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1.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 609, 2022 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35864474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The concurrent use of anticholinergics and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (ACHEIs) in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with dementia should be avoided because the opposing pharmacological actions of both drugs reduce the treatment efficacy. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of the concurrent use of these two types of drugs in Korean patients. METHODS: In the 2017 Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service-National Aged Patient Sample data, comprising insurance claims records for a 10% random sample of patients aged ≥ 65 years in Korea, "concurrent use" was defined as the overlapping of anticholinergic and ACHEI doses for at least 2 months. RESULTS: Among 8,845 PD patients with dementia, 847 (9.58%) were co-administered anticholinergics, used to treat the motor symptoms of PD, and ACHEIs for a mean duration of 7.7 months. A total of 286 (33.77% of all co-administered) patients used both drug types concurrently all year. About 80% of concurrent users were prescribed each drug by the same prescriber, indicating that coadministration may not be due to a lack of information sharing between providers. Logistic regression analysis showed that patients mainly treated at clinics (odds ratio (OR), 1.541; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.158-2.059), hospitals (OR, 2.135; 95% CI, 1.586-2.883), and general hospitals (OR, 1.568; 95% CI, 1.221-2.028) were more likely to be co-prescribed anticholinergics and ACHEIs than those mainly treated at tertiary-care hospitals. PD patients with dementia treated at healthcare organizations located in areas other than the capital city had an approximately 22% higher risk of concurrent use (OR: 1.227, 95% CI: 1.046-1.441). CONCLUSIONS: The concurrent use of anticholinergics for the motor symptoms of PD and ACHEIs in elderly Korean PD patients with dementia cannot be ignored, and strategies that mitigate potentially inappropriate concurrent drug use are required.


Assuntos
Demência , Doença de Parkinson , Acetilcolinesterase/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Colinesterase/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/tratamento farmacológico , Demência/epidemiologia , Humanos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia , Prevalência
2.
Int Urogynecol J ; 33(8): 2299-2306, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35779110

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: We aimed to reveal the effectiveness of the combination of behavioral therapy (BT), drug therapy, and pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) in patients with the diagnosis of overactive bladder (OAB) who did not respond to drug therapy. METHODS: Seventy female patients aged between 18 and 65 years diagnosed with wet-type OAB, who did not respond to drug therapy, were included in our study, which was planned as a prospective randomized controlled trial. The patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups. BT and a combination of anticholinergic + beta3-agonist was implemented in the control group for 12 weeks. BT and PFMT were applied with a combination of anticholinergic + beta3-agonist in the active therapy group for 12 weeks. Post-treatment changes in OAB, ICIQ-SF scores, and frequency and nocturia were compared. RESULTS: The age and BMI averages of the groups were similar (p>0.01). After the treatment, no significant decrease was observed in OAB scores in the control group (p = 0.06), but a significant decrease was observed in the active therapy group (p<0.01). The mean ICIQ-SF scores and the number of nocturia were found to decrease in both groups after 12 weeks of treatment (p<0.01). There was no significant decrease in frequency in the control group (p = 0.054). It regressed significantly in the active therapy group (p<0.01). After the treatment, 3 of 30 the patients in control group (10%) and 11 of the 32 patients in the active therapy group (34.3%) said that their complaints had regressed and that they were pleased with their current situation. Although after the treatment, 4 patients in the control group were dry (13.3%), 10 patients in the active therapy group were dry (31.25%). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that drug therapy, BT, and PFMT, which are recommended in the first-line treatment of OAB reduce the need for invasive treatments when they are well explained to the patients and combined.


Assuntos
Noctúria , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noctúria/tratamento farmacológico , Diafragma da Pelve , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
3.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270639, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35802701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delirium is a brain dysfunction syndrome, which children have a higher incidence. At present, there have been more and more studies and reports on delirium in paediatric intensive care unit, but there are some differences in the risk factor results among different studies. To better manage delirium, this study was performed. OBJECTIVE: To integrate and clarify the risk factors for delirium in paediatric intensive care unit. METHODS: CNKI, CBMdisc, Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, VIP, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, JBI and PsycInfo were searched for relevant literature. The study subjects were patients in PICU and literature was included according to the PICOS principle. Literature screening and risk of bias assessment were mainly completed by two researchers, and RevMan 5.3 software and Stata software were used for data analysis. The GRADE systerm was used to assess the quality of evidence. RESULTS: A total of 10 studies were included, all in English, involving 4343 children. Within the GRADE system, 4 indicators were scored A, 1 indicators were scored B, and 3 indicators were scored C regarding evidence levels. Three studies analysed the influence of developmental delay on the occurrence of delirium in PICU, total sample size of which was 1823, and the results showed that the combined effect was statistically significant [OR = 3.34, 95%CI(2.46-4.53), Z = 7.75, P<0.001]; Five studies analysed the effects of mechanical ventilation on the occurrence of delirium in PICU, sample size of which was 1562, and the results showed that the combined effect was statistically significant [OR = 4.11, 95%CI(3.13-5.40), Z = 10.16, P<0.001]; Two studies analysed the effects of benzodiazepines on children developing delirium, sample size of which was 1635, and the results showed that the combined effect was statistically significant [OR = 5.05, 95%CI(3.65-6.97), Z = 9.83, P<0.001]; Two studies analysed the effects of anticholinergic drug use on children developing delirium in PICU, sample size of which was 1703, and the results suggested the combined effect was statistically significant [OR = 5.04, 95%CI (3.62-7.00), Z = 9.63, P<0.001]; Two studies compared the same age period, sample size of which was 1724 and the results showed that children 2-5 years old has a 48% incidence rate of delirium relative to children younger than 2 years old, and the combined effect was statistically significant [OR = 0.48, 95%CI(0.25-0.92), Z = 2.22, P = 0.030], children 5-13 years old has a 39% incidence rate of delirium relative to children younger than 2 years old, and the combined effect was statistically significant [OR = 0.39, 95%CI(0.26-0.59), Z = 4.43, P<0.001]. Two studies analysed the effects of PICU LOS on children developing delirium and the combined effect of PICU LOS on the occurrence of delirium in children in PICU was statistically significant [OR = 1.10, 95%CI(1.05-1.15), Z = 4.07, P<0.001]. CONCLUSION: Developmental delay, mechanical ventilation, benzodiazepine use, anticholinergic use, age and PICU length of stay are independent risk factors for delirium in children in PICU. However, only a few articles were included in this study, which may lead to a certain bias and affect the analysing results. More large-sample, multicentre studies should be conducted to further explore and clarify the independent influencing factors of delirium in children in PICU and to provide guidance for clinical practice.


Assuntos
Delírio , Adolescente , Benzodiazepinas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Antagonistas Colinérgicos , Delírio/diagnóstico , Delírio/epidemiologia , Delírio/etiologia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco
4.
Drugs Aging ; 39(7): 573-585, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35655061

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate how potentially inappropriate medication usage and anti-dementia drug use change from 3 years prior to, up until 3 years post-diagnosis of major neurocognitive disorders among older people living in Sweden. METHODS: People registered in the Swedish registry for cognitive/dementia disorders from 1 July, 2008 to 31 December, 2017, and aged 68 years or older at diagnosis, were included (n = 67,226). Data were combined with the Swedish Prescribed Drug Registry to obtain information about drugs collected in 6-month periods at Swedish pharmacies from 3 years pre-diagnosis until 3 years post-diagnosis. Potentially inappropriate medications were identified according to Swedish national guidelines. A generalised estimating equation regression model and estimated marginal means were used. RESULTS: Of the 67,226 people included in the study population, 59.2% were women and the mean age ± standard deviation was 81.5 ± 6.4 years, 47.0% lived together with a spouse or partner, and 88.9% were living at home at the time of diagnosis. The proportions of people using potentially inappropriate medications continuously decreased pre- and post-diagnosis, except for antipsychotic drug use, which continuously increased both pre- and post-diagnosis. Moreover, anticholinergic drug use increased pre-diagnosis and declined post-diagnosis. When comparing the periods pre- and post-diagnosis date, the adjusted proportion of people using potentially inappropriate medications was significantly lower post-diagnosis compared with pre-diagnosis, except for the adjusted proportion using antipsychotics, which was significantly higher post-diagnosis, 10.6%, compared with the period before, 3.1% (adjusted odds ratio 3.71; 95% confidence interval 3.59-3.83). The adjusted proportion of people using anticholinergic drugs was significantly lower post-diagnosis, 7.2%, compared with the pre-diagnosis period, 8.9% (adjusted odds ratio 0.80; 95% confidence interval 0.78-0.82). Anti-dementia drug use was significantly higher post-diagnosis, 52.6%, when compared with the pre-diagnosis period, 3.5% (adjusted odds ratio 30.13; 95% confidence interval 29.19-31.10). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the prevalence of people using potentially inappropriate medications decreased and was significantly lower post-diagnosis of major neurocognitive disorders, except for antipsychotics. This indicates that potentially inappropriate medication use should be noticed and reviewed among all older people. The small decrease in the prevalence of anticholinergic drug users and the increasing proportions of people using antipsychotic drugs post-diagnosis are of special concern because of the adverse drug reactions associated with these types of potentially inappropriate medications. Consequently, it is important to identify and regularly question anticholinergic and antipsychotic drug treatment to prevent unnecessary and serious adverse drug reactions among a vulnerable group of people.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Idoso , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Prescrição Inadequada/prevenção & controle , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/tratamento farmacológico , Lista de Medicamentos Potencialmente Inapropriados , Suécia/epidemiologia
5.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 483, 2022 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35658842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidelines highlight the importance of an individualized approach to treatment initiation for Parkinson's disease. Our aim was to investigate initiation of anti-Parkinson medication in Australia from 2013-2018, and to determine factors predicting choice of initial treatment. METHODS: Cohort of new-users (N = 4,887) of anti-Parkinson medication aged ≥ 40 years were identified from a 10% random representative sample of national medication dispensing data from July-2013 to June-2018. Changes in treatment initiation were examined across the whole cohort and stratified by age and sex. RESULTS: Treatment initiation was most frequent with levodopa followed by non-ergot dopamine agonists (DAs) and anticholinergics. Two thirds initiated with levodopa across the study period. Initiation with non-ergot DAs increased from 22 to 27% (rate ratio, RR 1.23, 95% confidence interval, CI 1.02-1.47) and initiation with anticholinergics decreased from 6.9% to 2.4% (RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.21-0.55) from 2013-2018. Among persons aged ≥ 65 years, one third of women and one fourth of men initiated on levodopa. Among women aged < 65 years, rates of treatment initiation with DAs (37%) and levodopa (37%) were similar in 2013/2014 but initiation with DA exceeded levodopa thereafter. Among men aged < 65 years, treatment initiation with levodopa (44%-49%) remained more frequent than initiation with DAs (29%-32%) throughout the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment initiation with levodopa was most frequent among persons aged ≥ 65 years, consistent with current guidelines. Whilst the value of levodopa sparing strategies is unclear, treatment initiation with DA has become increasingly common relative to levodopa among women but not among men aged < 65 years.


Assuntos
Levodopa , Doença de Parkinson , Adulto , Idoso , Antiparkinsonianos/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/uso terapêutico , Agonistas de Dopamina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Levodopa/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia
6.
Dis Markers ; 2022: 4559547, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35769814

RESUMO

Background: General anesthesia (GA) is the core means of surgical intervention, mainly used for analgesia and anxiety relief. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the laboratory and clinical research results during induction of GA. Penehyclidine hydrochloride (PHCD) combined with atropine sulfate (Atr) has the potential to induce GA. However, the role of PHCD combined with Atr during tracheal intubation under GA remains unclear. Objective: The research is aimed at exploring the effects of preoperative PHCD or Atr on adverse reactions (ARs) in patients during tracheal intubation under general anesthesia (GA). Methods: This study retrospectively enrolled 473 patients who underwent surgery under GA induction and divided them into a research group (n = 234) and a control group (n = 239) according to preoperative use of PHCD (with or without). Both groups of patients were given Atr postoperatively and nursing intervention. Anesthesia-related indexes, ARs, and hemodynamics were observed and compared between the two groups. Results: There were no significant differences in anesthesia-related indexes and hemodynamics between the research group and the control group. The incidence of blurred vision and diplopia in the research group was higher than that in the control group. Conclusion: Preoperative PHCD combined with postoperative Atr should be avoided in clinical practice, or Atr rather than PHCD should be used preoperatively, so as to reduce the occurrence of blurred vision, diplopia, and other ARs.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral , Diplopia , Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas Colinérgicos , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acuidade Visual
7.
World J Urol ; 40(7): 1743-1749, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35648199

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Several patterns of urological dysfunctions have been described following spinal cord injury (SCI), depending on the level and the completeness of the injury. A better understanding of the natural history of neurogenic bladder in patients with SCI, and the description of their successive therapeutic lines based on their clinical and urodynamic pattern is needed to improve their management. This study aimed to describe the real-life successive therapeutic lines in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) following SCI. METHODS: We conducted a two-center retrospective review of medical files of patients with SCI followed in two French specialized departments of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation between January 2000 and January 2018. All patients with SCI with a level of lesion bellow T3 and older than 18 years old were eligible. The primary outcome was the description of the natural journey of neurogenic bladder in this population, from the awakening bladder contraction to the last therapeutic line. Survival curves were calculated with a 95-confidence interval using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: One hundred and five patients were included in this study. Most of the patients were young men with a complete SCI lesion. The median time of treatment introduction was 1 and 9 years for anticholinergics and intradetrusor injection of BoNT/A, respectively. Median duration of effect of treatments was 4 and 6 years post-introduction of anticholinergics and BoNT/A, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study describes NLUTD journey of patients with SCI demonstrating the mid-term efficacy of the two first therapeutic lines of NDO management. An improvement of non-surgical therapeutics is needed.


Assuntos
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Bexiga Urinaria Neurogênica , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa , Adolescente , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Paraplegia/complicações , Paraplegia/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/complicações , Bexiga Urinaria Neurogênica/tratamento farmacológico , Bexiga Urinaria Neurogênica/terapia , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa/tratamento farmacológico , Urodinâmica
8.
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(6): 2279-2290, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35649016

RESUMO

The objective of this article was to describe the use of anticholinergic drugs and possible factors associated with their use, in middle-aged adults and in the elderly. This is a cross-sectional study, based on data from a population-based study called VIGICARDIO. All respondents aged 44 or older interviewed in 2015 were included. Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS) was used to determine anticholinergic burden (ACB), categorized as significant (≥3) and non-significant (< 3). Poisson regression was conducted with crude and adjusted analysis to investigate the factors associated with ACB. There was a prevalence of 20.7% of significant ACB among respondents, higher among middle-aged adults (24.1%). After adjusted analysis, significant ACB (≥ 3) remained in the non-elderly age group with polypharmacy and sporadic use of two or more drugs. In the elderly, sporadic use of two or more medications and hospitalization in the last year continued to be associated with significant ACB. The results indicate a higher prevalence of ACB among middle-aged adults, polymedicated and in sporadic use of medications, which suggests that the investigation of the use of anticholinergicsin this age group requires greater attention.


O objetivo deste artigo foi descrever o uso de medicamentos anticolinérgicos e possíveis fatores associados ao seu uso em adultos de meia idade e idosos. Trata-se de um estudo transversal em que foram incluídos todos os respondentes de 44 anos ou mais entrevistados em 2015. Foi utilizada a Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS) para determinação da carga anticolinérgica (CAC), categorizada em elevada (≥ 3) e não-elevada (< 3). Conduziu-se regressão de Poisson com análise bruta e ajustada para investigar os fatores associados à CAC, com cálculo da razão de prevalência (RP) e intervalo de confiança 95% (IC95%). Constatou-se prevalência de 20,7% de CAC elevada entre os respondentes, maior entre adultos de meia idade (24,1%). Após análise ajustada, mantiveram-se associadas à CAC elevada na faixa etária não idosa a polifarmácia e uso esporádico de dois ou mais medicamentos. Nos idosos, continuaram associados à CAC elevada o uso esporádico de dois ou mais medicamentos e internação no último ano. Os resultados indicam maior prevalência de CAC entre adultos de meia-idade, polimedicados e em uso esporádico de medicamentos, o que sugere que a investigação do uso de anticolinérgicos nessa faixa etária demanda maior atenção.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Colinérgicos , Polimedicação , Idoso , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Hospitalização , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
In Vivo ; 36(4): 1847-1853, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35738641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: In clinical practice, constipation is one of the most frequent adverse events caused by drugs for overactive bladder (OAB). The occurrence of constipation greatly deteriorates the patient's quality of life. The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the effects of three commonly used ß3 agonists and anticholinergic drugs on the defecation status in patients with OAB. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the defecation status in patients who received mirabegron, solifenacin, or fesoterodine for OAB. We evaluated changes in the (a) urological parameters using the OAB symptom score (OABSS) and (b) defecation status using the Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS) and constipation scoring system (CSS) following 12 weeks of drug administration. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 165 patients (mirabegron=56, fesoterodine=52, and solifenacin=57). The solifenacin group showed a significant decrease in BSFS (from 3.2±1.0 at baseline to 2.3±12 post-treatment) and an increase in hardened stools (p<0.001). Elimination worsened as assessed by almost all items, and the total modified CSS scores worsened significantly from 4.8±2.6 points at baseline to 8.O±4.8 points after 12 weeks of solifenacin treatment (p<0.001). The mirabegron group showed no changes in any of the CSS items. In the fesoterodine group, the CSS scores for "completeness" and "assistance" increased significantly after treatment (p<0.001 and p=0.013, respectively). CONCLUSION: All three drugs were effective for OAB. Mirabegron had almost no effect on constipation; fesoterodine, an anticholinergic drug, also had hardly any effect on defecation.


Assuntos
Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa , Agentes Urológicos , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/efeitos adversos , Constipação Intestinal/induzido quimicamente , Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Defecação , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Succinato de Solifenacina/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa/induzido quimicamente , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa/tratamento farmacológico , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa/epidemiologia , Agentes Urológicos/efeitos adversos
10.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 417, 2022 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35549672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older patients tend to have multimorbidity, represented by multiple chronic diseases or geriatric conditions, which leads to a growing number of prescribed medications. As a result, pharmacological prescription has become a major concern because of the increased difficulties to ensure appropriate prescription in older adults. The study's main objectives were to characterize a cohort of older adults with multimorbidity, carry out a medication review and compare the pharmacological data before and after the medication review globally and according to the frailty index. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental (uncontrolled pre-post) study with a cohort of patients ≥ 65 years old with multimorbidity. Data were collected from June 2019 to October 2020. Variables assessed included demographic, clinical, and pharmacological data, degree of frailty (Frail-VIG index), medication regimen complexity index, anticholinergic and or sedative burden index, and monthly drug expenditure. Finally, a medication review was carried out by an interdisciplinary team (primary care team and a consultant team with a geriatrician and a clinical pharmacist) by applying the Patient-Centered Prescription model to align the treatment with care goals. RESULTS: Four hundred twenty-eight patients were recruited [66.6% women; mean age 85.5 (SD 7.67)]. The mean frail index was 0.39 (SD 0.13), corresponding with moderate frailty. Up to 90% of patients presented at least one inappropriate prescription, and the mean of inappropriate prescriptions per patient was 3.14 (SD 2.27). At the three-month follow-up [mortality of 17.7% (n = 76)], the mean chronic medications per patient decreased by 17.96%, varying from 8.13 (SD 3.87) to 6.67 (SD 3.72) (p < 0.001). The medication regimen complexity index decreased by 19.03%, from 31.0 (SD 16.2) to 25.1 (SD 15.1), and the drug burden index mean decreased by 8.40%, from 1.19 (SD 0.82) to 1.09 (SD 0.82) (p < 0.001). A decrease in polypharmacy, medication regimen complexity index, and drug burden index was more frequent among frail patients, especially those with severe frailty (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: An individualized medication review in frail older patients, applying the Patient-Centered Prescription model, decreases pharmacological parameters related to adverse drug effects, such as polypharmacy, therapeutical complexity, and anticholinergic and, or sedative burden. The benefits are for patients with frailty.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Multimorbidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antagonistas Colinérgicos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos , Masculino , Revisão de Medicamentos , Polimedicação , Prescrições
11.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 158: 111185, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35594794

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the patient demographics and the efficacy and safety profile of botulinum toxin (BTX) injections for sialorrhea control in patients under the age of three. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review study. Patients under three years of age who received BTX injections for sialorrhea management from 2010 to 2021 were assessed. Patient demographics, comorbidities, medical and surgical histories, indications, BTX injection details, and post injection complications were documented. RESULTS: Forty-nine patients met inclusion criteria. The most common patient under three years of age with sialorrhea to receive BTX injections were white (51.0%) male (51.0%) with congenital (73.5%) and/or neurologic (53.1%) comorbidities. Thirty-six (73.5%) patients were from medically underserved areas/populations. Our patients on average received 1.7 injections, with 44.9% requiring multiple BTX injections. Bilateral parotid and bilateral submandibular glands (four-gland) BTX injections were associated with significant decrease in admissions for pneumonia and cessation of anticholinergics usage (both P < 0.05). Post BTX injections, 15 (30.6%) patients required additional surgeries for sialorrhea control. No adverse outcomes due to BTX injections were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric sialorrhea was commonly associated with congenital and/or neurologic comorbidities and disproportionately impacted medically underserved black patients. BTX injections offered multifaceted benefits for controlling sialorrhea in patients under the age of three. Four-gland BTX injections led to reduction of unnecessary hospitalization, usage of anticholinergics, and additional surgeries for sialorrhea management.


Assuntos
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A , Sialorreia , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/efeitos adversos , Criança , Antagonistas Colinérgicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sialorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Sialorreia/etiologia , Glândula Submandibular , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 22(7): 497-504, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35580868

RESUMO

AIM: To estimate the risk of disability associated with high-risk prescribing, such as polypharmacy and drugs with sedative or anticholinergic properties, using long-term care needs certification as a proxy of incident disability. METHODS: A case-control study nested within a cohort of older adults (89% aged ≥65 years) was carried out between 2014 and 2019 using the combined medical claims and long-term care needs certification database of Tsukuba City, Japan. We identified 2123 cases who received their first long-term care certification, and matched them to 40 295 controls based on age, sex, residential area and observation period (≥36 months). The risk of long-term care needs certification associated with high-risk prescribing exposure 7-30 months before the index month was estimated using conditional logistic regression adjusting for baseline comorbidities and health service use. RESULTS: Polypharmacy (5-9 drugs; adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.32, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.18-1.47), hyperpolypharmacy (≥10 drugs; aOR 1.87, 95% CI 1.57-2.23) and cumulative dose of drugs with sedative or anticholinergic properties (1-364 defined daily dose [DDD]; aOR 1.07, 95% CI 0.97-1.19; 365-729 DDD; aOR 1.25, 95% CI 1.07-1.45; ≥730 DDD; aOR 1.33, 95% CI 1.19-1.62) had dose-response relationships with long-term care certification risks. CONCLUSIONS: High-risk prescribing was associated with the risk of long-term care needs certification in the general older population. Further studies are warranted to examine whether a decrease in prescribing drugs with sedative or anticholinergic properties could reduce the long-term care burden on society. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2022; 22: 497-504.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Colinérgicos , Polimedicação , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Certificação , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Japão/epidemiologia , Assistência de Longa Duração
13.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 31(8): 883-891, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35587029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older adults are at an increased risk of delirium because of age, polypharmacy, multiple comorbidities and acute illness. Antimuscarinics are the backbone of the pharmacological management of overactive bladder. However, the safety profiles of antimuscarinics vary because of their dissimilarities to muscarinic receptor-subtype affinities and are associated with differential central anticholinergic adverse effects. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine delirium risk in new users of oxybutynin and solifenacin in older adults (≥ 65 years). In the secondary analyses, we examined the risk of delirium by type and dose of antimuscarinic. METHOD: We applied a case-time-control design to investigate delirium risk in older adults who started taking oxybutynin and solifenacin. We used a nationwide inpatient hospital data (2005-2016), National Minimum Data Set, maintained by the Ministry of Health, New Zealand (NZ), to identify older adults with a new-onset diagnosis of delirium. Eligible patients were older adults aged 65 at entry into the cohort on 1/1/2006. We used dispensing claims data to determine antimuscarinic treatment exposure. The antimuscarinic included in the study were new users of oxybutynin and solifenacin. These two antimuscarinics are subsidised by the Pharmaceutical Management Agency and are the most frequently used antimuscarinic in NZ. A conditional logistic regression model was used to compute matched odds ratios (MORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In the case-time-control design, we made separate analyses to evaluate the dose-response risk of delirium. RESULTS: We identified 4818 individuals (mean age 82.14) from 2005 to 2015 with incident delirium and were exposed to at least one of the antimuscarinic of interest. The case-time-control matched odds ratio (MOR) for delirium with oxybutynin was (2.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-3.96). Solifenacin was not associated with delirium (0.89 95%CI 0.64-1.23). In the sensitivity analyses, the case-time-control MOR for delirium using a shorter risk period (0-3 days) did not change the results. The dose-response risk of delirium was significant for oxybutynin (0.05, 95%CI 0.02-0.08) but not for solifenacin (-0.01, 95%CI -0.03 to 0.00). In addition, in the subgroup analyses, a statistically significant association of delirium was found for oxybutynin but not for solifenacin in the non-dementia cohort (2.11,95% CI 1.08-4.13) and the dementia cohort (1.25, 95%CI 0.05-26.9). CONCLUSION: The study found that oxybutynin but not solifenacin is associated with a risk of new-onset delirium in older adults. The higher blockade of M1 and M2 receptors by oxybutynin is likely to contribute to delirium than solifenacin, which is highly selective for the M3 receptor subtype. Therefore, the treatment choice with an M3 selective agent must be given due consideration, particularly in those with pre-existing cognitive impairment.


Assuntos
Delírio , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antagonistas Colinérgicos , Delírio/induzido quimicamente , Delírio/tratamento farmacológico , Delírio/epidemiologia , Humanos , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/efeitos adversos , Succinato de Solifenacina/efeitos adversos , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa/induzido quimicamente
14.
Nutrients ; 14(10)2022 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35631262

RESUMO

This study aimed to establish whether anticholinergic load affects the swallowing function of geriatric stroke patients in convalescent stages, as no proven association between the anticholinergic load-based Anticholinergic Risk Scale and the swallowing dysfunction in Japanese patients was known. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on hospitalized older patients undergoing rehabilitation after stroke. The study outcomes included evaluating the patients at hospital discharge using the Functional Oral Intake Scale. To evaluate the effects of an increased anticholinergic load, we used a multivariate analysis to examine whether the change in the Anticholinergic Risk Scale during hospitalization was associated with the outcome. Of 542 enrolled patients, 345 (63.7%) presented with cerebral infarction, 148 (27.3%) with intracerebral hemorrhage, and 49 (9%) with subarachnoid hemorrhage. The change in the Anticholinergic Risk Scale was independently associated with the Functional Oral Intake Scale (ß = -0.118, p = 0.0164) at discharge. Among anticholinergics, the use of chlorpromazine, hydroxyzine, haloperidol, metoclopramide, risperidone, etc., increased significantly from admission to discharge. An increased anticholinergic load was associated with swallowing dysfunction in older patients undergoing stroke rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/efeitos adversos , Deglutição , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
15.
Neurourol Urodyn ; 41(6): 1224-1239, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35537063

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In light of a better understanding of supraspinal control of nonneurogenic overactive bladder (OAB), the prevalence of which increases with age, functional imaging has gained significant momentum. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review on the transition of supraspinal control of OAB with age, the effect of therapeutic modalities, and a coordinate-based meta-analysis of all neuroimaging evidence on supraspinal OAB control in response to bladder filling. METHODOLOGY: We performed a systematic literature search of all relevant libraries in November 2021. The coordinates of brain activity were extracted from eligible neuroimaging studies to perform an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 16 studies out of 241 were selected for our systematic review. Coordinates were extracted from five experiments involving 70 patients. ALE meta-analysis showed activation of the insula, supplementary motor area, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate gyrus, and temporal gyrus with a transition of activation patterns with age, using a threshold of uncorrected p < 0.001. Among young patients, neuroplasticity allows the activation of accessory circuits to maintain continence, as in the cerebellum and temporoparietal lobes. Anticholinergics, pelvic floor muscle training, sacral neuromodulation, and hypnotherapy are correlated with supraspinal changes attributed to adaptability and possibly a substratum of an intrinsic supraspinal component. The latter is better demonstrated by a resting-state functional connectivity analysis, a promising tool to phenotype OAB with recent successful models of predicting severity and response to behavioral treatments. CONCLUSION: Future neuroimaging studies are necessary to better define an OAB neurosignature to allocate patients to successful treatments.


Assuntos
Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa , Encéfalo , Antagonistas Colinérgicos , Humanos , Neuroimagem , Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico por imagem , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa/diagnóstico por imagem , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa/terapia
16.
Curr Urol Rep ; 23(7): 129-141, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35567657

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To evaluate recent literature on combination and novel pharmacologic therapies for overactive bladder (OAB). RECENT FINDINGS: Combination therapies demonstrating greater efficacy than monotherapy include combination anticholinergics, anticholinergic plus ß-3 agonist, and anticholinergic with behavioral modification, percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation, or sacral neuromodulation. Promising novel therapies include new bladder selective anticholinergics, new ß-3 agonists, and gabapentin. OAB is a symptom complex caused by dysfunction in the interconnected neural, muscular, and urothelial systems that control micturition. Although several therapeutic targets and treatment options exist, complete resolution is not always achieved, discontinuation rate for medical therapy is high, and few patients subsequently progress to third-line treatment options. Recent literature suggests combination therapy diversifying therapeutic targets is more effective than targeting a single pathway and novel treatments targeting additional pathways have promising results.


Assuntos
Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/uso terapêutico , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Humanos , Nervo Tibial , Bexiga Urinária , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa/terapia
17.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 21(4): s5-s10, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35389593

RESUMO

Soft drugs, a class of retrometabolic drug design, contain a metabolically sensitive moiety that promotes rapid metabolism to inactive metabolites after exerting activity at its target site. The goal of soft drugs is to reduce systemic toxicity while enhancing local efficacy. Soft drugs have been approved for use in multiple medical specialties, such as the soft corticosteroid loteprednol etabonate for treatment of inflammatory ophthalmic disorders and soft beta-blocker derivatives for treatment of hypertensive emergencies in cardiology. Soft drugs have also found widespread use in the field of dermatology. In the setting of topical drug administration, soft drugs minimize the risk of systemic drug absorption and unwanted side effects. Soft janus kinase caspase 1 (JAK) inhibitors, soft transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV1), and soft estrogens among others have been explored as therapeutic options for a variety of inflammatory and autoimmune dermatologic conditions. The soft anticholinergic sofpironium bromide represents the latest expansion of soft drug use in dermatology for the treatment of primary axillary hyperhidrosis (PAH). A derivative of glycopyrronium, sofpironium bromide consists of a chemically modified structure that allows the drug to undergo rapid hydrolytic deactivation, and thus minimize the significant side effects associated with traditional anticholinergic drugs. Sofpironium bromide has demonstrated efficacy and safety for treatment of PAH in Phase II and Phase III clinical trials in Japan and the United States. Given the promising results from these studies, sofpironium bromide, in addition to other soft drugs under investigation, highlights the growing utility of retrometabolic drug design in dermatology. J Drugs Dermatol. 2022;21:4(Suppl 2):s5-10.


Assuntos
Brometos , Hiperidrose , Brometos/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/efeitos adversos , Desenho de Fármacos , Humanos , Hiperidrose/tratamento farmacológico , Preparações Farmacêuticas
18.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 15(3): 285-294, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35465815

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The use of medications with anticholinergic (ACh) properties is associated with numerous adverse effects especially in older adults. Emerging evidence suggests the presence of long-term effects with ACh use. AREAS COVERED: Our article presents an overview of ACh effects and falls in older individuals including examination of emerging evidence on ACh use and cumulative exposure on short-term and long-term falls risk. The databases CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science were searched for articles published from January 2002 to December 2021. EXPERT OPINION: Anticholinergic side effects include muscle weakness, blurred vision, and mental confusion which are likely to lead to increased falls risk. Many commonly used medications such as beta-blockers, calcium-channel blockers, and antihistamines are now known to have mild ACh properties. With polypharmacy now considered unavoidable in older patients, the cumulative effects of the use of multiple drugs with mild ACh properties may also lead to increased falls risk. The relationship between ACh drugs and falls may also be irreversible as ACh effects may extend beyond the period of drug use, due to cognitive and physical deconditioning following the initial exposure to ACh drugs. Future long-term studies with accurate quantification of cumulative ACh exposure and measurement of actual falls outcomes are urgently required.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Colinérgicos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Acidentes por Quedas , Idoso , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Polimedicação
19.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 353, 2022 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35459128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dementia is a common feature in Parkinson's disease (PD); however, data on dementia treatment patterns in patients with PD are scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of dementia in individuals with PD and to describe the dementia treatment patterns in the Korean elderly population. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study using data obtained from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-Senior Cohort (NHIS-SC) database. The dataset comprised more than 500,000 health insurance beneficiaries from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2015. We estimated the incidence of patients newly diagnosed with dementia during this observational period, compared patient demographics, and analyzed the exposure to anticholinergic drugs among PD patients with (PD + D) and without (PD-D) dementia. Furthermore, the duration to dementia diagnosis and patterns of dementia treatment were evaluated. RESULTS: A cohort of 28,537 patients aged 60 years or older who were diagnosed with PD by the NHIS was established. Within this cohort, 8620 patients were eligible study participants according to strict inclusion/exclusion criteria. Of these individuals, 3879 (45.0%) patients were newly diagnosed with dementia; the incidence of dementia in PD was 15.2 per 1000 person-years. The proportion of women was higher in the PD + D (64.6%) than the PD-D group (58.2%) (P < 0.001); furthermore, the use of anticholinergic medication was greater in PD + D (37.6%) than in PD-D (24.0%) patients. The incidence curves for dementia over time were the steepest during the first year and decreased every year thereafter. Approximately 60% of PD patients were diagnosed with dementia during the first 3 years. Regarding the use of anti-dementia drugs, 2539 (65.5%) of 3879 PD + D were prescribed medication. During the observation period, 1799 (70.9%) patients were prescribed only one type of anti-dementia drug. In this monotherapy group, the most commonly prescribed medication was donepezil (1313[73.0%]), followed by rivastigmine (capsule and patch; 246[13.7%]), memantine (187[10.4%]), and galantamine (53[2.9%]). CONCLUSIONS: In Korea, dementia was observed to occur relatively soon after the diagnosis of PD. Anti-dementia medication was prescribed to approximately 66% of PD + D patients, with the majority receiving donepezil as monotherapy.


Assuntos
Demência , Doença de Parkinson , Idoso , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Colinesterase/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/terapia , Donepezila/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 34(8): 1935-1938, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35416612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a frequent medical complication after stroke. A few studies showed that the use of anticholinergic medication is associated with a higher risk of community acquired pneumonia in the elderly. We aimed to determine if there is any association between anticholinergic medication used before stroke and stroke-associated pneumonia (SAP). METHODS: We analysed prospectively collected data of 675 patients with acute stroke (mean age 71.4 ± 13.3; 53.1% female). We used the Anticholinergic Drug Scale to assess anticholinergic exposure during a month preceding stroke onset. RESULTS: We diagnosed SAP in 14.7% of patients. The use of anticholinergic medication was associated with an elevated risk of SAP (OR 2.56, 95% CI 1.59-4.11, P < 0.01) in univariate analysis. This association remained significant in multivariable analysis adjusted for age, stroke severity, atrial fibrillation, previous myocardial infarction and respiratory tract diseases (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.01-4.22, P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: The use of anticholinergic medication before stroke is associated with an increased risk of SAP.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas , Pneumonia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
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