , Tracoma/epidemiologia
9.
Sante Publique ; 34(2): 275-287, 2022.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36216638

RESUMO

Introduction : In Haiti, excess mortality among twins is an additional health burden, given that child mortality levels are already very high there. Haiti is the country in the Latin America and Caribbean region with the highest rate of twin births (about 17 ‰). However, there, the excess mortality among twins has been little studied. PURPOSE OF RESEARCH: To identify factors associated with excess mortality among twins. METHODS: With data from the Demographic and Health Surveys, calculation of under-five mortality rates (U5MR) and using a Cox regression to analyze factors associated with excess mortality among twins. RESULTS: Twins have U5MRs that are three times higher than those of singletons. However, these U5MRs fell sharply, but more sharply among twins than singletons. Indeed, between 1994 and 2016, the U5MR for twins decreased by about 53% (from 432 ‰ to 204‰), while for singletons, it was only 36% (from 121‰ to 77‰). The multivariate results show that all else being equal, twins have a 3.3 (2.86-3.87) times higher Hazard Ratio of death than singletons. They also show low birth weight, lack of prenatal visits, and lack of breastfeeding are independently associated with excess mortality among twins in Haiti.Conclusions : The health of twin children remains a major challenge for Haiti. To further reduce their excess mortality, the government has to develop accessible obstetric and pediatric services essential for the care of twin pregnancies.


Assuntos
Mortalidade da Criança , Gêmeos , Criança , Feminino , Haiti , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Fatores de Risco
11.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 8(3): 26740, out. 2022. tab, maps
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1398967

RESUMO

Introdução:As taxas de mortalidade de crianças, em todo o mundo, configuram-se como indicadores da qualidade de vida e saúde em um país. Diante disso, é de extrema importância a análise da mortalidade na infância, no Brasil e regiões.Objetivo:Avaliar a espacialização do coeficiente de mortalidade em crianças entre um e cinco anos no Brasil e seus indicadores sociais e assistenciais de saúde.Metodologia:Trata-se de um estudo ecológico, de tendência temporal e correlação espacial realizado no Brasil, com a população de crianças de 1 a 5 anos, sendo utilizadas informações do Sistema de Informações de Mortalidade. Para a análise, foram usados os softwaresMicrosoft Excel eStatistical Package for the Social Sciences. O TerraViewfoi empregado para realização da distribuição da taxa de mortalidade e a dependência espacial foi medida pelo coeficiente de autocorrelação global de Moran. Resultados:A média do coeficiente de mortalidade na infância, de crianças entre um e menores de cinco anos, apresentou um perfil decrescente no período de 2008 a 2015. Em 2016, no entanto, foi observada uma elevação substancial dos óbitos em crianças na faixa etária estudada. A região Norte e Nordeste do Brasil apresentaram os maiores índices de mortalidade, enquanto que os estados do Sul e Sudeste apresentaram menos óbitos para crianças entre um e menores de cinco anos.Conclusões:Apesar dos pactos criados pelo governo e da ampliação nos serviços de saúde, em específico da atenção básica, os números altos de óbitos, nesta faixa etária,podem ser relacionados com a diminuição da coberturavacinação, assim como pelo alto número de fatores externos (AU).


Introduction:Infant mortality rates all over the world are configured as indicators of life and healthqualityin a country, as this public has special vulnerabilities and needs, associated with the social and economic conditions available to the population. Therefore, it is extremely important to analyze infant mortality in Brazil anditsregions.Objective:Evaluate the spatialization of the mortality coefficient in children agedone to five years oldin Brazil and its social and health indicators.Methodology:This is an ecological, temporal trend and spatial correlation study carried out in Brazil with the population of children aged 1 to 5 years, using information from the Mortality Information System (SIM/DATASUS). For the analysis, Microsoft Excel and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software were used. TerraView was used to perform the mortality rate distribution and the spatial dependence was measured by Moran's global autocorrelation coefficient.Results:The average infant mortality rate for children aged between one and under five showed a decreasing profile in the period from 2008 to 2015. In 2016, however, a substantial increase in deaths ofchildren in the age group studied was observed. The North and Northeast regions of Brazil had the highest mortality rates, while the states inthe South and Southeast had the lowest deathrates for children between one and under five years of age.Conclusions:Despite the pacts created by the government and the expansion of health services, specifically primary care, the high numberof deaths in this age group can be related to the decrease in vaccination coverage, as well as to the high number of external factors (AU).


Introducción: Las tasas de mortalidad infantil, en todo el mundo, se configuran como indicadores de la calidad de vida y salud de unpaís. Por lo tanto, es de suma importancia analizar la mortalidad infantil en Brasil y regiones.Objetivo: Evaluar la espacialización del coeficiente de mortalidad en niños de uno a cinco años en Brasil y sus indicadores sociales y de salud.Metodología: Se trata de un estudio ecológico, de tendencia temporal y de correlación espacial realizado en Brasil con la población de niños de 1 a 5 años, utilizando información del Sistema de Información de Mortalidad. Para el análisis se utilizó Microsoft Excel y elsoftware Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Se utilizó TerraViewpara realizar la distribución de la tasa de mortalidad y la dependencia espacial se midió mediante el coeficiente de autocorrelación global de Moran.Resultados: La tasa de mortalidad infantil promedio de los niños de uno a cinco años mostró un perfil decreciente en el período de 2008 a 2015. En 2016, sin embargo, se observó un aumento sustancial de las muertes de niños en el grupo de edad estudiado. Las regiones norte y noreste de Brasil tuvieron las tasas de mortalidad más altas, mientras que los estados del sur y sureste tuvieron menos muertes de niños entre uno y cinco años de edad.Conclusiones: A pesar de los pactos creados por el gobierno y la expansión de los serviciosde salud, específicamente la atención primaria, el alto número de muertes en este grupo de edad puede estar relacionado con la disminución de las coberturas de vacunación, así como con el elevado número de factores externos (AU).


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Registros de Mortalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Criança , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Indicadores Sociais , Mortalidade da Criança , Cobertura Vacinal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Estudos Ecológicos , Análise Espaço-Temporal
13.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10(10): e1453-e1462, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36113530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Racism is a social determinant of health inequities. In Brazil, racial injustices lead to poor outcomes in maternal and child health for Black and Indigenous populations, including greater risks of pregnancy-related complications; decreased access to antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care; and higher childhood mortality rates. In this study, we aimed to estimate inequalities in childhood mortality rates by maternal race and skin colour in a cohort of more than 19 million newborns in Brazil. METHODS: We did a nationwide population-based, retrospective cohort study using linked data on all births and deaths in Brazil between Jan 1, 2012, and Dec 31, 2018. The data consisted of livebirths followed up to age 5 years, death, or Dec 31, 2018. Data for livebirths were extracted from the National Information System for livebirths, SINASC, and for deaths from the Mortality Information System, SIM. The final sample consisted of complete data for all cases regarding maternal race and skin colour, and no inconsistencies were present between date of birth and death after linkage. We fitted Cox proportional hazard regression models to calculate the crude and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for the association between maternal race and skin colour and all-cause and cause-specific younger than age 5 mortality rates, by age subgroups. We calculated the trend of HRs (and 95% CI) by time of observation (calendar year) to indicate trends in inequalities. FINDINGS: From the 20 526 714 livebirths registered in SINASC between Jan 1, 2012, and Dec 31, 2018, 238 436 were linked to death records identified from SIM. After linkage, 1 010 871 records were excluded due to missing data on maternal race or skin colour or inconsistent date of death. 19 515 843 livebirths were classified by mother's race, of which 224 213 died. Compared with children of White mothers, mortality risk for children younger than age 5 years was higher among children of Indigenous (HR 1·98 [95% CI 1·92-2·06]), Black (HR 1·39 [1·36-1·41]), and Brown or Mixed race (HR 1·19 [1·18-1·20]) mothers. The highest hazard ratios were observed during the post-neonatal period (Indigenous, HR 2·78 [95% CI 2·64-2·95], Black, HR 1·54 [1·48-1·59]), and Brown or Mixed race, HR 1·25 [1·23-1·27]) and between the ages of 1 year and 4 years (Indigenous, HR 3·82 [95% CI 3·52-4·15]), Black, HR 1·51 [1·42-1·60], and Brown or Mixed race, HR 1·30 [1·26-1·35]). Children of Indigenous (HR 16·39 [95% CI 12·88-20·85]), Black (HR 2·34 [1·78-3·06]), and Brown or Mixed race mothers (HR 2·05 [1·71-2·45]) had a higher risk of death from malnutrition than did children of White mothers. Similar patterns were observed for death from diarrhoea (Indigenous, HR 14·28 [95% CI 12·25-16·65]; Black, HR 1·72 [1·44-2·05]; and Brown or Mixed race mothers, HR 1·78 [1·61-1·98]) and influenza and pneumonia (Indigenous, HR 6·49 [95% CI 5·78-7·27]; Black, HR 1·78 [1·62-1·96]; and Brown or Mixed race mothers, HR 1·60 [1·51-1·69]). INTERPRETATION: Substantial ethnoracial inequalities were observed in child mortality in Brazil, especially among the Indigenous and Black populations. These findings demonstrate the importance of regular racial inequality assessments and monitoring. We suggest implementing policies to promote ethnoracial equity to reduce the impact of racism on child health. FUNDING: MCTI/CNPq/MS/SCTIE/Decit/Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation's Grandes Desafios Brasil, Desenvolvimento Saudável para Todas as Crianças, and Wellcome Trust core support grant awarded to CIDACS-Center for Data and Knowledge Integration for Health.


Assuntos
Mortalidade da Criança , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604815, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36046259

RESUMO

Objectives: This study aims to summarize how child mortality-a Sustainable Development Goal stated by the United Nations-has been explicitly addressed in the context of innovations. Methods: A scoping review following the PRISMA-ScR Statement was performed analysing indexed and non-indexed literature. Results: Empirical and non-disruptive innovation in the context of process targeting under-five mortality rate was the main subset of literature included in this article. The increment of literature on innovation in the context of SDGs over the last years denotes its growing importance and even though innovation aiming to reduce child mortality is currently being done, a significant part of it is not published in indexed databases but as grey literature. Conclusion: Empirical, disruptive innovation under a structural approach and empirical, non-disruptive innovation under a project point of view are the main types of innovation addressed in the literature and would be of utmost potential to reduce child mortality rate. A systematic review of the methods used for the measures of evaluation of applied innovations, their quality and results would be of great importance in the future.


Assuntos
Mortalidade da Criança , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Criança , Humanos , Nações Unidas
15.
Glob Health Action ; 15(sup1): 2006421, 2022 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36098950

RESUMO

This paper explains how The Lives Saved Tool (LiST), a computer-based model that estimates the impact of scaling up interventions on stillbirths, maternal, neonatal and child health, can contribute to evaluations of programs being delivered at scale to improve maternal and child health. LiST can be used to estimate the impact of a program in advance, allowing planners to refine, streamline and set appropriate program targets. LiST can also be used to estimate the impact of a program, which is particularly useful given the high costs of measuring changes in population health. Finally, LiST can be used to estimate the relative contributions of different interventions or sets of interventions within programs that are found to have a positive impact. The latest version of LiST allows users to manipulate both utilization and quality of service to generate estimates of effective coverage. In addition, a new, web-based version of LiST is now available, with a simpler and more streamlined interface designed to increase accessibility to beginning users. LiST modeling can help program planners, evaluators and funders respond to core evaluation questions related to program design and impact, providing evidence to support decisions about how best to use available resources to save the lives of women and children.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Mortalidade da Criança , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade Materna , Gravidez , Natimorto/epidemiologia
16.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10(11): e1566-e1574, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the age pattern of under-5 mortality is essential for identifying the most vulnerable ages and underlying causes of death, and for assessing why the decline in child mortality is slower in some countries and subnational areas than others. The aim of this study is to detect age patterns of under-5 mortality that are specific to low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: In this modelling study, we used data from 277 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHSs), 58 Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSSs), two cohort studies, and two sample-registration systems. From these sources, we collected child date of birth and date of death (or age at death) from LMICs between 1966 and 2020. We computed 22 deaths rates from each survey with the following age breakdowns: 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days; 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 18, and 21 months; and 2, 3, 4, and 5 years. We assessed how probabilities of dying estimated for the 22 age groups deviated from predictions generated by a vital registration model that reflects the historical mortality of 25 high-income countries. FINDINGS: We calculated mortality rates of 81 LMICs between 1966 and 2020. In contrast with the other regions of the world, we found that under-5 mortality in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa was characterised by increased mortality at both ends of the age range (ie, younger than 28 days and older than 6 months) at a given level of mortality. Observed mortality in these regions was up to 2 times higher than predicted by the vital registration model for the younger-than-28 days age bracket, and up to 10 times higher than predicted for the older-than-6 months age bracket. This age pattern of under-5 mortality is significant in 17 countries in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Excess mortality in children older than 6 months without excess mortality in children younger than 28 days was found in 38 countries. In south Asia, results were consistent across data sources. In sub-Saharan Africa, excess mortality in children younger than 28 days was found mostly in DHSs; the majority of HDSSs did not show this excess mortality. We have attributed this difference in data sources mainly to omissions of early deaths in HDSSs. INTERPRETATION: In countries with age patterns of under-5 mortality that diverge from predictions, evidence-based public health interventions should focus on the causes of excess of mortality; notably, the effect of fetal growth restriction and infectious diseases. The age pattern of under-5 mortality will be instrumental in assessing progress towards the decline of under-5 mortality and the Sustainable Development Goals. FUNDING: Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development of the National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Mortalidade da Criança , Saúde Global , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Ásia , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Succinatos , Estados Unidos
17.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 11(1): 99, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mass drug administration (MDA) of medications to entire at-risk communities or populations has shown promise in the control and elimination of global infectious diseases. MDA of the broad-spectrum antibiotic azithromycin has demonstrated the potential to reduce childhood mortality in children at risk of premature death in some global settings. However, MDA of antibiotics raises complex ethical challenges, including weighing near-term benefits against longer-term risks-particularly the development of antimicrobial resistance that could diminish antibiotic effectiveness for current or future generations. The aim of this study was to understand how key actors involved in MDA perceive the ethical challenges of MDA. METHODS: We conducted 35 semi-structured interviews from December 2020-February 2022 with investigators, funders, bioethicists, research ethics committee members, industry representatives, and others from both high-income countries (HICs) and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Interview participants were identified via one of seven MDA studies purposively chosen to represent diversity in terms of use of the antibiotic azithromycin; use of a primary mortality endpoint; and whether the study occurred in a high child mortality country. Data were analyzed using constructivist grounded theory methodology. RESULTS: The most frequently discussed ethical challenges related to meaningful community engagement, how to weigh risks and benefits, and the need to target MDA We developed a concept map of how participants considered ethical issues in MDA for child mortality; it emphasizes MDA's place alongside other public health interventions, empowerment, and equity. Concerns over an ethical double standard in weighing risks and benefits emerged as a unifying theme, albeit one that participants interpreted in radically different ways. Some thought MDA for reducing child mortality was ethically obligatory; others suggested it was impermissible. CONCLUSIONS: Ethical challenges raised by MDA of antibiotics for childhood mortality-which span socio-cultural issues, the environment, and effects on future generations-require consideration beyond traditional clinical trial review. The appropriate role of MDA also requires attention to concerns over ethical double standards and power dynamics in global health that affect how we view antibiotic use in HICs versus LMICs. Our findings suggest the need to develop additional, comprehensive guidance on managing ethical challenges in MDA.


Assuntos
Mortalidade da Criança , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Criança , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
18.
J Glob Health ; 12: 04070, 2022 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36057919

RESUMO

Methods: Eight databases, PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, Popline, and Maternity and Infant Care, were searched, covering the period of January 2000 to January 2022. Studies that had examined the association between SBI and any form of child mortality were included. The findings of the included studies were summarized through fixed-effects or random-effects meta-analysis and the model was selected based on the heterogeneity index. Results: A total of 51 studies were included. Of them, 19 were conducted in Ethiopia, 10 in Nigeria and 7 in Bangladesh. Significant higher likelihoods of stillbirth (odds ratio (OR) = 2.11; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.32-3.38), early neonatal mortality (OR = 1.58; 95% CI = 1.04-2.41), perinatal mortality (OR = 1.71; 95% CI = 1.32-2.21), neonatal mortality (OR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.68-2.04), post-neonatal mortality (OR = 3.01; 95% CI = 1.43-6.33), infant mortality (OR = 1.92; 95% CI = 1.77-2.07), child mortality (OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.27-2.19) and under-five mortality (OR = 1.95; 95% CI = 1.56-2.44) were found among babies born in short birth intervals than those who born in normal intervals. Conclusions: SBI significantly increases the risk of child mortality in LMICs. Programmes to reduce pregnancies in short intervals need to be expanded and strengthened. Reproductive health interventions aimed at reducing child mortality should include proper counselling on family planning, distribution of appropriate contraceptives and increased awareness of the adverse effects of SBI on maternal and child health.


Assuntos
Intervalo entre Nascimentos , Mortalidade da Criança , Criança , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez
19.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274160, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Use of insecticide treated nets (ITN), one of the most cost-effective malaria interventions contributes to malaria cases averted and reduction in child mortality. We explored the use of ITN in children under five (CU5) and children of school age to understand factors contributing to ITN use. METHODS: A cross-sectional study analyzed 2018 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data. The outcome variable was CU5 or children of school age who slept under ITN the night before the survey. Independent variables include child sex, head of household's sex, place of residence, state, household owning radio and television, number of household members, wealth quintile, years since ITN was obtained and level of malaria endemicity. Multi-level logistic regression model was used to access factors associated with ITN use among children. RESULTS: In total, 32,087 CU5 and 54,692 children of school age were examined with 74.3% of CU5 and 57.8% of children of school age using ITN the night before the survey. While seven states had more than 80% of CU5 who used ITN, only one state had over 80% of school children who used ITN. ITN use in CU5 is associated with living in rural area (aOR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.26) and residing in meso endemic area (aOR = 3.1, 95% CI 2.89 to 3.54). While In children of school age, use of ITN was associated with female headed households (aOR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.19), meso (aOR = 3.17, 95% CI 2.89 to 3.47) and hyper (aOR = 14.9, 95% CI 12.99 to 17.07) endemic areas. Children residing in larger households were less likely to use ITN. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated increased use of ITN in CU5 from poor households and children living in rural and malaria endemic areas. Findings provide some policy recommendations for increasing ITN use in school children.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Criança , Mortalidade da Criança , Estudos Transversais , Análise de Dados , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia
20.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 58(11): 2023-2033, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35916209

RESUMO

AIM: The main objective of the study was to identify factors associated with neonatal, post-neonatal and child mortality. The study also investigated breastfeeding status as a time-dependent variable. METHODS: The 2016-2017 Haitian Demographic and Health Survey was analysed. The analysis was done on 6530 live births. Time-constant and time-dependent multivariable Royston-Parmar spline models were used to identify associated factors for all three age groups. Restricted mean survival times were calculated for the different levels of the breastfeeding variable for each age group. RESULTS: Neonates and post-neonates who were not breastfed were associated with increased mortality, hazard ratio (HR) 22.13 (95% confidence interval (CI), 16.40-29.87) and HR 4.99 (95% CI, 3.29-7.56), respectively. Males in the child age group were associated with increased mortality, HR 2.04 (95% CI, 1.29-3.23) and HR 2.03 (95% CI, 1.28-3.21) under the time-constant and time-dependent models, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Early initiation of breastfeeding and breastfeeding throughout the post-neonatal period is recommended. Outreach programmes that provide support and education for vulnerable families are also recommended.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Mortalidade da Criança , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Haiti/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Infantil , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
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