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1.
Lancet ; 399(10319): 23-24, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34973716

Assuntos
Ciência , Brasil , Humanos
3.
J Nurs Adm ; 52(1): 19-26, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34897205

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the challenges, barriers, and solutions for conducting nursing administration and leadership science (NALS) research. BACKGROUND: Evidence from leadership science should be at the forefront of nurse leaders' decision making. Yet, challenges remain in building the evidence and moving it into nursing administration and leadership practice. METHODS: This study used a Delphi technique with open-ended questions and direct content analysis to evaluate survey responses of members of the Association for Leadership Science in Nursing and American Organization for Nursing Leadership. RESULTS: Open-ended responses were coded to yield super categories and supportive codes for areas with limited evidence to guide leadership practice and the challenges for conducting NALS research. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide future directions for continuously driving NALS research and for building and leveraging leadership science to support nursing administration decision making.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Liderança , Enfermeiras Administradoras , Ciência , Humanos , Pesquisa em Administração de Enfermagem
4.
Nurs Sci Q ; 35(1): 41-45, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34939479

RESUMO

In this article, I propose that engagement in nursing practice affords an epistemic advantage and should be included in defining nursing science and as a warrant for scientific knowledge. I appeal to standpoint epistemology, a philosophical theory, to support my proposal. A new conception of objectivity, which aligns with the contemporary practice of science and standpoint theory, is discussed. The article presents a preliminary theory of nursing standpoint theory that explains epistemic advantage of a practicing nurse. Open questions about nursing science conclude the article.


Assuntos
Conhecimento , Ciência , Objetivos , Humanos , Teoria de Enfermagem , Filosofia em Enfermagem
6.
7.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261167, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34910743

RESUMO

There is a developing interdisciplinary research field which has been trying to integrate results and expertise from various scientific areas, such as affective computing, pedagogical methodology and psychological appraisal theories, into learning environments. Moreover, anxiety recognition and regulation has attracted the interest of researchers as an important factor in the implementation of advanced learning environments. The present article explores the test anxiety and stress awareness of university students who are attending a science course during examinations. Real-time anxiety awareness as provided by biofeedback during science exams in an academic environment is shown to have a positive effect on the anxiety students experience and on their self-efficacy regarding examinations. Furthermore, the relevant research identifies a significant relationship between the students' anxiety level and their performance. Finally, the current study indicates that the students' anxiety awareness as provided by biofeedback is related to their performance, a relationship that is mediated and explained by the students' anxiety.


Assuntos
Ciência/educação , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estudantes/psicologia , Ansiedade aos Exames/epidemiologia , Adulto , Avaliação Educacional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ansiedade aos Exames/etiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260328, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914698

RESUMO

This study presents the experiences of current science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) Ph.D. students and alumni with respect to professional development opportunities in their Ph.D. training. Specifically, it investigates if and how the Ph.D. training supports graduates to pursue non-academic and non-R&D roles, which have become increasingly common career paths post-graduation. A mixed-methods questionnaire was developed to obtain quantitative and qualitative data regarding the graduate school experiences of current Ph.D. students and recent Ph.D. graduates pursuing diverse career paths. The study investigates the values, needs, and conceptions of professional development from the student perspective, as well as the contributions of peers and mentors in graduate school towards their professional development. Experiences of Ph.D. alumni are used to identify the barriers for transitioning to the first job post-graduation and to provide an assessment of the current professional development opportunities in Ph.D. programs. It is reported that although Ph.D. training allowed alumni to develop a robust skillset that includes research, teaching, and scientific writing; some common barriers associated with obtaining a job post-graduation were lack of awareness about career options, limited or no professional networks outside academia, and a lack of preparation and support for non-academic job transitions. Through analyzing the student perspective on various aspects of professional development, the study identifies gaps and avenues for improvement for professional development in Ph.D. training, including increased awareness of diverse career paths for STEM PhDs, increased networking opportunities for PhD students with sectors outside academia, embedding professional development in the PhD curriculum, and others; so that programs can support students in entering the labor market in a variety of careers that extend beyond academia and traditional R&D jobs, using interventions that resonate with the students and meet their needs.


Assuntos
Estudantes/psicologia , Altruísmo , Escolha da Profissão , Educação de Pós-Graduação , Engenharia/educação , Humanos , Matemática/educação , Mentores , Autonomia Pessoal , Ciência/educação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tecnologia/educação , Apoio ao Desenvolvimento de Recursos Humanos
9.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260567, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914741

RESUMO

We propose a framework of Resources, Achievement, Status, and Events (RASE) that allows the many disparate but well-documented phenomena affecting underrepresented groups in STEM to be assembled into a story of career trajectories, illuminating the possible cumulative impact of many small inequities. Our framework contains a three-component deterministic cycle of (1) production of Achievements from Resources, (2) updated community Status due to Achievements, and (3) accrual of additional Resources based on community Status. A fourth component, stochastic Events, can influence an individual's level of Resources or Achievements at each time step of the cycle. We build a specific mathematical model within the RASE framework and use it to investigate the impact of accumulated disadvantages from multiple compounding variables. We demonstrate that the model can reproduce data of observed disparities in academia. Finally, we use a publicly available visualization and networking tool to provide a sandbox for exploring career outcomes within the model. The modeling exercise, results, and visualization tool may be useful in the context of training STEM faculty to recognize and reduce effects of bias.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Modelos Teóricos , Escolha da Profissão , Engenharia/educação , Humanos , Matemática/educação , Ciência/educação , Tecnologia/educação
10.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0262081, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34972185

RESUMO

The world of science is growing at an unprecedented speed with more and more scholarly papers produced each year. The scientific landscape is constantly changing as research specialties evolve, merge or become obsolete. It is difficult for researchers, research managers and the public alike to keep abreast with these changes and maintain a true and fair overview of the world of science. Such an overview is necessary to stimulate scientific progress, to maintain flexible and responsive research organizations, and to secure collaboration and knowledge exchange between different research specialties and the wider community. Although science mapping is applied to a wide range of scientific areas, examples of their practical use are sparse. This paper demonstrates how to use a topical, scientific reference maps to understand and navigate in dynamic research landscapes and how to utilize science maps to facilitate strategic thinking. In this study, the research domain of biology at Aarhus University serves as an example. All scientific papers authored by the current, permanent staff were extracted (6,830 in total). These papers were used to create a semantic cognitive map of the research field using a co-word analysis based on keywords and keyword phrases. A workflow was written in Python for easy and fast retrieval of information for topic maps (including tokens from keywords section and title) to generate intelligible research maps, and to visualize the distribution of topics (keywords), papers, journal categories, individual researchers and research groups on any scale. The resulting projections revealed new insights into the structure of the research community and made it possible to compare researchers or research groups to describe differences and similarities, to find scientific overlaps or gaps, and to understand how they relate and connect. Science mapping can be used for intended (top-down) as well as emergent (bottom-up) strategy development. The paper concludes that science maps provide alternative views of the intricate structures of science to supplement traditional bibliometric information. These insights may help strengthen strategic thinking and boost creativity and thus contribute to the progress of science.


Assuntos
Biologia/organização & administração , Ciência/organização & administração , Biologia/tendências , Cognição , Comunicação , Dinamarca , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linguagens de Programação , Publicações , Editoração , Pesquisa/organização & administração , Pesquisadores , Ciência/tendências , Semântica , Software , Universidades , Fluxo de Trabalho
12.
Infectio ; 25(4): 205-206, oct.-dic. 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1286714

RESUMO

La pandemia por COVID-19 ha obligado a los gobiernos de todo el mundo a la toma de decisiones con información preliminar, insuficiente o discutible en argumentos científicos, algo que como académicos debemos entender y acompañar y se convierte en un reto mayor: ¿cómo dar recomendaciones con información limitada y reducir las incertidumbres? Para ello, primero que todo, se debe reconocer que estos procesos están sometidos a cambios según la evolución del conocimiento y la comunicación de la información se vuelve crucial para evitar minar la confianza pública ante los cambios. Es así como muchas recomendaciones para el manejo de COVID 19 han venido evolucionando a medida que se conoce mejor la patogénesis, sus mecanismos de transmisión y las particularidades en la respuesta inmune y, por ejemplo, pasamos de una recomendación inicial de medidas de prevención que incluía limpieza de superficies a una en la cual el énfasis es la limitación en número de personas en reunión. La Asociación Colombiana de infectología junto con otras 27 sociedades científicas lleva tres diferentes actualizaciones de recomendaciones basadas en evidencia en los primeros 12 meses de pandemia, es decir cada tres meses se han venido revisando las más de 250 recomendaciones, lo cual ha significado un trabajo enorme de revisión, discusión y presentación final las cuales, afortunadamente, han sido acogidas y tomadas como base de las decisiones gubernamentales.


The COVID-19 pandemic has forced governments around the world to take decisions on preliminary, insufficient The COVID-19 pandemic has forced governments around the world to make decisions with preliminary, insufficient or debatable information on scientific grounds, something that as academics we must understand and accompany and which becomes a major challenge: how to give recommendations with limited information and reduce uncertainties? To do this, first of all, it must be recognised that these processes are subject to change as knowledge evolves and the communication of information becomes crucial to avoid undermining public confidence in the face of change. Thus, many recommendations for the management of COVID 19 have evolved as the pathogenesis, transmission mechanisms and particularities of the immune response have become better understood and, for example, we have gone from an initial recommendation of measures to be taken in response to COVID 19 to a recommendation of measures to be taken in response to COVID 19, we have moved from an initial recommendation for prevention measures that included surface cleaning to one in which the emphasis is on limiting the number of people at a meeting. The Colombian Association of Infectious Diseases, together with 27 other scientific societies, has scientific societies has three different updates of evidence-based evidence-based recommendations in the first 12 months of a pandemic, i.e. every months of the pandemic, i.e. every three months, the more than 250 recommendations have been This has meant an enormous work of review, discussion and final presentation which, fortunately, have been accepted and taken as a basis for governmental decisions. and taken as a basis for governmental decisions.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Comunicação , Informação , Ciência , Sociedades Científicas , Tomada de Decisões , Decisões , Pandemias , Governo
13.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261622, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932610

RESUMO

The skill of analyzing and interpreting research data is central to the scientific process, yet it is one of the hardest skills for students to master. While instructors can coach students through the analysis of data that they have either generated themselves or obtained from published articles, the burgeoning availability of preprint articles provides a new potential pedagogical tool. We developed a new method in which students use a cognitive apprenticeship model to uncover how experts analyzed a paper and compare the professional's cognitive approach to their own. Specifically, students first critique research data themselves and then identify changes between the preprint and final versions of the paper that were likely the results of peer review. From this activity, students reported diverse insights into the processes of data presentation, peer review, and scientific publishing. Analysis of preprint articles is therefore a valuable new tool to strengthen students' information literacy and understanding of the process of science.


Assuntos
Análise de Dados , Pré-Publicações como Assunto , Ciência/educação , Ensino , Comunicação , Humanos , Revisão por Pares , Materiais de Ensino
15.
Nat Hum Behav ; 5(11): 1464-1465, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725514
16.
Nurs Clin North Am ; 56(4): 635-645, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749901

RESUMO

Through four decades of rising obesity, health policy has been mostly ineffective. Prevention policies failed to reverse rising trends in prevalence, partly because they are often based on biased mental models about what should work to prevent obesity, rather than empiric evidence for what does work. Bias toward people living with obesity harms health, while contributing to poor access to effective care that might serve to improve it. Better public policy will come from an increased application of objective obesity science, research to fill knowledge gaps, and respect for the human dignity of people who live with obesity.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde/tendências , Promoção da Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Obesidade , Ciência , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Saúde da População
17.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 405, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727971

RESUMO

There has been an important global interest in Open Science, which include open data and methods, in addition to open access publications. It has been proposed that public availability of raw data increases the value and the possibility of confirmation of scientific findings, in addition to the potential of reducing research waste. Availability of raw data in open repositories facilitates the adequate development of meta-analysis and the cumulative evaluation of evidence for specific topics. In this commentary, we discuss key elements about data sharing in open repositories and we invite researchers around the world to deposit their data in them.


Assuntos
Acesso à Informação , Pesquisa Biomédica , Ciência , Humanos , Pesquisadores , Ciência/normas
18.
IEEE Pulse ; 12(5): 19-23, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34714736

RESUMO

How do we begin to consider ways to broaden the reach of our field, both to engage younger students and also those from different ethnicities, classes, and socio-economic backgrounds? Where are the opportunities to make our research, our laboratory, our surrounding community more open, inclusive, and diverse? By what means can we increase outreach in our communities, providing avenues for diverse students to explore STEM topics and engage in research?


Assuntos
Engenharia , Ciência/educação , Estudantes , Tecnologia/educação , Engenharia/educação , Humanos
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