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1.
Food Res Int ; 161: 111899, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36192918

RESUMO

Government regulatory actions and public policies to reduce sugar consumption were recently implemented in Brazil. To evaluate their potential impact on the supply of products containing high-intensity sweeteners (HIS) and on dietary exposure to these substances, this study aimed to create a comprehensive database on HIS declared in Brazilian commercial products and estimate their intake through consumption of these products. The occurrence of HIS was evaluated through labeling information of 1869 commercial products available in the Brazilian market, collected between January 2021 and August 2021, and the daily intake was estimated for eight HIS (acesulfame K, advantame, aspartame, cyclamate, steviol glycosides, neotame, saccharin and sucralose) using a deterministic approach by multiplying the maximum permitted levels of HIS in foods and beverages by the consumption data of these products. The consumption data were obtained from the report of Household Budget Survey (POF/IBGE), conducted from 2017 to 2018 through a 24-hour dietary recall applied to 46,164 individuals aged 10 years and over, which included only average data (i.e. average consumption for the general population or subgroups). The most frequent HIS in the investigated products were sucralose (26.8 %; n = 938) and acesulfame K (21.7 %; n = 759), and although the combination of sweeteners is a common practice in the food industry, there was a predominance of only one substance in the investigated products (46.7 %; n = 873). The estimated intake of HIS for average consumers was below the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) and does not suggest a toxicological concern. A similar scenario was observed for high consumers, except for cyclamate and steviol glycosides, which corresponded to 144 % and 131 % of their respective ADIs in the general population. To our knowledge, this is the most comprehensive database on HIS in Brazil and the most recent exposure assessment performed nationally.


Assuntos
Aspartame , Adoçantes não Calóricos , Brasil , Ciclamatos , Açúcares da Dieta , Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano , Glucosídeos , Humanos , Sacarina , Edulcorantes/análise , Tiazinas
2.
Chemosphere ; 309(Pt 1): 136769, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36209849

RESUMO

The widespread distribution of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) is a major concern due to their potential effects on human health and the environment. The insufficient sewage treatment plant infrastructures is a global problem most accentuated in less developed countries and results in the discharge of CECs to water bodies. Pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) is a ray-finned freshwater fish species native to the Paraná basin. It is also the most produced aquaculture fish species in Argentina since 2012. Though uninvestigated to date, the occurrence of CECs in pacu may be of high relevance due to production volumes and relevance to human exposure through fish consumption. In this study, we applied a high-resolution mass spectrometry screening method to qualitatively analyze over 100 CECs in pacu. Four extraction/cleanup methods were tested on pooled pacu fillet, including solid-phase extraction and QuEChERS. The method that produced the highest number of detections was selected for further analysis of pacu purchased in supermarkets and fish markets in Argentina between 2017 and 2020. Residues of pesticides, antibiotics, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, plasticizers, sweeteners, drug metabolites, stimulants, and illegal drugs were detected in the samples. A total of 38 CECs were detected, ranging between 24 and 35 CECs per individual sample. 100% of the samples had positive detections of caffeine, 1,7-dimethylxanthine, xanthine, benzoylecgonine, methylparaben, ethylparaben, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), metolachlor, carbendazim, salicylic acid, 2,4-D, saccharin, cyclamate, and dodecanedioic acid. Mappings generated with correspondence analysis were used to explore similarities/dissimilarities among the detected compounds. To our knowledge this is the first report of saccharin, cyclamate, 2,4 - D, carbendazim, metolachlor, ethylparaben, propylparben, bisphenol A, DEHP, and benzotriazole in fish from Argentina, and the first report on the presence of lisinopril, metropolol acid and dodecanedioic acid in fish worldwide.


Assuntos
Drogas Ilícitas , Praguicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Ácido 2,4-Diclorofenoxiacético , Antibacterianos/análise , Argentina , Cafeína/análise , Ciclamatos/análise , Dietilexilftalato , Monitoramento Ambiental , Drogas Ilícitas/análise , Lisinopril , Praguicidas/análise , Plastificantes/análise , Sacarina/análise , Ácido Salicílico/análise , Esgotos/análise , Edulcorantes/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35993876

RESUMO

The dietary exposure to low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) was estimated in a sample of pregnant Brazilian women. Consumption data were obtained with a 24-h Dietary Recall interview. Because of the uncertainty in assessing foods with LCS, they were classified into three scenarios to ensure inclusion of the 15 LCS allowed for use in Brazil: ranging from a less to a more conservative scenario. The concentration of LCS was estimated using the amount declared on the label or the maximum permitted levels and analytical determination data for table-top sweeteners. The frequency of consumption was higher for acesulfame-K, aspartame, and cyclamate. The food groups contributing the most to the consumption of LCS were non-alcoholic beverages, table-top sweeteners, confectionary and desserts. The level of dietary exposure to LCS was within the safety limit. However, continued efforts to monitor their dietary exposure are necessary given the limitations highlighted in this study.


Assuntos
Adoçantes não Calóricos , Edulcorantes , Aspartame , Brasil , Ciclamatos/análise , Exposição Dietética , Feminino , Humanos , Adoçantes não Calóricos/análise , Gravidez , Edulcorantes/análise
4.
Nutrients ; 14(13)2022 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807817

RESUMO

Artificial sweeteners (ASs) are calorie-free chemical substances used instead of sugar to sweeten foods and drinks. Pregnant women with obesity or diabetes are often recommended to substitute sugary products with ASs to prevent an increase in body weight. However, some recent controversy surrounding ASs relates to concerns about the risk of obesity caused by a variety of metabolic changes, both in the mother and the offspring. This study addressed these concerns and investigated the biodistribution of ASs in plasma and breast milk of lactating women to clarify whether ASs can transfer from mother to offspring through breast milk. We recruited 49 lactating women who were provided with a beverage containing four different ASs (acesulfame-potassium, saccharin, cyclamate, and sucralose). Blood and breast milk samples were collected before and up to six hours after consumption. The women were categorized: BMI < 25 (n = 20), BMI > 27 (n = 21) and type 1 diabetes (n = 8). We found that all four ASs were present in maternal plasma and breast milk. The time-to-peak was 30-120 min in plasma and 240-300 min in breast milk. Area under the curve (AUC) ratios in breast milk were 88.9% for acesulfame-potassium, 38.9% for saccharin, and 1.9% for cyclamate. We observed no differences in ASs distributions between the groups.


Assuntos
Ciclamatos , Edulcorantes , Ciclamatos/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação , Leite Humano/química , Obesidade , Potássio/análise , Gravidez , Sacarina , Edulcorantes/análise , Distribuição Tecidual
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 839: 156200, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35618133

RESUMO

Understanding artificial sweetener consumption patterns and levels in different demographics is important for formulating public health policies on controlling sugar consumption. There is a considerable knowledge gap with respect to the pattern of artificial sweetener consumption in China. To narrow this gap, wastewater analysis was used to assess the temporal patterns of consumption of seven artificial sweeteners in an urban population and a university town in a megacity in South China over a one-year period. Daily influent wastewater samples were collected from an urban catchment and weekly samples collected from a university sub-catchment. Population normalized per capita consumption of the four detected artificial sweeteners (cyclamate, acesulfame, sucralose and saccharin) in the university catchment (1.0-5.9 mg d-1 p-1) was much higher than those in urban catchment (0.5-1.3 mg d-1 p-1), indicating younger population consume more artificial sweeteners than the general population. The daily consumption of artificial sweeteners was found to be stable throughout the week in the urban catchment. Time-series analysis showed that an average increase in temperature of 1 °C was associated with an increase consumption of 33 µg d-1 p-1 for acesulfame, 15 µg d-1 p-1 for sucralose and 14 µg d-1 p-1 for saccharin. This was the first study that objectively quantified the greater consumption of artificial sweeteners (proxy for consumption of artificially sweetened food and beverages) in a younger age group when compared to the general population, which could potentially pose a risk of health related diseases.


Assuntos
Edulcorantes , Bebidas/análise , Ciclamatos/análise , Humanos , Sacarina/análise , Edulcorantes/análise , /análise
6.
Water Res ; 200: 117237, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051459

RESUMO

Artificial sweeteners are contaminants of emerging concern that can enter the aquatic and terrestrial environments via wastewater effluent discharge and the environmental application of biosolids. The release of artificial sweeteners from the use of biosolids in Australia was assessed. The concentration of seven artificial sweeteners was quantified in biosolids samples collected from 71 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across Australia during Census 2016. Sucralose, saccharin, acesulfame, aspartame and cyclamate were detected in biosolids samples at median concentrations ranging from 0.18 ng/g (dry weight) (range:

Assuntos
Ciclamatos , Edulcorantes , Austrália , Biossólidos , Humanos , Edulcorantes/análise , /análise
7.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 153: 112236, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940106

RESUMO

The developmental neurotoxicity of calcium cyclamate was evaluated in Sprague Dawley [Crl:CD(SD)] rats, administered in drinking water, in comparison to a concurrent control group (water) and a positive control group given propylthiouracil (PTU). Calcium cyclamate was administered to F0 females for 4 weeks prior to pairing, throughout mating, gestation and lactation and to F1 offspring from weaning to 12 weeks of age, PTU was administered by gavage to F0 females from Day 6 of gestation up to Day 20 of lactation. Target calcium cyclamate doses were 0, 250, 500 and 1,000 mg/kg bw/day, while the PTU dose was 0.5 mg/kg bw/day. No treatment-related effects of cyclamate were observed in either the F0 or F1 generations on reproductive performance or neurobehavioral development. In comparison, PTU exposure resulted in developmental delays, memory impairment and a number of neuropathological and morphometric outcomes. The results from the unique developmental neurotoxicity study design, corroborate the absence of hyperactivity and any other neurotoxic effects following cyclamate administration at levels up to 878 mg/kg bw/day in F0 females and 784 mg/kg bw/day in F1 animals. This demonstrates the suitability of PTU as a positive control and confirms the safe use of cyclamate as a no-calorie sweetener.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/induzido quimicamente , Ciclamatos/toxicidade , Transtornos da Memória/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Edulcorantes/toxicidade , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Ciclamatos/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Edulcorantes/administração & dosagem
8.
J Hazard Mater ; 414: 125498, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667807

RESUMO

Artificial sweeteners (ASs), as a new emerging pollutant, the fate from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to sea is growing concerned. In this study, the distribution and polluted loading of six typical ASs were analyzed based on the measurement in influent, primary effluent, secondary effluent, tertiary effluent, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and sludge from four WWTPs and receiving waters near the coast of Shenzhen city, China. Elevated levels of ASs were detected in WWTPs located near a highly populated area (about 14,000 people km-2). Sucralose was predominant in all water samples (0.1-22.2 µg L-1), and had a 1.6-704.0 times higher concentration than the means of other ASs detected. Aspartame were mainly distributed in SPM and sludge, and the fractions in offshore water exceeded 45%. Acesulfame, sucralose, cyclamate and saccharin could be effectively removed by secondary biochemical treatment. The average daily loading (4.2 g d-1 1000people-1) and discharge loading (0.4 g d-1 1000people-1) of sucralose in WWTPs was higher than those of the other ASs. Dissolved organic carbon and UV254 can affect the fate of ASs, and SPM mainly affects the distributions of aspartame and neotame. As a potential sewage indicator, neotame deserves further attention.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , China , Ciclamatos/análise , Humanos , Edulcorantes/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
Integr Environ Assess Manag ; 17(4): 866-876, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448634

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to assess the impact of anthropogenic activities on the ecological systems in the Xiongan New Area (XNA), China. Artificial sweeteners (ASs) were used as anthropogenic tracers to investigate how anthropogenic activities affect water, soil, and plant layers. For this purpose, the concentrations of 4 typical ASs, acesulfame (ACE), sucralose (SUC), saccharin (SAC), and cyclamate (CYC) were measured in water, soil, and plant layers. Moreover, a tracer test was conducted in the critical zone observatory (CZO) in the southern part of the study area to investigate the migration path and time of anthropogenic activities on the ecological systems. Acesulfame, SUC, SAC, and CYC were widely detected in all of the sample types, and their average values were 0.22, 0.53, 0.06, and 0.08 µg/L in the water layer; 0.04, 0.18, 0.06, and 0.06 µg/kg in the soil layer; and 1.79, 0.11, 4.42, and 0.95 µg/kg in the plant layer, respectively. The tracer test showed that 1.1% to 1.8% of the impacts of the anthropogenic activities migrated from the surface to the shallow aquifer within 13 d, 6% to 19% migrated to the maize layer within 28 d, and 79% to 93% were adsorbed and biodegraded in the soil layer. Therefore, the scope and strength of the influence of the anthropogenic activities on the environmental media exhibit a decreasing sequence of maize > water > soil. This study not only quantitatively characterizes the impact of anthropogenic activities on the ecological environment but also presents the first comprehensive overview of the environmental fate of ASs in the critical zone of the XNA, China. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2021;17:866-876. © 2021 SETAC.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Ciclamatos/análise , Ecossistema , Edulcorantes/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 754: 142438, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254907

RESUMO

A 7-year temporal trend study of artificial sweetener consumption was performed by determining per capital mass loads in 293 influent wastewater samples collected from a wastewater treatment plant in Australia between 2012 and 2018. Population-weighted per capita mass loads of the four detected artificial sweeteners ranged from 2.4 ± 0.8 mg d-1 p-1 for saccharin to 7.8 ± 2.0 mg d-1 p-1 for acesulfame over the study period. Negligible intra-week fluctuations were observed, however the consumption of acesulfame was seen to be significantly influenced by season with the highest consumption in summer. The consumption of sucralose and saccharin significantly increased with an annual increase rate of 10% and 6.0%. Cyclamate consumption declined over the same period with average annual decrease rate of 11%, which agrees with data from market surveys. Sucrose equivalence of total artificial sweeteners consumption showed an increase between 2012 and 2016, then decreased in 2018. This is the first long-term trend study of artificial sweetener consumption by wastewater analysis and highlights the feasibility to quantitatively measure artificial sweeter consumption over time.


Assuntos
Edulcorantes , Vigilância Epidemiológica Baseada em Águas Residuárias , Austrália , Ciclamatos , Queensland , Edulcorantes/análise
11.
Environ Int ; 143: 105963, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688159

RESUMO

Artificial sweeteners are used as sugar substitutes in our daily lives yet consumption and release patterns are currently unknown in Australia. The spatial distribution of artificial sweetener consumption and WWTP effluent emission in Australia was estimated by wastewater analysis. Wastewater influent and effluent samples were collected from 69 WWTPs across Australia during the week of the 2016 Australian census. Mean population-weighted per capita loads for individual artificial sweeteners (cyclamate, aspartame, acesulfame, sucralose, saccharin) ranged from 0.12 ± 0.14 mg d-1p-1 for aspartame to 6.9 ± 2.8 mg d-1p-1 for acesulfame with 1004 kg of these artificial sweeteners being consumed daily in Australia. Significant removal of aspartame (100%), cyclamate (92 ± 18%) and saccharin (88 ± 21%) was observed during wastewater treatment. The average per capita release to the environment for individual artificial sweeteners (cyclamate, acesulfame, sucralose, saccharin) ranged from 230 ± 780 mg d-1 1000p-1 (cyclamate) to 3800 ± 1400 mg d-1 1000p-1 (sucralose). The daily release of artificial sweeteners from Australian WWTPs was estimated to be 142 kg suggesting that 14% of the artificial sweeteners consumed in Australia are released into the environment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first wastewater study to estimate the occurrence and population-normalized artificial sweetener consumption and emission in Australia.


Assuntos
Edulcorantes , Aspartame , Austrália , Ciclamatos , Edulcorantes/análise
12.
Food Chem ; 303: 125404, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466033

RESUMO

Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy calibrations were developed to simultaneously determine the multianalytes of five artificial sweeteners, including sodium cyclamate, sucralose, sodium saccharin, acesulfame-K and aspartame. By combining the pretreatment of the spectrum and principal component analysis, 131 feature wavenumbers were extracted from the full spectral range for modelling to qualitative and quantitative analysis. Compared to random forest, k nearest neighbour and linear discriminant analysis, support vector machine model had better predictivity, indicating the most effective identification performance. Furthermore, multivariate calibration models based on partial least squares regression were constructed for quantifying any combinations of the five artificial sweeteners, and validated by prediction data sets. As shown by the good agreement between the proposed method and the reference HPLC for the determination of the sweeteners in beverage samples, a promising and rapid tool based on FTIR spectroscopy, coupled with chemometrics, has been performed to identify and objectively quantify artificial sweeteners.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Edulcorantes/análise , Aspartame/análise , Bebidas/análise , Calibragem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ciclamatos/análise , Aprendizado de Máquina , Análise de Componente Principal , Sacarina/análise , Tiazinas/análise
13.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 35(1): 21-30, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619095

RESUMO

Trypanosoma cruzi carbonic anhydrase (TcCA) has recently emerged as an interesting target for the design of new compounds to treat Chagas disease. In this study we report the results of a structure-based virtual screening campaign to identify novel and selective TcCA inhibitors. The combination of properly validated computational methodologies such as comparative modelling, molecular dynamics and docking simulations allowed us to find high potency hits, with KI values in the nanomolar range. The compounds also showed trypanocidal effects against T. cruzi epimastigotes and trypomastigotes. All the candidates are selective for inhibiting TcCA over the human isoform CA II, which is encouraging in terms of possible therapeutic safety and efficacy.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Ciclamatos/farmacologia , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/síntese química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química , Doença de Chagas/metabolismo , Ciclamatos/síntese química , Ciclamatos/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tripanossomicidas/síntese química , Tripanossomicidas/química , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Trypanosoma cruzi/enzimologia
14.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(6): 669-674, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058128

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: El consumo de edulcorantes no calóricos (ENC) se ha incrementado en todos los grupos etarios, sin embargo, no se ha cuantificado su ingesta en embarazadas OBJETIVO: Determinar la ingesta y comparar el consumo de ENC según el estado nutricional en embarazadas chilenas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo, se entrevistaron a embarazadas de las ciudades de Santiago y Concepción. A cada embarazada se le aplicó una encuesta de frecuencia de consumo semanal de alimentos con ENC para determinar la ingesta de ellos, y se les realizó una evaluación nutricional utilizando la información del carné de control de la embarazada. RESULTADOS: Se evaluaron 601 embarazadas, 98% consume ENC, ninguna de ellas sobrepasa la ingesta diaria admitida (IDA) para ningún ENC. Las bebidas y jugos con ENC presentan la mayor penetración de productos con ENC de la dieta. Al comparar según estado nutricional, no se encontraron diferencia en el consumo de los ENC. Al comparar solo las bebidas y jugos con ENC con ciclamato las embarazadas obesas consumen significativamente más. CONCLUSIÓN: No se observó diferencias según estado nutricional cuando se analiza de manera global, al analizar por grupos de alimentos el mayor consumo se observo en bebidas con ciclamato en las embarazadas con obesidad.


INTRODUCTION: Consumption of non-caloric sweeteners (NCS) has increased in all age groups; however, intake in pregnant women has not been quantified. OBJECTIVE: To determine the intake of NCS and compare consumption by nutritional status among pregnant Chileans. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pregnant women from the cities of Santiago and Concepción were interviewed as part of a descriptive study. Each pregnant woman was given a frequency survey of weekly food consumption with NCS to determine intake, and a nutritional evaluation was carried out using information from the pregnant woman's check up form. RESULTS: 601 pregnant women were evaluated, 98% consumed NCS, none of them exceeded the accepted daily intake (ADI) for any NCS. Beverages and juices with NCS presented the highest proportions of NCS in the diet. When comparing nutritional status, no difference was found in the consumption of NCS. When comparing only beverages and juices with NCS, obese pregnant women consumed significantly more cyclamate compared to non-obese women. CONCLUSION: No differences according to nutritional status were observed when analyzed globally, when analyzing by food groups the highest consumption was observed in beverages with cyclamate among obese pregnant women.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Estado Nutricional , Adoçantes não Calóricos/administração & dosagem , Bebidas , Avaliação Nutricional , Antropometria , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Entrevistas como Assunto , Análise de Variância , Ciclamatos/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Alimentos
15.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm ; 45(12): 1871-1878, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549523

RESUMO

Palatability of a formulation is one of the primary requirements for therapeutic compliance in children. Clindamycin (CLN) often prescribed to children to treat various infections. However, it has a bitter taste and bad smell. The focus of the present investigation was to develop salt of CLN with a commonly used sweetener such as cyclamic acid (CYA) to improve the palatability. The salt forms were prepared by solubilization crystallization method and characterized by Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR), Near infrared (NIR), Raman, X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, solubility, dissolution, and solid-state physical and chemical stability at 25 °C/60% RH and 40 °C/75% RH for 1 month and 60 °C for 2 weeks. Spectroscopic and diffraction data indicated the formation of a new solid phase, which was different from hydrochloride salt of CLN. Shape of crystal was rectangular prism. Stoichiometric ratio between CLN and CYA in the new salt CLN-CYA was 1:1 and its melting point was 85.6 °C. There was a 2.4-fold reduction in solubility of CLN-CYA at pH 4 compared with CLN-HCl. Moreover, the dissolution rate and extent were similar between the two salts and meeting USP requirement of 85% dissolution in 30 min. Salt was physically and chemically stable at 60 °C, 25 °C/60% RH, and 40 °C/75% RH conditions but hygroscopic at high humidity condition. In conclusion, new salt will provide a new avenue for the development of a palatable formulation of CLN.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Clindamicina/química , Ciclamatos/química , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Edulcorantes/química , Administração Oral , Fatores Etários , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Criança , Clindamicina/administração & dosagem , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Humanos , Pós , Olfato , Solubilidade , Paladar
16.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 60(3): 68-72, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391413

RESUMO

A rapid, sensitive and selective analytical method by LC-MS/MS was developed and validated for the determination of cyclamate in various kinds of foods. The Preparation of test solutions was performed by heat extraction technique in accordance with an official notification method in Japan. We aimed to reduce the matrix effects in LC-MS/MS only by diluting extracts without clean-up using solid phase column. This method was assessed for 30 kinds of foods fortifying cyclamate at the concentration level of 0.5 µg/g. As a result, trueness was 85.0 to 106.6%, repeatability (RSDr) ranged from 1.7 to 9.4%, and within-laboratory reproducibility (RSDwr) ranged from was 4.1 to 9.7%. These date supported the reliability our method. Thus, this method could be useful for a rapid determination of cyclamate in various kinds of foods.


Assuntos
Ciclamatos/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida , Japão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
Nutr Hosp ; 36(4): 890-897, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192687

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Introduction: consumption of non-caloric sweeteners (NCS) has increased worldwide in the last 35 years. Objective: to determine the consumption of NCS among pregnant Chilean women and measure if consumption exceeded the acceptable daily intake. Methods: we conducted a cross-sectional study of pregnant women from the two main cities in Chile. Women were interviewed to determine the consumption of NCS and socioeconomic level; anthropometry was measured. Results: six hundred and one pregnant women were interviewed; 98% of pregnant women surveyed consumed NCS. The most consumed sweetener was sucralose (95.6%), followed by acesulfame k (80.6%), stevia (78.3%), aspartame (75.1%), saccharin (14.8%), and cyclamate (10%). We observed that consumption closest to the acceptable daily intake was reported for stevia (82.5%), followed by acesulfame k (44%). However, except stevia, which reached 12%, average values were under 5% of the acceptable daily intake. No pregnant woman in the sample exceeded the acceptable daily intake and there were no differences in sweetener consumption by trimester of pregnancy or by socioeconomic level. Conclusions: a high prevalence of NCS consumption was observed, however, none of the pregnant women exceeded the acceptable daily intake.


INTRODUCCIÓN: Introducción: el consumo de edulcorantes no calóricos (ENC) ha aumentado en todo el mundo en los últimos 35 años. Objetivo: determinar el consumo de ENC en embarazadas chilenas y medir si el consumo excede la ingesta diaria admisible (IDA). Métodos: realizamos un estudio transversal en embarazadas, proveniente de las dos principales ciudades de Chile. Se las entrevistó para determinar el consumo de ENC y nivel socioeconómico, además se realizó antropometría. Resultados: se entrevistaron a 601 embarazadas; el 98% de las embarazadas encuestadas consumieron ENC. El edulcorante más consumido fue sucralosa (95,6%), seguido de acesulfamo k (80,6%), estevia (78,3%), aspartamo (75,1%), sacarina (14,8%) y ciclamato (10%). Observamos que el consumo más cercano a la IDA se reportó para la estevia (82,5%), seguido de acesulfamo k (44%). Sin embargo, excepto la estevia, que alcanzó el 12% de adecuación con respecto al IDA, los valores promedio estuvieron por debajo del 5% de la IDA. Ninguna mujer embarazada en la muestra excedió la IDA y no hubo diferencias en el consumo de ENC por trimestre del embarazo o por nivel socioeconómico. Conclusiones: se observó una alta prevalencia de consumo de ENC, sin embargo, ninguna de las mujeres embarazadas excedió la IDA.


Assuntos
Adoçantes não Calóricos/administração & dosagem , Recomendações Nutricionais , Adulto , Aspartame/administração & dosagem , Chile , Estudos Transversais , Ciclamatos/administração & dosagem , Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Glucosídeos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Gravidez , Gestantes , Sacarina/administração & dosagem , Classe Social , Sacarose/administração & dosagem , Sacarose/análogos & derivados , Tiazinas/administração & dosagem
18.
Food Res Int ; 122: 66-76, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229125

RESUMO

High sugar content in beverage or food can affect the aging process, and thus natural/artificial sweeteners are widely used as substitutes. However, whether sweeteners have such adverse effects as sugar remains to be clarified. Therefore, in the current study, three sulfa sweeteners, namely, saccharin sodium salt hydrate (SAC2), sodium cyclamate (CYC3) and acesulfame potassium (AceK4) were evaluated for their effects on the lifespan, deposition of lipofuscin, exercise activity, food intake, and intestinal fat deposition (IFD5) of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans6). It was shown that SAC at 0.3 and 10 mg/mL shortened the lifespan of C. elegans and impaired the exercise capacity, while at other concentrations no significant effects were observed. In contrast, CYC at 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/mL prolonged the lifespan of C. elegans. On the other hand, AceK at 1 mg/mL increased the lifespan of C. elegans, and could decrease both lipofuscin deposition and IFD in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, these results indicated that although SAC, CYC, and AceK all belong to the sulfa sweeteners, each has distinct effects on different physiological activities associated with aging, at least in C. elegans.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Edulcorantes/farmacologia , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Ciclamatos/farmacologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/química , Lipofuscina/análise , Lipofuscina/metabolismo , Sacarina/farmacologia , Tiazinas/farmacologia
19.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 220: 117085, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146213

RESUMO

The interaction between sodium cyclamate (SC) and calf thymus DNA in simulated physiological buffer (pH 7.4) using ethidium bromide (EB) as fluorescence probe was investigated by UV-vis spectrometry (UV), fluorescence, resonance light scattering (RLS) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, along with DNA melting studies and cyclic voltammetric (CV) measurements. The results indicate that SC can not only bind into the minor groove of DNA, but also intercalate into the DNA Base pairs. Based on UV data, the binding constant K and binding sites n of the formed DNA/SC complex were estimated to be 2.83 × 103 mol/L and 2.0, respectively. Fluorescence results demonstrate that the quenching of DNA/EB induced by SC can mainly be attributed to static procedure. The melting studies and CV analysis further confirm that the interaction mechanism between the SC and DNA is similar to that of DNA intercalator.The results of FT-IR spectra show that a specific interaction mainly exist between SC and adenine and guanine bases of DNA, which resulting in potential damage due to some change in the information structure. The DNA saturation binding value estimated to be 1.67 based on the RLS data also indicated that SC may cause damage of DNA.


Assuntos
Ciclamatos/química , Ciclamatos/metabolismo , DNA/química , DNA/metabolismo , Adenina/química , Pareamento de Bases , Sítios de Ligação , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Etídio/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Guanina/química , Desnaturação de Ácido Nucleico , Espalhamento de Radiação , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Edulcorantes/química , Edulcorantes/metabolismo
20.
Chem Senses ; 44(5): 303-310, 2019 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893427

RESUMO

Mammalian sensory systems detect sweet taste through the activation of a single heteromeric T1R2/T1R3 receptor belonging to class C G-protein-coupled receptors. Allosteric ligands are known to interact within the transmembrane domain, yet a complete view of receptor activation remains elusive. By combining site-directed mutagenesis with computational modeling, we investigate the structure and dynamics of the allosteric binding pocket of the T1R3 sweet-taste receptor in its apo form, and in the presence of an allosteric ligand, cyclamate. A novel positively charged residue at the extracellular loop 2 is shown to interact with the ligand. Molecular dynamics simulations capture significant differences in the behavior of a network of conserved residues with and without cyclamate, although they do not directly interact with the allosteric ligand. Structural models show that they adopt alternate conformations, associated with a conformational change in the transmembrane region. Site-directed mutagenesis confirms that these residues are unequivocally involved in the receptor function and the allosteric signaling mechanism of the sweet-taste receptor. Similar to a large portion of the transmembrane domain, they are highly conserved among mammals, suggesting an activation mechanism that is evolutionarily conserved. This work provides a structural basis for describing the dynamics of the receptor, and for the rational design of new sweet-taste modulators.


Assuntos
Regulação Alostérica/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Células Cultivadas , Ciclamatos/química , Ciclamatos/farmacologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Ligantes , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/química , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo
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