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1.
Science ; 379(6629): 247, 2023 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36656958
2.
Curr Opin HIV AIDS ; 18(1): 12-17, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36503877

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent years have seen major investments into HIV cure research, seeking a permanent cure or remission. The purpose of this review is to consider how this important research agenda could be broadened to include issues of acceptability and appropriateness for different populations. RECENT FINDINGS: We discuss how the definitions of cure such as functional cure (remission) or complete cure (viral elimination) could be interpreted differently by various populations. We also discuss the different methods of cure and the importance of including Africa in cure research to ensure that emerging remedies could be trialled and utilized on the continent that bears the brunt of the AIDS pandemic. SUMMARY: We propose that the social science research of HIV cure acceptability should be done concurrently with the basic and clinical sciences, to ensure that cure methods consider stakeholder preferences.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Humanos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , África , Investimentos em Saúde , Pandemias , Ciências Sociais
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(47): e31913, 2022 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36451466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is a public health issue. The aim of this investigation was to determine the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on the disputation of challenges to quitting tobacco smoking among students enrolled in the Social Science and religious Education programmes. METHODS: The study adopted a pretest-posttest randomized controlled group design with follow-up. The population comprised of 76 tobacco smokers (randomized into 1 of 2 groups: n = 38 for the treatment group, n = 38 for the waitlist control group) completed the study. A self-report scale measuring dependence on cigarettes was used as the outcome measure. The treatment group was exposed to a 12-weeks CBT intervention. The treatment and waitlisted groups were evaluated at 3 time points: pretest, post-test, and follow-up. Statistical analyses were achieved using ANOVA. RESULTS: The result showed that CBT had a significant effect in reducing the challenges to quitting tobacco smoking among the student smokers in the treatment group in comparison with the waitlist control group. The positive behavioral gains after the CBT program also persisted at follow-up in the treatment group compared with the waitlist control group. CONCLUSION: Therefore, this study suggests that CBT intervention is a time-effective treatment method for disputation of challenges to quitting tobacco smoking among students enrolled in the Social Science and Religious Education Programmes.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Religião e Ciência , Humanos , Fumar Tabaco/terapia , Ciências Sociais , Estudantes
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36554549

RESUMO

Accessibility and Universal Design (UD) is an area of professional interest for architects and occupational therapists, but college curricula rarely include both broader and collaborative education in this area. This article presents the experience of the inter-university, interdisciplinary project "Joint Architecture Initiative" (JAI), with the participation of students from the University of Science and Technology, University of Health and Sport Science, and Academy of Fine Arts in Wroclaw (Poland). The JAI project is a response of the university community of Wroclaw to the social-urban campaign "Life Without Barriers" and the needs of residents-the elderly and people with disabilities-for adaptation and modification of housing. The paper presents the theoretical background of the problem, the stages of implementation of the JAI project from the perspective of the model-human-environment-occupation-the tasks of project team members, and the justification for the need to create interdisciplinary teams from the area of technical and health sciences, with particular emphasis on occupational therapy practice (OTP).


Assuntos
Terapia Ocupacional , Ciências Sociais , Humanos , Idoso , Estudantes , Currículo , Terapia Ocupacional/educação , Polônia
7.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0263552, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36417402

RESUMO

Social science research is key for understanding and for predicting compliance with COVID-19 guidelines, and this research relies on survey data. While much focus is on the survey question stems, less is on the response alternatives presented that both constrain responses and convey information about the assumed expectations of the survey designers. The focus here is on the choice of response alternatives for the types of behavioral frequency questions used in many COVID-19 and other health surveys. We examine issues with two types of response alternatives. The first are vague quantifiers, like "rarely" and "frequently." Using data from 30 countries from the Imperial COVID data hub, we show that the interpretation of these vague quantifiers (and their translations) depends on the norms in that country. If the mean amount of hand washing in a country is high, it is likely "frequently" corresponds to a higher numeric value for hand washing than if the mean in the country is low. The second type are sets of numeric alternatives and they can also be problematic. Using a US survey, respondents were randomly allocated to receive either response alternatives where most of the scale corresponds to low frequencies or where most of the scale corresponds to high frequencies. Those given the low frequency set provided lower estimates of the health behaviors. The choice of response alternatives for behavioral frequency questions can affect the estimates of health behaviors. How the response alternatives mold the responses should be taken into account for epidemiological modeling. We conclude with some recommendations for response alternatives for behavioral frequency questions in surveys.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ciências Sociais , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos
8.
Behav Brain Sci ; 45: e309, 2022 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36396422

RESUMO

We received several commentaries both challenging and supporting our hypothesis. We thank the commentators for their thoughtful contributions, bringing together alternative hypotheses, complementary explanations, and appropriate corrections to our model. Here, we explain further our hypothesis, using more explicitly the framework of evolutionary social sciences. We first explain what we believe is the ultimate function of fiction in general (i.e., entertainment) and how this hypothesis differs from other evolutionary hypotheses put forward by several commentators. We then turn to the proximate features that make imaginary worlds entertaining and, therefore, culturally successful. We finally explore how these insights may explain the distribution of imaginary worlds across time, space, age, and social classes.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Ciências Sociais , Humanos
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(48): e2201266119, 2022 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36413499

RESUMO

Health authorities have highlighted "pandemic fatigue" as a psychological consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic and warned that "fatigue" could demotivate compliance with health-related policies and mandates. Yet, fatigue from following the policies of authorities may have consequences far beyond the health domain. Theories from the social sciences have raised that real and perceived costs of policies can also drive sentiments of discontent with the entire political establishment. Integrating theories from the health and social sciences, we ask how pandemic fatigue (i.e., perceived inability to "keep up" with restrictions) developed over the pandemic and whether it fueled political discontent. Utilizing longitudinal and panel surveys collected from September 2020 to July 2021 in eight Western countries (N = 49,116), we analyze: 1) fatigue over time at the country level, 2) associations between pandemic fatigue and discontent, and 3) the effect of pandemic fatigue on political discontent using panel data. Pandemic fatigue significantly increased with time and the severity of interventions but also decreased with COVID-19 deaths. When triggered, fatigue elicited a broad range of discontent, including protest support and conspiratorial thinking. The results demonstrate the significant societal impact of the pandemic beyond the domain of health and raise concerns about the stability of democratic societies, which were already strained by strife prior to the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Política de Saúde , Ciências Sociais , Custos e Análise de Custo
10.
Science ; 378(6620): 611, 2022 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36356128

RESUMO

The borderland between wakefulness and sleep promotes creativity.


Assuntos
Criatividade , Testes Psicológicos , Sono , Vigília , Humanos , Ciências Sociais
11.
Soc Sci Res ; 108: 102799, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334924

RESUMO

In the midst of the current causal revolution, experimental methods are increasingly embraced across the social sciences. We first document the growth in the use of the experimental method and then overview the current state of the field along with suggestions for future research. Our review covers the core features of experiments that facilitate causal inference, and we offer numerous examples of different experimental designs and the types of research questions they are well-suited to test. We then harmonize popular but differing perspectives on validity in regard to experiments focused on theoretical considerations. Next, we detail a new framework of purposive sampling for social science experiments, suggesting researchers could benefit from moving beyond only two stock choices of representativeness or convenience. We then discuss issues of analysis unique to experimental data before ending with a critical discussion of null findings, open-science practices, social desirability, and other open debates in the experimental methods literature.


Assuntos
Projetos de Pesquisa , Ciências Sociais , Humanos , Causalidade
12.
Soc Sci Res ; 108: 102807, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334925

RESUMO

Computational power and big data have created new opportunities to explore and understand the social world. A special synergy is possible when social scientists combine human attention to certain aspects of the problem with the power of algorithms to automate other aspects of the problem. We review selected exemplary applications where machine learning amplifies researcher coding, summarizes complex data, relaxes statistical assumptions, and targets researcher attention to further social science research. We aim to reduce perceived barriers to machine learning by summarizing several fundamental building blocks and their grounding in classical statistics. We present a few guiding principles and promising approaches where we see particular potential for machine learning to transform social science inquiry. We conclude that machine learning tools are increasingly accessible, worthy of attention, and ready to yield new discoveries for social research.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Ciências Sociais , Humanos
13.
Soc Sci Res ; 108: 102780, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334928

RESUMO

This paper reports a first look at the founding of Social Science Research, providing a few key signposts but keenly aware that a full history must await recovery of many additional documentary materials. The journal was founded by James S. Coleman and Peter H. Rossi, who had trained at Columbia, taught at Chicago, and founded the interdisciplinary Department of Social Relations at Johns Hopkins. The Coleman-Rossi vision statement embeds three key ideas: (1) quantitative theoretical work and quantitative empirical work are close and constant partners; (2) quantitative theoretical work and quantitative empirical work each require special methods; and (3) crossing disciplinary lines spurs the growth of knowledge. The first issue of Social Science Research appeared in 1972. Then as now, SSR welcomed papers that may be too innovative or too technical (or too long or too short) for other journals, inclusive of papers that cross traditional disciplinary lines. Examination of the first four volumes (1972-1975) reveals a beautiful realization of the founders' vision - a collection of rigorous quantitative papers from across the social sciences, pushing frontiers in both theory and empirics and in both substance and methods. There is innovation and creativity - and a touch of the playfulness that accelerates the growth of knowledge.


Assuntos
Aniversários e Eventos Especiais , Ciências Sociais , Humanos , Chicago
14.
Soc Sci Res ; 108: 102784, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334929

RESUMO

The emergence of big data and computational tools has introduced new possibilities for using large-scale textual sources in sociological research. Recent work in sociology of culture, science, and economic sociology has shown how computational text analysis can be used in theory building and testing. This review starts with an introduction of the history of computer-assisted text analysis in sociology and then proceeds to discuss five families of computational methods used in contemporary research. Using exemplary studies, it shows how dictionary methods, semantic and network analysis tools, language models, unsupervised, and supervised machine learning can assist sociologists with different analytical tasks. After presenting recent methodological developments, this review summarizes several important implications of using large datasets and computational methods to infer complex meaning in texts. Finally, it calls researchers from different methodological traditions to adopt text mining tools while remaining mindful of lessons learned from working with conventional data and methods.


Assuntos
Mineração de Dados , Idioma , Humanos , Mineração de Dados/métodos , Ciências Sociais , Sociologia
15.
Soc Sci Med ; 314: 115470, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327636

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This article compares research on biological embedding and the embodiment of social experiences, two concepts proposed in the 1990s to introduce a new perspective on the social production of health inequalities. We draw on Ludwig Fleck's concept of 'thought style' (1935/2008) to question the possible emergence of a common research program around the processes by which the social becomes biological. METHODS: We compiled a corpus of 322 articles referring to either biological embedding or to the embodiment of social experiences, identified in the Web of Science core collection and published from 1990 to 2021. We analyzed the articles' use of these concepts using scientometric indicators and qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: Initial differences between the research agendas associated with biological embedding and embodiment are strengthened as both concepts circulate around scientific communities studying the social production of health inequalities. Thought styles formed around embedding and embodiment differ significantly in terms of shared references, sets of methods and research questions, and policy recommendations. Research on biological embedding forms a thought style shared by researchers in the biomedical and public health sciences. Conversely, the concept of embodiment of social experiences connects perspectives from biomedical, public health, human and social sciences, and gathers three thought styles, one identical to that of biological embedding and two formed in social epidemiology and in medical anthropology. CONCLUSIONS: Acknowledging the differences between the concepts and divergences in their evolution provides an opportunity for identification of topics where thought styles are either complementary or in tension.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Ciências Sociais , Humanos , Antropologia Médica , Saúde Pública , Pesquisadores
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(43): e31353, 2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36316831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The dispositions of students towards critical thinking (CT) no doubt improve their clinical practice and performance. Hence, efforts to explore ways to help students become aware and conscious of the need for CT are imperative for their self-actualization, development, and improved professional practice. It is worrisome that in spite of the limited intervention addressing CT disposition challenges, scholars are yet to study the problem, especially in developing countries. METHODS: In view of that, we assessed how CT disposition can be improved among students enrolled in cognitive-behavioral reflective training programme (CBRT-P) using a group-randomized control study with three months follow-up. To achieve this, 163 students were allocated to different groups. The recruited participants were exposed to CBRT-P. RESULTS: Repeated-measures analysis performed shows that at the posttest, the mean CT disposition scores of the participants enrolled in CBRT-programme (treatment group) were significantly greater compared to the counterpart group that is the comparison group. At the third assessment, the mean score of the dependent measure consistently remained higher in favor of the experimental group. CONCLUSION: Given the results, it is concluded that the treatment programme improves the CT disposition of students over time.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Enfermagem , Pensamento , Humanos , Ciências Sociais , Religião , Cognição
17.
Adv Mar Biol ; 93: 117-145, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36435591

RESUMO

As a common concern of humankind, the governance of coastal and marine ecosystems is increasingly coming to the fore of the international community as part of the joint response to climate change. Since the signing of the Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea several decades ago, the international community has been exploring how international law can be improved in this respect. At present, the governance and international law of coastal and marine ecosystems in response to climate change are studied from theoretical and methodological perspectives. Extensive empirical studies help pinpoint specific issues related to each topic and provide valuable empirical references for both developed and developing countries. Based on social science publications, the authors use technical means to visualize research related to this topic, and conduct comprehensive reviews of these papers. They reveal that research based on these topics started late and is characterized by fragmentation. The research potential related to mentioned topic has yet to be explored extensively.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Humanos , Direito Internacional , Ciências Sociais , Cooperação Internacional
18.
Nature ; 610(7933): 643-651, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36289386

RESUMO

The risks of climate change are enormous, threatening the lives and livelihoods of millions to billions of people. The economic consequences of many of the complex risks associated with climate change cannot, however, currently be quantified. Here we argue that these unquantified, poorly understood and often deeply uncertain risks can and should be included in economic evaluations and decision-making processes. We present an overview of these unquantified risks and an ontology of them founded on the reasons behind their lack of robust evaluation. These consist of risks missing owing to delays in sharing knowledge and expertise across disciplines, spatial and temporal variations of climate impacts, feedbacks and interactions between risks, deep uncertainty in our knowledge, and currently unidentified risks. We highlight collaboration needs within and between the natural and social science communities to address these gaps. We also provide an approach for integrating assessments or speculations of these risks in a way that accounts for interdependencies, avoids double counting and makes assumptions clear. Multiple paths exist for engaging with these missing risks, with both model-based quantification and non-model-based qualitative assessments playing crucial roles. A wide range of climate impacts are understudied or challenging to quantify, and are missing from current evaluations of the climate risks to lives and livelihoods. Strong interdisciplinary collaboration and deeper engagement with uncertainty is needed to properly inform policymakers and the public about climate risks.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Modelos Climáticos , Modelos Econômicos , Medição de Risco , Humanos , Mudança Climática/economia , Mudança Climática/estatística & dados numéricos , Incerteza , Ciências Sociais , Disciplinas das Ciências Naturais , Formulação de Políticas
20.
NTM ; 30(4): 541-567, 2022 12.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36251039

RESUMO

With the demand for "counter-knowledge" in the social movements of the 1970s and 1980s, "counter-experts" became an integral part of politics. In the field of environmental activism, counter-experts were particularly well represented in regions and agglomerations with high levels of industrial pollution. This essay argues that awareness correlated with a mode of knowledge production that was typical for the environmental sciences in the twentieth century. The history of the environmental sciences throughout that period was shaped by regional epistemologies, often emerging in the context of large-scale infrastructural projects. Many counter-experts therefore had strong ties with the field of the environmental sciences. The article traces three influential counter-experts in the Frankfurt Main region by 1980: the pastor Kurt Oeser; scientific green activist Jutta Ditfurth; and the project of a "social natural science" related to the Darmstadt philosopher Gernot Böhme.


Assuntos
Conhecimento , Política , História do Século XX , Ciências Sociais , Poluição Ambiental
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