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1.
J Biol Chem ; 297(3): 101068, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375638

RESUMO

The circadian clock controls the expression of nearly 50% of protein coding genes in mice and most likely in humans as well. Therefore, disruption of the circadian clock is presumed to have serious pathological effects including cancer. However, epidemiological studies on individuals with circadian disruption because of night shift or rotating shift work have produced contradictory data not conducive to scientific consensus as to whether circadian disruption increases the incidence of breast, ovarian, prostate, or colorectal cancers. Similarly, genetically engineered mice with clock disruption do not exhibit spontaneous or radiation-induced cancers at higher incidence than wild-type controls. Because many cellular functions including the cell cycle and cell division are, at least in part, controlled by the molecular clock components (CLOCK, BMAL1, CRYs, PERs), it has also been expected that appropriate timing of chemotherapy may increase the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs and ameliorate their side effect. However, empirical attempts at chronochemotherapy have not produced beneficial outcomes. Using mice without and with human tumor xenografts, sites of DNA damage and repair following treatment with the anticancer drug cisplatin have been mapped genome-wide at single nucleotide resolution and as a function of circadian time. The data indicate that mechanism-based studies such as these may provide information necessary for devising rational chronochemotherapy regimens.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Cronofarmacocinética , Relógios Circadianos/fisiologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proteínas CLOCK/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/fisiologia , Fenômenos Cronobiológicos , Relógios Circadianos/genética , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Cisplatino/farmacocinética , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Criptocromos/genética , Criptocromos/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Reparo do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Neoplasias/genética , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
2.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202475

RESUMO

Recently, intermittent fasting, also known as time-restricted eating (TRE), has become a popular diet trend. Compared to animal studies, there have been few studies and inconclusive findings investigating the effects of TRE in humans. In this study, we examined the effects of 8 h TRE on body weight and cardiometabolic risk factors in young adults who were mainly active at night. A total of 33 young adults completed the 8 h TRE for 4 weeks. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis at baseline and every 2 weeks, and blood samples were collected at baseline and week 4. Daily dietary records were logged throughout the intervention period. Participants experienced significant changes in body weight (-1.0 ± 1.4 kg), body mass index (-0.4 ± 0.5 kg/m2), and body fat (-0.4 ± 1.9%) after 4 weeks of TRE. When participants were divided into weight loss/gain groups based on their weight change in week 4, fat mass reduction was significantly higher in the weight loss group than in the weight gain group. Regarding cardiometabolic risk factors, levels of fasting insulin and insulin resistance improved in the weight loss group after intervention, but not in the weight gain group. All subjects showed late-shifted sleeping patterns, but no significant differences in sleep duration, sleep quality, or psychological measures between the two groups. When meal frequency and energy proportion were evaluated, the average meal frequency was 2.8 ± 0.5 and energy proportions of breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks were 4.5, 39.2, 37.6, and 18.5%, respectively; there were no significant differences between the two groups. However, the saturated fat intake at dinner was lower in the weight loss group (3.1 ± 3.2%, 6.0 ± 2.5% respectively). In conclusion, 8 h TRE can be applied as a lifestyle strategy to manage body weight and cardiometabolic risk factors among young adults with late chronotypes.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta/métodos , Jejum/fisiologia , Refeições/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Fenômenos Cronobiológicos , Registros de Dieta , Impedância Elétrica , Ingestão de Energia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Sono/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067821

RESUMO

Biological aging, or the discrepancy between biological and chronological age of a subject (Δage), has been associated with a polyphenol-rich Mediterranean diet and represents a new, robust indicator of cardiovascular disease risk. We aimed to disentangle the relationship of dietary polyphenols and total antioxidant capacity with Δage in a cohort of Italians. A cross-sectional analysis was performed on a sub-cohort of 4592 subjects (aged ≥ 35 y; 51.8% women) from the Moli-sani Study (2005-2010). Food intake was recorded by a 188-item food-frequency questionnaire. The polyphenol antioxidant content (PAC)-score was constructed to assess the total dietary content of polyphenols. Total antioxidant capacity was measured in foods by these assays: trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) and ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP). A deep neural network, based on 36 circulating biomarkers, was used to compute biological age and the resulting Δage, which was tested as outcome in multivariable-adjusted linear regressions. Δage was inversely associated with the PAC-score (ß = -0.31; 95%CI -0.39, -0.24) but not with total antioxidant capacity of the diet. A diet rich in polyphenols, by positively contributing to deceleration of the biological aging process, may exert beneficial effects on the long-term risk of cardiovascular disease and possibly of bone health.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Polifenóis/análise , Adulto , Envelhecimento/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Fenômenos Cronobiológicos , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Itália , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Redes Neurais de Computação , Medição de Risco
4.
Food Funct ; 12(11): 4921-4934, 2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100470

RESUMO

Chronodisruption leads to obesity and other metabolic disorders that can be alleviated by food-derived potential chronobiotics, such as phytomelatonin (PMT), phenolic compounds (PCs) and dietary fiber rich pistachios. Pistachios with (PN + SC) or without (PN) the seed coat were investigated for their in vitro chronobiotic potential since they are one of the main reported PMT sources. Consequently we evaluated the bioaccessibility, permeability, and biosynthesis of pistachio chronobiotics, particularly PMT, during gastrointestinal and colonic fermentation. The maximum in vitro bioaccessibility and apparent permeability (efflux-prone) of PCs, flavonoids and PMT were sample-specific [∼1.3% (both), 27 and 3.4% (PN + SC)], but additional amounts (flavonoids > PCs > PMT) were released under simulated colonic conditions. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs; 38 mM; >50% butyrate, PN + SC > PN) and some metabolites (e.g., indole, benzaldehyde, phenolic acids, and aliphatic/aromatic hydrocarbons) were detected depending on the sample. The predominant pistachio butyrate production during in vitro colonic fermentation can improve chronodisruption and benefit obese individuals. Pistachio's digestion increases the bioaccessibility and intestinal permeability of potential chronobiotics (PMT and PCs) and the biosynthesis of colonic metabolites (SCFAs, among others) also with chronobiotic potential.


Assuntos
Digestão , Fermentação , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Melatonina/farmacocinética , Pistacia/química , Polifenóis/farmacocinética , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Fenômenos Cronobiológicos , Colo/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Melatonina/metabolismo , Nozes/química , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/metabolismo , Permeabilidade , Fenóis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacocinética , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
5.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(18): 2291-2303, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diurnal variation of natriuretic peptide (NP) levels and its relationship with 24-h blood pressure (BP) rhythm has not been established. Obese individuals have a relative NP deficiency and disturbed BP rhythmicity. OBJECTIVES: This clinical trial evaluated the diurnal rhythmicity of NPs (B-type natriuretic peptide [BNP], mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide [MR-proANP], N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP]) and the relationship of NP rhythm with 24-h BP rhythm in healthy lean and obese individuals. METHODS: On the background of a standardized diet, healthy, normotensive, lean (body mass index 18.5 to 25 kg/m2) and obese (body mass index 30 to 45 kg/m2) individuals, age 18 to 40 years, underwent 24-h inpatient protocol involving ambulatory BP monitoring starting 24 h prior to the visit, controlled light intensity, and repeated blood draws for assessment of analytes. Cosinor analysis of normalized NP levels (normalized to 24-h mean value) was conducted to assess the diurnal NP rhythm and its relationship with systolic BP. RESULTS: Among 52 participants screened, 40 participants (18 lean, 22 obese; 50% women; 65% Black) completed the study. The median range spread (percentage difference between the minimum and maximum values) over 24 h for MR-proANP, BNP, and NT-proBNP levels was 72.0% (interquartile range [IQR]: 50.9% to 119.6%), 75.5% (IQR: 50.7% to 106.8%), and 135.0% (IQR: 66.3% to 270.4%), respectively. A cosine wave-shaped 24-h oscillation of normalized NP levels (BNP, MR-proANP, and NT-proBNP) was noted both in lean and obese individuals (prhythmicity <0.05 for all). A larger phase difference between MR-proANP BP rhythm (-4.9 h vs. -0.7 h) and BNP BP rhythm (-3.3 h vs. -0.9 h) was seen in obese compared with lean individuals. CONCLUSIONS: This human physiological trial elucidates evidence of diurnal NP rhythmicity and the presence of an NP-BP rhythm axis. There exists a misalignment of the NP-BP diurnal rhythm in the obese, which may contribute to the disturbed diurnal BP pattern observed among obese individuals. (The Diurnal Rhythm in Natriuretic Peptide Levels; NCT03834168).


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Peptídeos Natriuréticos/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fenômenos Cronobiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
6.
Chronobiol Int ; 38(5): 621-623, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957823
7.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(1): 397-402, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The objective of the present work was to determine to what extent sleep quality may mediate the association between chronodisruption (CD) and metabolic syndrome (MS), and between CD and body composition (BC). METHODOLOGY: Cross-sectional study which included 300 adult health workers, 150 of whom were night shift workers and thereby exposed to CD. Diagnosis of MS was made based on Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Body mass index (BMI), fat mass percentage, and visceral fat percentage were measured as indicators of body composition (BC). Data were analyzed using logistic, linear regression and structural equation models. RESULTS: The odds of health workers exposed to CD to suffer MS was 22.13 (IC95 8.68-66.07) when the model was adjusted for age, gender, physical activity and energy consumption. CD was also significantly associated with an increase in fat mass and visceral fat percentages, but not to BMI. Surprisingly, there was not enough evidence supporting the hypothesis that sleep quality contributes to the association between CD and MS or between CD and BC. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep quality does not mediate the negative effects of CD on MS nor on BC.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Transtornos Cronobiológicos/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado/fisiologia , Adulto , Transtornos Cronobiológicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cronobiológicos/fisiopatologia , Fenômenos Cronobiológicos/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Equador/epidemiologia , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 191: 114438, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545116

RESUMO

Sleep timing is controlled by the subtle interplay between circadian and homeostatic oscillators which, according to their endogenous properties, allow beings to feel spontaneously that it is time to go to bed or wake up in synchrony with the earth's light/dark cycle. In humans, however, social time and nocturnal artificial light modify sleep timing. Our modern lifestyle and artificial nocturnal light delay our bedtime, make us wake up, and lead to a greater intraindividual variability in sleep timing. Depending on the constraints that social time places on us, our sleep timing may be in or out of phase with the internal circadian timing determined by the circadian clock. When a person's social time is out of phase with their circadian time, they may be considered to suffer from circadian disruption or 'social jetlag'. There are interindividual differences in sleep timing that are known as morningness-eveningness preferences or chronotype, e.g. late chronotypes go to bed later. Chronotype may be assessed in terms of differences in kinetic homeostatic sleep pressure, intrinsic circadian period (ICP) and/or phase angle entrainment. In addition, chronotype depends on genetic and age-related factors, e.g. it gets earlier as people grow older. The social time of late chronotype individuals during week days is not adapted to their circadian time, unlike on free days. This results in social jetlag and circadian disruption, which in turn induces a chronic sleep debt due to a late bedtime and an early wake time, which is compensated on free days but only partially. Sleep and circadian clock disruption generally alter cognitive performance (alertness, attention, memory, higher-order executive functions such as response inhibition and decision-making) but their impact remains to be clarified. When subjects adopt their preferred sleep timing, a "synchrony effect" often appears with chronotypes performing better during daytime at optimal than at suboptimal timing (late chronotypes perform better in the evening, early chronotypes in the morning). Evening types appear to be cognitively more vulnerable to suboptimal times than morning types, probably because they have to deal with social jetlag and the "wake effort" period after awakening. Circadian disruption, but not chronotype, may impact attentional/inhibitory performance (more impulsivity and inattention). Strong associations have been found between mood disorders or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and chronotype, with these psychiatric disorders typically being overrepresented in evening types. The association between social jetlag and these psychiatric disorders is less obvious. Social jetlag can be corrected by reducing exposure to evening light, although eveningness may be considered as a lifelong factor predisposing to depression or inattention.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Cronobiológicos/fisiologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Síndrome do Jet Lag/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Sono/fisiologia , Humanos , Síndrome do Jet Lag/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Vigília/fisiologia
10.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 44(1): 150-153, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390544

RESUMO

Bromobenzene (BB) is known to pose a serious threat to human health. We previously demonstrated that BB showed chronotoxicity, that is, daily fluctuations in the severity of hepatotoxicity induced in mice. Although BB showed mild nephrotoxicity, a daily fluctuation was not observed in this toxicity. This might be attributed to the fact that BB-induced chronotoxicity is observed only in the liver and not in the kidneys and that the damage caused by BB is prominent in the liver, masking the daily fluctuation in nephrotoxicity. To confirm these two possibilities, we examined the daily fluctuations in nephrotoxicity due to BB intermediate metabolites that target the kidneys: 3-bromophenol, bromohydroquinone, and 4-bromocatechol. Mice were injected with 3-bromophenol, bromohydroquinone, or 4-bromocatechol intraperitoneally at six different time points in a day (zeitgeber time (ZT): ZT2, ZT6, ZT10, ZT14, ZT18, or ZT22). Mortality was monitored for 7 d post-injection. Mice were more sensitive to the acute toxicity of these metabolites around at ZT14 (dark-phase) exposure than around at ZT2 (light-phase) exposure. Furthermore, mice administered with a non-lethal dose of 4-bromocatechol showed significant increases in the levels of plasma blood urea nitrogen and renal malondialdehyde at ZT14 exposure. Moreover, glutathione peroxidase-4, a ferroptosis indicator, was attenuated at ZT14 exposure. These results indicate the toxicity of BB metabolites was higher during the dark-phase exposure, and demonstrate the reason why the diurnal variation of nephrotoxicity by BB was not observed in our previous report is that renal damage was masked due to severe hepatic damage.


Assuntos
Bromobenzenos/metabolismo , Bromobenzenos/toxicidade , Ritmo Circadiano/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Animais , Fenômenos Cronobiológicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Cronobiológicos/fisiologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR
12.
Acta Neurol Belg ; 121(1): 175-179, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449134

RESUMO

Gait is generally considered an automated process with little or no cognitive input. In most individuals with Cerebral Palsy (CP), walking restrictions may accompany during childhood and adolescence. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of dual task on Gait Velocity (GV) and Cadence (C) in Cerebral Palsied Children with Spastic Hemiparesis or Diparesis (CPCSHD). Fourteen boys, seven girls' spastic hemiparesis children (mean age: 13.33 ± 3.79 years) and twelve girls, nine boys' diparesis children (mean age: 14.44 ± 3.24 years) were included in the study. Forty-two CPCSHD having level 1 or 2 according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) were included in this comparative study. GV was calculated using a chronometer for a 10-m walk on the ground with shoes. Cadence was calculated accounting the number of steps during 1-min walk. Both GV and C tests were performed by each participant with single task first. After the single task, all were asked to perform the dual task carrying a plastic water-filled bottle. There were no significant differences between the hemiparesis and diparesis in terms of demographics data. When children with hemiparesis and diparesis compare each other, no significant differences were found in terms of all the outcome parameters. The results obtained from this study indicate that walking speed and cadence decrease during a dual motor task in CPCSHD (p > 0.05). When hemiparesis and diparesis groups were compared, no difference was found between the groups.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/reabilitação , Marcha/fisiologia , Espasticidade Muscular/reabilitação , Paresia/reabilitação , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia , Adolescente , Paralisia Cerebral/diagnóstico , Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Criança , Fenômenos Cronobiológicos/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espasticidade Muscular/diagnóstico , Espasticidade Muscular/fisiopatologia , Paresia/diagnóstico , Paresia/fisiopatologia
13.
Neuropharmacology ; 182: 108401, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197466

RESUMO

Optic neuritis (ON) is an inflammatory condition of the optic nerve, which leads to retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss. A subset of RGCs expressing the photopigment melanopsin regulates non-image-forming visual system (NIFVS) functions such as pupillary light reflex (PLR) and circadian rhythms. Melatonin is a chronobiotic agent able to regulate the circadian system. We analyzed the effect of ON on the NIFVS, and the effect of melatonin on the NIFVS alterations induced by ON. For this purpose, optic nerves from male Wistar rats received vehicle or bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and one group of animals received a subcutaneous pellet of melatonin or a sham procedure. The NIFVS was analyzed in terms of: i) blue light-evoked PLR, ii) the communication between the retina and the suprachiasmatic nuclei (by anterograde transport, and ex vivo magnetic resonance images), iii) locomotor activity rhythm, and iv) Brn3a(+) and melanopsin(+) RGC number (by immunohistochemistry). Experimental ON significantly decreased the blue light-evoked PLR, induced a misconnection between the retina and the suprachiasmatic nuclei, decreased Brn3a(+) RGCs, but not melanopsin(+) RGC number. A bilateral injection of LPS significantly increased the light (but not dark) phase locomotor activity, rhythm periodicity, and time of offset activity. Melatonin prevented the decrease in blue light-evoked PLR, and locomotor activity rhythm alterations induced by ON. These results support that ON provoked alterations of the circadian physiology, and that melatonin could restore the circadian system misalignment.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Fenômenos Cronobiológicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ritmo Circadiano/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/administração & dosagem , Neurite Óptica/tratamento farmacológico , Neurite Óptica/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Fenômenos Cronobiológicos/fisiologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Implantes de Medicamento , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Locomoção/fisiologia , Masculino , Melatonina/metabolismo , Neurite Óptica/induzido quimicamente , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Opsinas de Bastonetes/metabolismo
14.
Genome Biol ; 21(1): 276, 2020 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183336

RESUMO

Biological rhythms regulate the biology of most, if not all living creatures, from whole organisms to their constitutive cells, their microbiota, and also parasites. Here, we present the hypothesis that internal and external ecological variations induced by biological cycles also influence or are exploited by cancer cells, especially by circulating tumor cells, the key players in the metastatic cascade. We then discuss the possible clinical implications of the effect of biological cycles on cancer progression, and how they could be exploited to improve and standardize methods used in the liquid biopsy field.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Sono/fisiologia , Fenômenos Cronobiológicos , Biópsia Líquida , Neoplasias/genética , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes
15.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1457, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733482

RESUMO

The host defense against pathogens varies among individuals. Among the factors influencing host response, those associated with circadian disruptions are emerging. These latter depend on molecular clocks, which control the two partners of host defense: microbes and immune system. There is some evidence that infections are closely related to circadian rhythms in terms of susceptibility, clinical presentation and severity. In this review, we overview what is known about circadian rhythms in infectious diseases and update the knowledge about circadian rhythms in immune system, pathogens and vectors. This heuristic approach opens a new fascinating field of time-based personalized treatment of infected patients.


Assuntos
Relógios Biológicos/imunologia , Fenômenos Cronobiológicos/imunologia , Ritmo Circadiano/imunologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/imunologia , Microbiota/imunologia , Animais , Heurística , Humanos , Imunidade , Medicina de Precisão
16.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604818

RESUMO

A person's chronotype determines different habits, among which are eating and physical activity. Furthermore, at the university stage, social and organisational factors have a direct effect on students' daily attitudes and habits. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet is linked to better sleep quality and less social jet lag, but association with chronotype or sexual opinion remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between chronotype, adherence to the Mediterranean Diet, and sexual opinion. A multicentre observational study enrolled 457 students, from the University of Castilla-La Mancha and the University of Cordoba. Sociodemographic data and adherence to the Mediterranean diet, chronotype, physical activity, and sexual opinion were collected with validated questionnaires. The study period was from December 2017 to January 2018. Our results reported that students with an evening chronotype (E-type), with evening preferences, had a lower adherence to the Mediterranean diet and showed a higher tendency towards erotophilia. E-type students reported a significantly lower intake of fruits, vegetables, pulses, cereals, and olive oil, and higher breakfast skipping. Therefore, among the measures to promote healthy habits (obesity prevention, sexual education, socialisation, etc.), chronotype and an analysis of the impact of the schedules established by the universities must be considered.


Assuntos
Atitude , Fenômenos Cronobiológicos , Dieta Mediterrânea/psicologia , Hábitos , Comportamento Sexual , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Cooperação do Paciente , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Espanha , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32575803

RESUMO

Chronobiological aspects controlled by CLOCK genes may influence obesity incidence. Although there are studies that show an association between the expression of these genes and energy intake, waist circumference or abdominal obesity phenotypes, interactions with appetite have been insufficiently investigated in relation to chrononutrition. The objective was to identify interactions between CLOCK genetic variants involved in appetite status. A total of 442 subjects (329 women, 113 men; aged 18 to 65 years) were recruited. Anthropometric, dietary and lifestyle data were collected by trained nutritionists. Participants were classified according to their appetite feelings with a Likert scale. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine associations of the type genotype x appetite status on adiposity-related variables. p values were corrected by the Bonferroni method. A significant influence was found concerning the effects of appetite on waist circumference with respect to rs3749474 CLOCK polymorphism (p < 0.001). An additive model analysis (adjusted by age, gender, exercise and energy intake) showed that risk allele carriers, increased the waist circumference around 14 cm (ß = 14.1, CI = 6.3-22.0) by each increment in the level of appetite. The effects of appetite on waist circumference may be partly modulated by the rs3749474 CLOCK polymorphism.


Assuntos
Gordura Abdominal/metabolismo , Apetite , Proteínas CLOCK/genética , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Obesidade Abdominal/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Circunferência da Cintura , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Regulação do Apetite , Fenômenos Cronobiológicos , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade Abdominal/etiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(7): 5920-5947, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32235003

RESUMO

Recently, Mahalanobis distance (DM) was suggested as a statistical measure of physiological dysregulation in aging individuals. We constructed DM variants using sets of biomarkers collected at the two visits of the Long Life Family Study (LLFS) and performed joint analyses of longitudinal observations of DM and follow-up mortality in LLFS using joint models. We found that DM is significantly associated with mortality (hazard ratio per standard deviation: 1.31 [1.16, 1.48] to 2.22 [1.84, 2.67]) after controlling for age and other covariates. GWAS of random intercepts and slopes of DM estimated from joint models found a genome-wide significant SNP (rs12652543, p=7.2×10-9) in the TRIO gene associated with the slope of DM constructed from biomarkers declining in late life. Review of biological effects of genes corresponding to top SNPs from GWAS of DM slopes revealed that these genes are broadly involved in cancer prognosis and axon guidance/synapse function. Although axon growth is mainly observed during early development, the axon guidance genes can function in adults and contribute to maintenance of neural circuits and synaptic plasticity. Our results indicate that decline in axons' ability to maintain complex regulatory networks may potentially play an important role in the increase in physiological dysregulation during aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Fenômenos Cronobiológicos/genética , Neoplasias , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/genética , Envelhecimento/genética , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Humanos , Articulações/fisiologia , Articulações/fisiopatologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Mortalidade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , /genética
19.
J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) ; 61(3): 351-355, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29145721

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We performed a meta-analysis to assess the presence of a day-of-week rhythmic variability of acute aortic rupture or dissection (AARD) onset. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Eligible studies were observational studies enrolling patients with AARD and reporting day-of-week variation of AARD. Study-specific estimates, i.e. day-of-week incidence of AARD, were combined using the random-effects model. Chronobiological analysis was performed by applying a partial Fourier series to pooled day-of-week incidence by using the inverse-variance weighted least-squares method. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: We identified 9 eligible studies enrolling a total of 28,036 patients with AARD. Pooled incidence of AARD was 12.8% on Sunday, 15.9% on Monday, 14.8% on Tuesday, 15.1% on Wednesday, 14.7% on Thursday, 14.1% on Friday, and 12.1% on Saturday. Chronobiological analysis identified a significant (P=0.0098) day-of-week pattern in the occurrence of AARD with a peak on Monday and a nadir on Saturday. Pooled analysis demonstrated significantly more incidence on Monday than on Saturday (relative risk: 1.247; 95% CI: 1.131 to 1.374; P=0.012). CONCLUSIONS: Incidence of AARD was 12.8%, 15.9%, 14.8%, 15.1%, 14.7%, 14.1%, and 12.1%, on Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, and Saturday, respectively. A significant day-of-week pattern in the occurrence of AARD with a peak on Monday and a nadir on Saturday was identified with significantly more incidence on Monday than on Saturday.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante/epidemiologia , Aneurisma Aórtico/epidemiologia , Ruptura Aórtica/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aneurisma Dissecante/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Aórtico/diagnóstico por imagem , Ruptura Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Fenômenos Cronobiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Annu Rev Physiol ; 82: 79-101, 2020 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589825

RESUMO

On Earth, all life is exposed to dramatic changes in the environment over the course of the day; consequently, organisms have evolved strategies to both adapt to and anticipate these 24-h oscillations. As a result, time of day is a major regulator of mammalian physiology and processes, including transcription, signaling, metabolism, and muscle contraction, all of which oscillate over the course of the day. In particular, the heart is subject to wide fluctuations in energetic demand throughout the day as a result of waking, physical activity, and food intake patterns. Daily rhythms in cardiovascular function ensure that increased delivery of oxygen, nutrients, and endocrine factors to organs during the active period and the removal of metabolic by-products are in balance. Failure to maintain these physiologic rhythms invariably has pathologic consequences. This review highlights rhythms that underpin cardiac physiology. More specifically, we summarize the key aspects of cardiac physiology that oscillate over the course of the day and discuss potential mechanisms that regulate these 24-h rhythms.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Coração/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Fenômenos Cronobiológicos , Humanos
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