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1.
Physiol Rep ; 10(17): e15460, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36065891

RESUMO

The pattern of gonadotropin secretion along the estrous cycle was elegantly described in rats. Less information exists about the pattern of gonadotropin secretion in gonad-intact mice, particularly regarding the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Using serial blood collections from the tail-tip of gonad-intact C57BL/6 mice on the first day of cornification (transition from diestrus to estrus; hereafter called proestrus), we observed that the luteinizing hormone (LH) and FSH surge cannot be consistently detected since only one out of eight females (12%) showed increased LH levels. In contrast, a high percentage of mice (15 out of 21 animals; 71%) exhibited LH and FSH surges on the proestrus when a single serum sample was collected. Mice that exhibited LH and FSH surges on the proestrus showed c-Fos expression in gonadotropin-releasing hormone- (GnRH; 83.4% of co-localization) and kisspeptin-expressing neurons (42.3% of co-localization) of the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV). Noteworthy, mice perfused on proestrus, but that failed to exhibit LH surge, showed a smaller, but significant expression of c-Fos in GnRH (32.7%) and AVPVKisspeptin (14.0%) neurons. Finally, 96 serial blood samples were collected hourly in eight regular cycling C57BL/6 females to describe the pattern of LH and FSH secretion along the estrous cycle. Small elevations in LH and FSH levels were detected at the time expected for the LH surge. In summary, the present study improves our understanding of the pattern of gonadotropin secretion and the activation of central components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis along the estrous cycle of C57BL/6 female mice.


Assuntos
Kisspeptinas , Hormônio Luteinizante , Animais , Ciclo Estral , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos , Ratos
2.
Reprod Biol ; 22(3): 100682, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930886

RESUMO

This study compares three different mating techniques in Sprague-Dawley rats, using the pregnancy rate as the main indicator of success. It provides recommendations for timed-pregnancy experiments to achieve an appropriate sample size for the study of human pregnancy disorders. The implementation of a preconditioning phase, determination of the estrous cycle, the use of two mating strategies (Lee-Boot and Whitten effect), female: male mating ratios, and cohabitation duration should be considered as they improve the mating success rate.


Assuntos
Ciclo Estral , Reprodução , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
3.
Biol Sex Differ ; 13(1): 41, 2022 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35870975

RESUMO

Despite recent work demonstrating that female rodents and humans do not show greater variance in behavior and physiology than males due to ovulatory cycles, many researchers still default to using males in their investigations. Although government funding agencies now require inclusion of female subjects where applicable, the erroneous belief that the study of males reduces overall data variance continues to result in male subject bias. Recently, we reported the first direct experimental refutation of this belief by examining continuous body temperature and locomotor activity in male and female mice. These findings revealed that males exceeded female variance within and across individuals over time, showing greater variance within a day than females do across an entire estrous cycle. However, the possibility remains that male variance within a day is impacted by ultradian rhythms, analogous to the influence of infradian estrous cycles on female variance, and both sexes show predictable, structured variance across the day. If structures underlying variance can be predicted, then the variance can be statistically accounted for, reducing experimental error and increasing precision of measurements. Here we assess these continuous body temperature and activity data for the contributions of structured and unstructured variance to overall variance within and across individuals at ultradian, circadian, and infradian timescales. In no instance do females exceed male variance, and in most instances male variance exceeds female variance. Additionally, more female variance is accounted for by temporal structure. In conclusion, even when estrous cycles are not controlled for, females show less variability than males, and this advantage can be further capitalized upon by inclusion of known temporal patterns to control for previously unknown but structured sources of variance.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal , Ciclo Estral , Animais , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Ciclo Estral/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Locomoção , Masculino , Camundongos
4.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 244: 107034, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35872425

RESUMO

Sub-nutrition during pregnancy might affect the offspring´s reproductive performance through effects on the development and function of gonads. This study evaluated a maternal energy restriction in ewes from day 48-106 of gestation, on pre- and post-weaning female lambs` performance, onset of female lambs' breeding and ovulation rate during their first breeding season. Adult Polwarth ewes sired by Finnish rams bearing single or twin lambs were assigned to two dietary treatments from day 48 to day 106 of gestation: restricted (R; n = 60) at 60 % of their metabolizable energy (ME) requirements, or non-restricted (NR; n = 54) at 100 % of their ME requirements. After the restriction period, ewes grazed all together ad libitum until weaning. The ewe lambs were evaluated from birth to weaning, as well as during their first breeding season. Although NR ewes weighed 17.7 % more than R ewes (P < 0.05) at the end of the restriction period, the nutritional treatment of the dams had no effect on the weight of the ewe lambs at birth, weaning or final weight (P > 0.05). Fat depth, rib eye area, the percentage of ewe-lambs cycling and their ovulation rate during the first breeding season was not affected by the ewe´s dietary treatment. Ewes restricted at 60 % of their ME requirements in mid-gestation seemed to have the capacity to compensate any detrimental effects on growth and development as well as the reproductive potential of female lambs if adequate refeeding conditions are provided in late gestation, throughout lactation and post-weaning.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica , Dieta , Ciclo Estral , Ovário , Ovulação , Animais , Restrição Calórica/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Ciclo Estral/fisiologia , Feminino , Ovário/fisiologia , Ovulação/fisiologia , Gravidez , Ovinos
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35806363

RESUMO

Endometrosis is a frequently occurring disease decreasing mares' fertility. Thus, it is an important disease of the endometrium associated with epithelial and stromal cell alterations, endometrium gland degeneration and periglandular fibrosis. Multiple degenerative changes are found in uterine mucosa, the endometrium. However, their pathogenesis is not well known. It is thought that nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), a cell metabolism regulator, and its activation pathways take part in it. The transcription of the profibrotic pathway genes of the NF-κB in fibrotic endometria differed between the follicular (FLP) and mid-luteal (MLP) phases of the estrous cycle, as well as with fibrosis progression. This study aimed to investigate the transcription of genes of estrogen (ESR1, ESR2) and progesterone receptors (PGR) in equine endometria to find relationships between the endocrine environment, NF-κB-pathway, and fibrosis. Endometrial samples (n = 100), collected in FLP or MLP, were classified histologically, and examined using quantitative PCR. The phase of the cycle was determined through the evaluation of ovarian structures and hormone levels (estradiol, progesterone) in serum. The transcription of ESR1, ESR2, and PGR decreased with the severity of endometrial fibrosis and degeneration of the endometrium. Moreover, differences in the transcription of ESR1, ESR2, and PGR were noted between FLP and MLP in the specific categories and histopathological type of equine endometrosis. In FLP and MLP, specific moderate and strong correlations between ESR1, ESR2, PGR and genes of the NF-κB pathway were evidenced. The transcription of endometrial steroid receptors can be subjected to dysregulation with the degree of equine endometrosis, especially in both destructive types of endometrosis, and mediated by the canonical NF-κB pathway depending on the estrous cycle phase.


Assuntos
Doenças Ovarianas , Receptores de Esteroides , Animais , Endométrio/metabolismo , Ciclo Estral/genética , Feminino , Fibrose , Cavalos , Humanos , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Doenças Ovarianas/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/genética , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Receptores de Esteroides/genética , Receptores de Esteroides/metabolismo
6.
Domest Anim Endocrinol ; 81: 106749, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35834880

RESUMO

Studies in cats and dogs have proven the usefulness of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) as a diagnostic tool to determine the castration status or to diagnose ovarian remnant syndrome. Yet the secretion pattern of AMH over the estrous cycle in queens has not been investigated so far. Seven healthy sexually intact female cats were examined daily for signs of estrous behavior over a trial period of 4 months. Five queens showed regular estrous behavior, 1 queen was mated in her first heat and 1 queen never showed any signs of heat. To distinguish between inter-estrus and metestrus progesterone levels were determined. Serum samples for AMH and progesterone measurement were collected from the regular cycling queens in late anestrus, at several times during heat, inter-estrus and metestrus, from the mated queen during her first heat and during pregnancy, and in the acycling queen at various times during the trial period. The measured AMH values in anestrus were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than in heat (P < 0.001), metestrus (P = 0.12) and inter-estrus (P = 0.449). In anestrus the median AMH levels were 10.26 ng/ml (range 4.96 to 22.90 ng/ml), in heat 5.97 ng/ml (range 3.32- 22.96 ng/ml), in inter-estrus 10.47 (range 3.35-22.96 ng/ml) and in metestrus 6.38 ng/ml (range 4.50-10.75 ng/ml. The pregnant cat showed median AMH concentrations of 6.47 ng/ml (range 5.60-9.80 ng/ml) during her pregnancy. The acycling queen had solely low AMH values with a median concentration of 0.39 ng/ml. In conclusion there were high variations of the AMH levels among and within the individual cats and between heat cycles in the single cat. Remarkable high AMH concentrations were measured in the younger queens of the study in their first estrous cycles and also in anestrus, when less ovarian activity is expected. Further studies are necessary to emphasize the reasons for these high AMH concentrations especially in young queens.


Assuntos
Hormônio Antimülleriano , Progesterona , Anestro , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Ciclo Estral , Estro , Feminino , Gravidez
7.
Neurobiol Dis ; 172: 105822, 2022 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35868435

RESUMO

Patients with epilepsy develop reproductive endocrine comorbidities at a rate higher than that of the general population. Clinical studies have identified disrupted luteinizing hormone (LH) release patterns in patients of both sexes, suggesting potential epilepsy-associated changes in hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuron function. In previous work, we found that GnRH neuron firing is increased in diestrous females and males in the intrahippocampal kainic acid (IHKA) mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Notably, GABAA receptor activation is depolarizing in adult GnRH neurons. Therefore, here we tested the hypothesis that increased GnRH neuron firing in IHKA mice is associated with increased GABAergic drive to GnRH neurons. When ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) were blocked to isolate GABAergic postsynaptic currents (PSCs), no differences in PSC frequency were seen between GnRH neurons from control and IHKA diestrous females. In the absence of iGluR blockade, however, GABA PSC frequency was increased in GnRH neurons from IHKA females with disrupted estrous cycles, but not saline-injected controls nor IHKA females without estrous cycle disruption. GABA PSC amplitude was also increased in IHKA females with disrupted estrous cycles. These findings suggest the presence of an iGluR-dependent increase in feed-forward GABAergic transmission to GnRH neurons specific to IHKA females with comorbid cycle disruption. In males, GABA PSC frequency and amplitude were unchanged but PSC duration was reduced. Together, these findings suggest that increased GABA transmission helps drive elevated firing in IHKA females on diestrus and indicate the presence of a sex-specific hypothalamic mechanism underlying reproductive endocrine dysfunction in IHKA mice.


Assuntos
Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Ácido Caínico , Animais , Ciclo Estral , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/metabolismo , Humanos , Ácido Caínico/toxicidade , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Receptores de GABA-A , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/fisiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0269983, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35776756

RESUMO

Tetramethrin (Tm) is a commonly used pesticide that has been reported to exert estrogen-antagonistic effects selectively on female rats. The present study was undertaken to assess the protective role of lobaric acid (La) on estrous cycle in Tm-treated female Wistar rats. Female rats were exposed to Tm (50 mg/kg b.w/day) only or in combination with La at low (50 mg/kg b.w/day) or high (100 mg/kg b.w/day) dose for 30 days. The results showed that Tm altered the estrous cycle of female rats by decreasing the levels of luteinizing hormone, follicular-stimulating hormone, progesterone, estrone, and estradiol while increasing testosterone level. The morphology of vaginal smears of Tm-treated female rats showed the presence of abnormal cells and/or structures at different phases of estrus cycle. Strikingly, in (Tm + La)-treated rats, all the observed adverse effects of Tm on the hormonal parameters, cell morphology, and the length of each phase of estrous cycle were significantly diminished in a dose-dependent manner. The docking results showed that La competes with Tm for Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) receptor, thereby reducing the toxicity of Tm but did not cancel the response of GnRH receptor completely. In conclusion, our results designated that La could be used as a potential candidate in the management of insecticide-induced alterations of the reproductive cycle of rodents.


Assuntos
Ciclo Estral , Salicilatos , Animais , Depsídeos , Ciclo Estral/fisiologia , Feminino , Lactonas , Piretrinas , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Salicilatos/farmacologia
9.
Gene ; 839: 146731, 2022 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35835405

RESUMO

The melatonin 1A receptor (MTNR1A) is a membrane receptor distributed across the mammalian gonadal axis-associated membrane. Melatonin (MT) can specifically bind with MTNR1A on the cell membrane and regulates mammalian reproductive activities. However, the role of MTNR1A in regulating the reproductive physiological activities of sheep in the Tibetan Plateau remains unclear. In this study, the MT content in Tibetan sheep blood during the estrous cycle was detected by ELISA. The distribution of MTNR1A in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPGA) was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Western blot and qRT-PCR were used to detect dynamic changes of MTNR1A mRNA and protein expression, and the protein distributions in the HPGA. The results showed that the average secretion level of MT in Tibetan sheep blood was highest occurred during diestrus and the lowest during proestrus. Additionally, the secretion of MT at night was significantly higher than during the day. The immunopositive products of MTNR1A were primarily distributed around the glial cells in the dorsal hypothalamic nucleus region, chromophobe cells, and eosinophilic cytoplasm in the pituitary gland, follicular granular layer, follicular adventitia, tubal mucosa, cilia, endometrium, interstices, and glands in the uterus. The expression trends of MTNR1A mRNA and proteins in the HPGA during the estrous cycle were the same. The relative expression levels of MTNR1A mRNA and proteins in the hypothalamus and ovaries were the highest during proestrus and the lowest during metestrus; the highest during diestrus in the pituitary and oviducts; the highest during metestrus in the uterus. Collectively, the differences in the secretion of MT in Tibetan sheep blood and the expression of MTNR1A in HPGA suggest that they may be affected by steroid hormone secretion during the estrous cycle of Tibetan sheep, which has a potential impact on the regulation of animal estrous cycle.


Assuntos
Melatonina , Animais , Ciclo Estral , Feminino , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Melatonina/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores de Melatonina , Ovinos , Tibet
10.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 243: 107026, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35752032

RESUMO

The study aimed to investigate the expression and cellular localization of two critical non-nuclear progesterone receptors, including membrane-associated-progesterone-receptor-component-1 (PGRMC1) and progestin and adipoQ receptor family member 7 (PAQR7) throughout the estrous cycle and early pregnancy in ovine corpus luteum (CL). Ewes were randomly grouped into cyclic (C, n = 4 per group) or pregnant (P, n = 4 per group) groups. Following slaughtering, the CL was obtained from both cyclic and pregnant ewes on days 12 (C12 and P12), 16 (C16 and P16), and 22 (C22 and P22). Western blotting and RT-qPCR were utilized to assess the expression levels of PGRMC1 and PAQR7, whereas immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the localization of PGRMC1 and PAQR7 in CL. Data were evaluated by one-way ANOVA, and the P < 0.05 was considered a significant difference. PGRMC1 was shown to be expressed in both small and large luteal cells and endothelial cells in CL, while PAQR7 expression was only found in small and large luteal cells. Compared to cycle days, pregnancy increased the expression of PGRMC1. PAQR7 did not differ during early pregnancy but reduced during the functional luteolysis stage (C16). mRNA and protein expression patterns for PGRMC1 and PAQR7 were similar on the studied days. This is the first study that demonstrates the expression and cellular localization of PGRMC1 and PAQR7 in ovine CL. We suggest that these receptors could execute a significant role in the ovine CL life span in both cyclic changes and the establishment of pregnancy.


Assuntos
Progesterona , Receptores de Progesterona , Animais , Corpo Lúteo/fisiologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Ciclo Estral/fisiologia , Feminino , Gravidez , Progesterona/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/genética , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico/metabolismo
11.
J Vet Med Sci ; 84(8): 1065-1073, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35705304

RESUMO

Pituitary gonadotropin secretion is regulated by several pituitary factors as well as GnRH and ovarian hormones. To elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of pituitary gonadotropin secretions, we observed changes in the mRNA levels of pituitary factors, namely annexin A1 (Anxa1) and Anxa5, inhibin/activin subunits, follistatin (Fst), and vitamin D receptor (Vdr), in female rat pituitary glands during the estrous cycle. Additionally, levels of LHß subunit (Lhb), FSHß subunit (Fshb), and GnRH receptor (Gnrh-r) mRNA were examined. During proestrus, Anxa1, Anxa5, Vdr, and inhibin α-subunit (Inha) exhibited the lowest levels, while during estrus, activin ßB-subunit (Actbb), Lhb, and Gnrh-r were the lowest. Moreover, Fshb exhibited the highest value during metestrus, whereas Fst did not differ significantly. Correlation analyses revealed 16 statistically significant gene combinations. In particular, four combinations, namely Anxa5 and Inha, Anxa5 and Actbb, Inha and Vdr, and Inha and Actbb, were highly significant (P<0.0001), while four combinations, Anxa1 and Anxa5, Anxa1 and Vdr, Anxa5 and Vdr, and Lhb and Gnrh-r, were moderately significant (P<0.001). The remaining eight combinations that exhibited statistical significance were Anxa1 and Inha, Anxa1 and Actbb, Vdr and Actbb, Anxa1 and Fshb, Inha and Lhb, Actbb and Fshb, Actbb and Lhb, and Fst and Fshb (P<0.05). These results highlight strong correlations among Anxa1, Anxa5, Vdr, Inha, and Actbb, thereby suggesting that an interaction among ANXA1, ANXA5, and VDR may lead to further communications with inhibin and/or activin in the pituitary gland.


Assuntos
Ativinas , Anexina A1 , Ativinas/genética , Ativinas/metabolismo , Animais , Anexina A1/genética , Anexina A1/metabolismo , Anexina A5/metabolismo , Ciclo Estral , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Inibinas/genética , Hipófise/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Receptores de Calcitriol/metabolismo
12.
Physiol Behav ; 254: 113879, 2022 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35705155

RESUMO

The present study examined the long-term effects of suppressing puberty with a GnRH agonist on reproductive physiology and behavior in female rats. We have recently reported that administration of the GnRH agonist leuprolide acetate (25 µg/kg) daily between postnatal day (PD) 25-50 delayed puberty and disrupted the development of copulatory behavior and sexual motivation in male rats. However, pilot data from our lab suggest that this low dose of leuprolide acetate (25 µg/kg) was not high enough to significantly delay puberty in female rats. Therefore, we injected female Long-Evans rats with leuprolide acetate at a higher dose (50 µg/kg) or 0.9% sterile saline, daily , starting on PD 25 and ending on PD 50. Vaginal opening was monitored daily starting on PD 30 for signs of pubertal onset and first estrous cycle. In addition, we measured estrous cyclicity starting approximately 2 weeks after the last injection of leuprolide (∼PD 64). Immediately after monitoring estrous cyclicity, the female rats were mated on their first day in behavioral estrus using the partner-preference paradigm, with and without physical contact (PD 95-110). We found that this dose of leuprolide (50 µg/kg) significantly delayed puberty; however, neither estrous cyclicity nor sexual motivation was significantly affected by periadolescent exposure to leuprolide. Together with our findings in male rats, these results add to our understanding of the developmental effects of chemically suppressing puberty in rats.


Assuntos
Ciclo Estral , Fármacos para a Fertilidade Feminina , Leuprolida , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Maturidade Sexual , Animais , Ciclo Estral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Estral/fisiologia , Estro , Feminino , Fármacos para a Fertilidade Feminina/farmacologia , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/agonistas , Leuprolida/farmacologia , Modelos Animais , Periodicidade , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Maturidade Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia
13.
Toxicol Pathol ; 50(4): 466-477, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35730190

RESUMO

For toxicology testing of (agro)chemicals, different study types are being performed with general and/or reproductive toxicity endpoints (see Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines). In most of these rat studies, vaginal cytology is performed on serial samples (collected by lavage) for evaluation of cycle regularity and evidence of mating, and/or on a single sample collected on the day of necropsy for information on the estrous cycle stage and allowing correlation with histopathology. In the latter case, the utility of vaginal cytology can be argued. In this article, estrous cycle stages based on vaginal cytology of samples taken on the day of necropsy and histopathology of ovaries, uterus, and vagina (gold standard for estrous cycle stage assessment) were compared. The agreement was generally low. Disagreement between the two methods could be explained by time differences between lavage and necropsy, by manipulation of vaginal epithelium during lavage which may impact epithelial morphology on histology, and by misinterpretation of vaginal cytology during or shortly after lactation. Based on the results of estrous staging within different study types, we strongly discourage vaginal cytology from samples collected on the day of necropsy since there is no added value, vaginal manipulation can be stressful and may complicate the histologic diagnosis.


Assuntos
Estro , Vagina , Animais , Epitélio , Ciclo Estral , Feminino , Ovário , Ratos , Útero
14.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 25(1): 149-154, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35575995

RESUMO

Growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9), an oocyte-derived member of the TGF-ß superfamily, plays an essential role in regulation of follicular development. This study aimed to determine the cyclic changes in serum GDF-9 concentration, compare its levels before and after ovariohysterectomy (OHE), and investigate its potential as a tool in ovarian remnant syndrome (ORS) diagnosis in cats. GDF-9 measurements were performed on 50 cats referred for routine OHE. The stage of the estrous cycle was determined by vaginal cytology and measurement of serum estradiol and progesterone levels was carried out to detect the cyclic changes in circulating GDF-9. One week after OHE, serum samples were collected again from 30 cats to reveal differences in GDF-9 levels. GDF-9 levels in the follicular phase were significantly higher than those in the interestrus (p⟨0.05). The postoperative analysis could be performed. GDF-9 levels slightly decreased one week after OHE (p=0.053). In conclusion, blood GDF-9 levels change during the estrous cycle, and may decrease with age in cats. However, further studies are needed to reveal the efficiency of GDF-9 in ORS diagnosis.


Assuntos
Gatos/sangue , Gatos/cirurgia , Fator 9 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/sangue , Histerectomia/veterinária , Oócitos , Ovariectomia/veterinária , Animais , Gatos/fisiologia , Estradiol/sangue , Ciclo Estral , Feminino , Fator 9 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/genética , Fator 9 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/fisiologia , Progesterona/sangue , Vagina/citologia
15.
Behav Pharmacol ; 33(5): 322-332, 2022 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502955

RESUMO

Effects of acute ethanol (EtOH) on memory depend on several factors, including type of behavioral task. Sex differences in EtOH effects have been reported in humans and animals, and recognition memory can be influenced by circulating sex hormones. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of sex and estrous cycle in the acute effects of EtOH on novel object recognition memory in rats. Male and female Wistar rats were part of one of the groups: control, 0.6-g/kg EtOH and 1.8-g/kg EtOH (administered intraperitoneally before the training session). The estrous cycle was evaluated by vaginal smear. The task was conducted in an open field arena. During training, animals were exposed to two identical objects, and test sessions were performed 1 h (short-term) and 24 h (long-term) later. One of the objects was changed in each test. Increased novel object exploration was shown by male and female controls in the short- and long-term tests, respectively. In the short-term test, females did not show preference for the novel object, and EtOH 1.8 g/kg impaired performance in males. In the long-term test, both sexes showed object discrimination, and 1.8-g/kg EtOH reduced preference for the new object in male rats. The phase of the cycle, the performance on proestrus was worse compared with other phases, and EtOH failed to impair performance mainly on estrous. In conclusion, while male rats displayed ethanol-induced recognition memory deficit, female rats were unaffected by EtOH impairing effects. In addition, the performance of female rats was influenced by the estrous cycle phases.


Assuntos
Ciclo Estral , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Etanol/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Reconhecimento Psicológico
16.
Reprod Fertil Dev ; 34(11): 776-788, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35577556

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The corpus luteum (CL) is an endocrine gland in the ovary of mature females during the oestrous cycle and pregnancy. There is evidence of a relationship between the secretory function of the CL and PPARs. AIMS: In this study, we investigated the changes in the proteome of the CL in relation to the phase of the oestrous cycle and the impact of PPARγ ligands on the proteomic profile of the CL during the mid- and late-luteal phase of the oestrous cycle. METHODS: The porcine CL explants were incubated in vitro for 6h in the presence of PPARγ ligands (agonist pioglitazone, antagonist T0070907) or without ligands. Global proteomic analysis was performed using the TMT-based LC-MS/MS method. KEY RESULTS: The obtained results showed the disparity in proteomic profile of the untreated CL - different abundance of 23 and 28 proteins for the mid- and late-luteal phase, respectively. Moreover, seven proteins were differentially regulated in the CL tissue treated with PPARγ ligands. In the mid-luteal phase, one protein, CAND1, was downregulated after treatment with T0070907. In the late-luteal phase, the proteins SPTAN1, GOLGB1, TP53BP1, MATR3, RRBP1 and SRRT were upregulated by pioglitazone. CONCLUSIONS: Comparative proteomic analysis revealed that certain proteins constitute a specific proteomic signature for each examined phase. Moreover, the study showed that the effect of PPARγ ligands on the CL proteome was rather limited. IMPLICATIONS: The results provide a broader insight into the processes that may be responsible for the structural luteolysis of the porcine CL, in addition to apoptosis and autophagy.


Assuntos
Ciclo Estral , PPAR gama , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Corpo Lúteo/metabolismo , Feminino , Ligantes , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Pioglitazona/análise , Pioglitazona/metabolismo , Pioglitazona/farmacologia , Gravidez , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica , Suínos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 141: 105776, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35489312

RESUMO

The increased susceptibility of women to stress and trauma-related disorders compared to men suggests a role for ovarian hormones in modulating fear and anxiety. In both humans and rodents, estrogen and progesterone have been shown to influence fear learning during acquisition, expression, and extinction. Recently, we showed that allopregnanolone (ALLO), a progesterone (PROG) metabolite and GABAA receptor potentiator, confers state-dependent contextual fear when infused into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of male rats. In order to determine whether estrous cycle-related fluctuations in circulating PROG confer state-dependent contextual fear in female rats, animals received Pavlovian fear conditioning during an estrous cycle phase when PROG was either low (late diestrus) or high (late proestrus). After conditioning, animals were tested for contextual fear in either the same or different estrous cycle phase. Subjects conditioned in diestrus and tested in proestrus showed lower levels of contextual fear compared to subjects conditioned and tested in the same estrous cycle phase (either diestrus or proestrus), suggesting a state-dependent effect of estrous cycle phase on fear learning. This state dependence was asymmetric, however, as animals trained in proestrus and tested in diestrus exhibited high levels of contextual fear. In ovariectomized (OVX) females treated acutely with either PROG or vehicle, state dependence was not observed. These results suggest that the hormonal state in diestrus may play a role in conferring state dependence to conditioned fear in naturally cycling female rats but not in an OVX model.


Assuntos
Medo , Progesterona , Animais , Condicionamento Clássico , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Ciclo Estral , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Progesterona/metabolismo , Ratos
18.
J Neuroendocrinol ; 34(6): e13122, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35365910

RESUMO

The nucleus accumbens core is a key nexus within the mammalian brain for integrating the premotor and limbic systems and regulating important cognitive functions such as motivated behaviors. Nucleus accumbens core functions show sex differences and are sensitive to the presence of hormones such as 17ß-estradiol (estradiol) in normal and pathological contexts. The primary neuron type of the nucleus accumbens core, the medium spiny neuron (MSN), exhibits sex differences in both intrinsic excitability and glutamatergic excitatory synapse electrophysiological properties. Here, we provide a review of recent literature showing how estradiol modulates rat nucleus accumbens core MSN electrophysiology within the context of the estrous cycle. We review the changes in MSN electrophysiological properties across the estrous cycle and how these changes can be mimicked in response to exogenous estradiol exposure. We discuss in detail recent findings regarding how acute estradiol exposure rapidly modulates excitatory synapse properties in nucleus accumbens core but not caudate-putamen MSNs, which mirror the natural changes seen across estrous cycle phases. These recent insights demonstrate the strong impact of sex-specific estradiol action upon nucleus accumbens core neuron electrophysiology.


Assuntos
Neurônios , Núcleo Accumbens , Animais , Estradiol/farmacologia , Ciclo Estral , Feminino , Masculino , Mamíferos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Núcleo Accumbens/fisiologia , Ratos , Caracteres Sexuais
19.
Sleep ; 45(7)2022 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35429396

RESUMO

Narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) is a rare neurology disorder caused by the loss of orexin/hypocretin neurons. NT1 is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep and wake fragmentation, and cataplexy. These symptoms have been equally described in both women and men, although influences of gender and hormonal cycles have been poorly studied. Unfortunately, most studies with NT1 preclinical mouse models, use only male mice to limit potential variations due to the hormonal cycle. Therefore, whether gender and/or hormonal cycles impact the expression of narcoleptic symptoms remains to be determined. To address this question, we analyzed vigilance states and cataplexy in 20 female and 17 male adult orexin knock-out narcoleptic mice, with half of the females being recorded over multiple days. Mice had access to chocolate to encourage the occurrence of cataplectic episodes. A vaginal smear was performed daily in female mice to establish the state of the estrous cycle (EC) of the previous recorded night. We found that vigilance states were more fragmented in males than females, and that females had less paradoxical sleep (p = 0.0315) but more cataplexy (p = 0.0375). Interestingly, sleep and wake features were unchanged across the female EC, but the total amount of cataplexy was doubled during estrus compared to other stages of the cycle (p = 0.001), due to a large increase in the number of cataplexy episodes (p = 0.0002). Altogether these data highlight sex differences in the expression of narcolepsy symptoms in orexin knock-out mice. Notably, cataplexy occurrence was greatly influenced by estrous cycle. Whether it is due to hormonal changes would need to be further explored.


Assuntos
Cataplexia , Narcolepsia , Animais , Cataplexia/diagnóstico , Ciclo Estral , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Narcolepsia/diagnóstico , Narcolepsia/genética , Orexinas/genética , Orexinas/metabolismo , Sono/fisiologia
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409214

RESUMO

The uterus is essential for embryo implantation and fetal development. During the estrous cycle, the uterine endometrium undergoes dramatic remodeling to prepare for pregnancy. Angiogenesis is an essential biological process in endometrial remodeling. Steroid hormones regulate the series of events that occur during such remodeling. Researchers have investigated the potential factors, including angiofactors, involved in endometrial remodeling. The Hippo signaling pathway discovered in the 21st century, plays important roles in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation and cell death. However, its role in the endometrium remains unclear. In this review, we describe the female reproductive system and its association with the Hippo signaling pathway, as well as novel Hippo pathway genes and potential target genes.


Assuntos
Endométrio , Implantação do Embrião/fisiologia , Endométrio/metabolismo , Ciclo Estral/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Útero/metabolismo
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