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1.
Indian J Med Ethics ; VII(4): 315-320, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36398396

RESUMO

Religious beliefs may significantly impact the effectiveness of health policies. In this article, I analyse how Christian theistic beliefs about evil and suffering, in connection with belief in the afterlife, have unreasonable ethical implications in the context of African epistemologies. Further, I contend that such Christian theistic beliefs have a negative impact on health policies, especially during the current pandemic. They prescribe one-size-fits-all approaches, which neglect contextual issues in addressing the pandemic. They also encourage passivity and neglect in the face of suffering. I then offer an alternative inspired by Afro-communitarianism, which I argue is convincing. Given that the theistic view is morally indefensible, I contend that it cannot be a good explanation of the problem of evil.


Assuntos
Cristianismo , Saúde Pública , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Responsabilidade Social , África
2.
Ambix ; 69(4): 341-373, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36317883

RESUMO

Robert Fludd was a thinker full of contradictions. He is famous for his theosophical system and for his experimental chymical constructions as well as for his Galenic medical practices. Furthermore, Fludd had his works published in luxurious folio formats by the publisher Johann Theodor de Bry, and the spectacular etchings and many of the engravings in his books were executed by Matthäus Merian the Elder. Fludd's elaborate explanations of these images reveal him to be a natural philosopher who expressed his thoughts graphically. To what extent, however, were the ideas for the images, and the images in Fludd's books themselves, his own? A discussion of preserved textual and image sources suggests that Fludd can indeed be understood as a chymical thinker and practitioner who contributed to the visual and artisanal episteme of his time. This article demonstrates this interpretation by using both well-known sources and the recently rediscovered, lavishly illustrated, master copy, Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg Frankfurt am Main, MS lat. qu. 15, which served as a template for the section De technica microcosmi historia of Fludd's main work Utriusque cosmi historia.


Assuntos
Livros , Gravuras e Gravação , Cristianismo
3.
Epilepsy Behav ; 137(Pt A): 108979, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36379188

RESUMO

The characteristics of epileptic seizures, especially the fall, the scream, the loss of consciousness, the involuntary movements, and their recovery, confer conceptions of supernatural strangeness. A historical review is carried out on the denominations of epilepsy. Names such as "epilepsy" arise as "being overwhelmed by something"; the relationship with deities and demons; the influence of the stars; the struggle between good and evil in Christianity, or contact with the divine. Other denominations deal with legal aspects as in the case of "morbus comitialis" or "morbus sonticus". The concepts surrounding the denominations can have an impact on the construction of the subjectivity and identity of the affected people. The medical names of epilepsy do not address the social and cultural concepts surrounding the disease, with which the person with epilepsy has lived and still lives.


Assuntos
Cristianismo , Epilepsia , Humanos , Convulsões
4.
J Hist Ideas ; 83(4): 613-627, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36189659

RESUMO

Early modern efforts to justify warfare entailed serious reflection on the relationship between Christianity and nature or natural law. Those working in a Thomist tradition could draw on a concept of natural law as an ethical system distinct from Christianity; others rejected that concept, working instead to show that warfare could form part of the duties of Christians. All sides recognized the tension between the words of Christ and the demands of human political life, especially when it came to defending military activity. That tension produced creative discussions of natural law, political thought, and theology, in the universities and beyond.


Assuntos
Cristianismo , Teologia , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Guerra
5.
J Hist Ideas ; 83(4): 659-670, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36189662

RESUMO

Early modern Europeans organized important reflections on the nature of political society and the justice of warfare around their image of the American Indian. But Jewish parents and children, living in Europe at the mercy of Christian societies and states, also provided Europeans with the occasion to reflect on government and holy war. This article will describe the relevance of Christian theology to the experiences of one Roman Jewish family in the 1640s, before reviewing the place of forced baptism in Scotist thinking on politics in Rome, and establishing the connection between these doctrines and holy war.


Assuntos
Judeus , Teologia , Criança , Cristianismo , Humanos , Judaísmo , Política
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36141506

RESUMO

Abundant research has shown that Christian religiosity inhibits adolescent substance use, especially in communities where most of the population shares the same religious values and beliefs. Due to the lack of empirical research, it is unclear if Christian religiosity has the same inhibitory influence in predominantly secular and religiously diverse societies. This study aims to bridge this gap and thereby improve our understanding of the relationship between Christian religiosity and delinquent behavior in different cultural contexts. Through the analysis of survey data collected from a large probability sample of adolescents in China's special administrative region of Macau, this study found a strong inverse relationship between Christian religiosity and adolescent substance use, despite the predominantly secular nature of Macau society. In contrast, religious commitment among non-Christian youths showed no relationship with substance use. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.


Assuntos
Cristianismo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adolescente , China/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Empírica , Humanos , Religião , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
J Christ Nurs ; 39(4): E64-E71, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048606

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: In May 2021, Texas passed Senate Bill Eight, the Texas Heartbeat Act. The act bans physicians from performing an abortion after a fetal heartbeat is detected and bans nonmedical people from aiding or abetting an abortion in such situations. The act has significant social, economic, political, and ethical impacts for women with unintended pregnancies, for the state of Texas, and for nurses and other providers. A Christian perspective is offered regarding life, abortion, and the need to provide special care and support for women in crisis pregnancies.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Cristianismo , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Gravidez , Texas
8.
J Christ Nurs ; 39(4): E72-E73, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048607

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: In today's difficult and chaotic time, nurses are reminded that their work is a calling from God. When overwhelmed and discouraged, biblical truths in this article may serve as reminders that God is present, carries burdens, comforts, and provides hope. God gives multiple spiritual resources for encouragement and enablement to do his work.


Assuntos
Bíblia , Cristianismo , Humanos
9.
Child Abuse Negl ; 134: 105901, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36162381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clergy perpetrated sexual abuse (CPSA) is a widespread phenomenon, with many consequences for the victims. To the best of our knowledge, no research has focused on the religious consequences for Israeli Jewish religious men who were sexually abused by rabbis in their adolescence or emerging adulthood. OBJECTIVE: To describe the implications of CPSA for the religious faith, practice, and attitude towards rabbis among sexually abused Israeli religious men. METHODS: Based on a constructivist-phenomenological paradigm, semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with eight formerly and/or currently still religious men who had been abused by rabbis. RESULTS: Three main themes regarding religious consequences, emerged from the findings: the impact of CPSA on the religiosity of the victims; the effect of being sexually abused by a rabbi on victims' attitudes toward other rabbis; and the process of finding a new rabbi after the abuse. CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary study opens a window onto the complex nature of this type of sexual abuse and its religious consequences. The unique findings regarding the range of religious implications are not consistent with previous studies about Christian victims. These findings contribute to the understanding of this distinctive form of abuse, for establishing intervention techniques that will assist the victims and for additional research.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância , Clero , Masculino , Adolescente , Humanos , Adulto , Criança , Israel , Judaísmo , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Cristianismo
10.
J Relig Health ; 61(5): 4226-4244, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35963912

RESUMO

The coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19), as a widespread health threat, has triggered an increase in health-related behaviours, both pro-and anti-health, especially with regard to diet and physical activity. One of the factors modifying the intensity of such activities may be the religious doctrine and religiosity with which a person is associated. A total of 1502 people (1147 women) from countries that feature one dominant religion, took part in the study. Participants represented Sunni Islam (Egypt, n = 798), Roman Catholicism (Poland, n = 443) and Orthodox Christianity (Romania, n = 261). The Coronavirus Anxiety Scale, the Eating Attitudes Test and the Inventory of Physical Activity Objectives were used in the study. Fear of COVID-19 is associated with engagement in pro-health activity, although not to such a significant extent as might be expected. The type of religion in question was revealed to moderate this relationship, but the intensity of religiosity was not found to serve as a moderator.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cristianismo , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias , Polônia , Religião , Romênia
11.
J Relig Health ; 61(5): 4155-4168, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36030310

RESUMO

While many have implemented best practices intended to help stem the spread of COVID-19, there are also a substantial number of citizens, both domestically and abroad, who have resisted these practices. We argue that public health authorities, as well as scientific researchers and funders, should help address this resistance by putting greater effort into ascertaining how existing religious practices and beliefs align with COVID-19 guidelines. In particular, we contend that Euro-American scholars-who have often tended to implicitly favor secular and Christian worldviews-should put added focus on how Islamic commitments may (or may not) support COVID-19 best practices, including practices that extend beyond the domain of support for mental health.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Islamismo , Cristianismo , Humanos , Religião
12.
Epilepsy Behav ; 135: 108870, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35988325

RESUMO

The view that epilepsy is caused by demonic possession prevailed throughout the Middle Ages and re-emerges in rare cases of misguided exorcisms even in modern Western societies. This review reflects on the biblical sources of the demonic understanding of seizures and the subsequent marginalization of people with epilepsy. While the development of science led to a decline in beliefs of supernatural causes of seizures, the link between Christianity and epileptology is sustained through recurrent considerations of epileptic phenomena among religious figures. The influence of epilepsy on the legacy of historical persons of Christianity should be regarded with caution because of limited clinical evidence in historical documents. However, it should be acknowledged that religious experiences, as well as general religiosity, can be important in modern-day epilepsy care as they are shown to have psychological, societal, and even clinical implications. Further studies should expand our knowledge on the contemporary importance of the Christian tradition for people with epilepsy.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Santos , Cristianismo/psicologia , Epilepsia/psicologia , Humanos , Conhecimento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Convulsões
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(31): e2200262119, 2022 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35905318

RESUMO

Violence committed by men against women in intimate relationships is a pervasive problem around the world. Patriarchal norms that place men as the head of household are often to blame. Previous research suggests that trusted authorities can shift perceptions of norms and create behavior change. In many settings, a compelling authority on behavior in relationships is religious leaders, who are influential sources of information about proper conduct in relationships and gatekeepers of marriage, but may also uphold traditional gender roles. One way leaders exert their influence is through premarital or couples counseling courses. In this study, we test whether, if given an opportunity to offer a more progressive religious interpretation of gender roles during these courses, religious leaders could motivate men to share power and thereby reduce violence. Building on existing faith networks of Christian religious leaders in western Uganda, we conducted a large pair-matched, randomized controlled trial among 1,680 heterosexual couples in which participants were randomized to attend a 12-session group counseling course or wait-listed. We find that the program shifted power from men to women and reduced intimate partner violence by five percentage points, comparable with more intensive secular programs. These improvements were largest among couples counseled by religious leaders who held the most progressive views at baseline and who critically engaged with the material. Our findings suggest that religious leaders can be effective agents of change for reducing violence.


Assuntos
Cristianismo , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Cristianismo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Masculino , Casamento , Parceiros Sexuais , Uganda
15.
Endeavour ; 46(1-2): 100815, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35717339

RESUMO

Naturalist Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg pioneered research on living and fossil infusoria (including protists and bacteria) since the 1830s by collecting samples from all over the world, thus describing numerous microbes and discussing their effects for the planet and for humankind. This article introduces Ehrenberg as a natural historian of microbes and situates his work in the nineteenth century life sciences with respect to debates about cell theory, evolution, and concepts of disease. I argue that in spite of occurring before these major conceptual innovations of the life sciences, Ehrenberg's work on the diversity of microbes found in earth or air is more exciting than historiography has made it appear so far, especially in light of today's ecological microbiology.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Historiografia , Berlim , Cristianismo
16.
J Relig Health ; 61(4): 3317-3339, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35661957

RESUMO

This paper focuses on the encounter and collision of two different cultural systems in the influx of biomedicine and Protestant Christianity during the 1888 'baby riot' in Seoul, Korea. This research scrutinizes the relationship between religion and medicine in modern Korea to illustrate why Korean people contested against the nexus of Protestant Christianity and biomedicine that had been introduced from the West. For them, biomedicine was not simply a way of treating sickness or disease, but a way in which their bodies were examined and manipulated by placing a new gaze on the human body. These disputes developed due to the significant differences between biomedicine and the traditional perspective that was based on the values of Confucian teachings. The Korean people desired to protect the belief that the human body was a locus of virtue and should be preserved without modification, which was considered as a pivotal part of their social identity. Therefore, people who lacked social and political power tried to express their opposition to the medicine and religion from the West by spreading rumors of cannibalism. Through the spread of the rumors, the people interpreted and manifested that Western medicine was cruel, ignorant, immoral and dehumanizing. This paper states that Koreans were not merely passive recipients of biomedicine and Protestant Christianity, but also appropriated the new medical and religious discourses to maintain their dignity and cultural authority against the current of colonization.


Assuntos
Religião , Tumultos , Cristianismo , Corpo Humano , Humanos , República da Coreia , Seul
17.
18.
J Christ Nurs ; 39(3): 162-165, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35665421

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Recent civil unrest has proven that positive role models are essential to help bridge the nation's racial divide. Nurses are primed to be among these role models as trusted and respected healthcare professionals. Nursing's code of ethics defines nurses' moral obligations to respect all people and advocate for justice. Christian nurses face a higher calling: to love one's neighbors as themselves. This article explores the application of a Christian worldview of Fawcett's metaparadigm of nursing as a foundation for nurses to extend the love of Christ and promote racial healing.


Assuntos
Cristianismo , Ética em Enfermagem , Humanos
19.
J Christ Nurs ; 39(3): 179-185, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35665424

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Spiritual assessment and faith integration are essential components of faith-based graduate nursing education. However, there are limited resources on faith integration in the graduate nursing curriculum. The author provides a framework and examples of application of four major concepts that can assist Christian nurse educators to engage students in transformational integration of faith and learning.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Cristianismo , Currículo , Docentes de Enfermagem , Humanos
20.
Ann Sci ; 79(3): 364-385, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35549988

RESUMO

An important aspect of the nineteenth century debate on the relationship between science and religion concerned the popularity of deterministic views among scientists. An integral part of Comte's positivism, the idea of immutable laws that determined natural and social phenomena became an increasingly prevalent component of scientific perspectives in the Darwinian era. Referring to this tendency as 'scientific fatalism,' critics likened it to Calvinist predestination, which transformed the debate into one involving polemics about different branches of Christianity as well. This paper focuses on a neglected aspect of this debate, namely, the role that references to Islam and Turks played in it. 'Mohammedan fatalism,' already a common theme in justifications of colonialism, promptly became a tool with which to condemn new scientific views. Comparing French, British, and American writings on the topic, the paper illustrates that while there emerged approaches that praised the fatalism of Muslims while making a case for scientific determinism, most scientists and thinkers resorted to condemning the fatalism of Muslims in order to distinguish their views from it. In this respect, the paper demonstrates how political and religious discourses played a significant part in the shaping of scientific discourse in the Victorian era.


Assuntos
Islamismo , Autonomia Pessoal , Cristianismo , Humanos
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