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1.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1045, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658224

RESUMO

Salbutamol is a drug used to treat the pulmonary diseases by ameliorate the medium and large airways in the lungs. Partitioning of salbutamol drug on the aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) of PEG1000,1500,2000,4000,6000 + trilithium citrate + water was determined at T = 298.15 K. The effect of molecular mass of polymer (MMP) on the binodal and tie-line compositions were studied. Results showed that the biphasic area was extended as the MMP was increased. The salting-out ability were quantified using the Setschenow model, and the binodal curves were modeled by a nonlinear 3-parameter equation. Furthermore, electrolyte Wilson along with the osmotic virial models have adequately been implemented to fit the tie-line compositions. Also, the studied ATPSs were implemented to study the partitioning of salbutamol drug on the salt-affluent and polymer-affluent phases. It is observed that, ATPSs of PEG1000 is premium to extract the salbutamol to the polymer-affluent phase, where, the ATPSs of PEG6000 is more favorable to extract the drug to the salt-affluent phase.


Assuntos
Polietilenoglicóis , Água , Citratos , Cloreto de Sódio , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta
2.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677544

RESUMO

Citrate anticoagulant concentration affects the results of coagulation tests. Until now, the end user had no direct insight into the quality of evacuated blood collection tubes. By introducing an easy-to-perform UV spectrometric method for citrate determination on a purified water model, we enabled the evaluation of (1) the accuracy of the anticoagulant amount added into the tubes by a producer, (2) the accuracy of the volume of anticoagulant solution in the tube at the instant of examination, (3) the anticoagulant concentrations at a draw volume. We examined the Vacuette®, Greiner BIO-ONE, Vacutube, LT Burnik d.o.o., and BD Vacutainer® tubes. The anticoagulant amount added into the tubes during production had a relative bias between 3.2 and 23.0%. The anticoagulant volume deficiency at the instant of examination expressed as a relative bias ranged between -11.6 and -91.1%. The anticoagulant concentration relative bias after the addition of purified water in a volume that equalled a nominal draw volume extended from 9.3 to 25.7%. Draw-volume was mostly compliant during shelf life. Only Vacutube lost water over time. Contamination with potassium, magnesium, or both was observed in all the tubes but did not exceed a 0.21 mmol/L level. This study enables medical laboratories to gain insight into the characteristics of the citrate blood collection tubes as one of the preanalytical variables. In situations that require anticoagulant adjustment for accurate results, this can help make the right decisions. The methodology gives producers additional means of controlling the quality of their production process.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes , Ácido Cítrico , Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Ácido Cítrico/química , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/métodos , Citratos , Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea
3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 145(4): 2104-2117, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36661842

RESUMO

The existence of labile iron pools (LFePs) in biological systems has been recognized for decades, but their chemical composition remains uncertain. Here, the LFeP in cytosol from Escherichia coli was investigated. Mössbauer spectra of whole vs lysed cells indicated significant degradation of iron-sulfur clusters (ISCs), even using an unusually gentle lysis procedure; this demonstrated the fragility of ISCs. Moreover, the released iron contributed to the non-heme high-spin Fe(II) species in the cell, which likely included the LFeP. Cytosol batches isolated from cells grown with different levels of iron supplementation were passed through a 3 kDa cutoff membrane, and resulting flow-through-solutions (FTSs) were subjected to SEC-ICP-MS. Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to evaluate the oxidation states of standards. FTSs exhibited iron-detected peaks likely due to different forms of Fe-citrate and Fe-nucleotide triphosphate complexes. Fe-Glutathione (GSH) complexes were not detected using physiological concentrations of GSH mixed with either Fe(II) or Fe(III); Fe(II)-GSH was concluded not to be a significant component of the LFeP in E. coli under physiological conditions. Aqueous iron was also not present in significant concentrations in isolated cytosol and is unlikely a major component of the pool. Fe appeared to bind ATP more tightly than citrate, but ATP also hydrolyzed on the timescale of tens of hours. Isolated cytosol contained excess ligands that coordinated the added Fe(II) and Fe(III). The LFeP in healthy metabolically active cells is undoubtedly dominated by the Fe(II) state, but the LFeP is redox-active such that a fraction might be present as stable and soluble Fe(III) complexes especially under oxidatively stressed cellular conditions.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Ferro , Ferro/química , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Ácido Cítrico , Citosol/metabolismo , Citratos , Compostos Ferrosos , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Glutationa , Espectroscopia de Mossbauer
4.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 61(1): 55-66, 2023 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36069790

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Quantitative protein mass-spectrometry (QPMS) in blood depends on tryptic digestion of proteins and subsequent measurement of representing peptides. Whether serum and plasma can be used interchangeably and whether in-vitro anticoagulants affect the recovery is unknown. In our laboratory serum samples are the preferred matrix for QPMS measurement of multiple apolipoproteins. In this study, we investigated the effect of different matrices on apolipoprotein quantification by mass spectrometry. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 44 healthy donors in Beckton Dickinson blood tubes simultaneously for serum (with/without gel) and plasma (heparin, citrate or EDTA). Nine apolipoproteins were quantified according to standard operating procedure using value-assigned native serum calibrators for quantitation. Tryptic digestion kinetics were investigated in the different matrices by following formation of peptides for each apolipoprotein in time, up to 22 h. RESULTS: In citrate plasma recovery of apolipoproteins showed an overall reduction with a bias of -14.6%. For heparin plasma only -0.3% bias was found compared to serum, whereas for EDTA-plasma reduction was more pronounced (-5.3% bias) and variable with >14% reduction for peptides of apoA-I, A-II and C-III. Digestion kinetics revealed that especially slow forming peptides showed reduced formation in EDTA-plasma. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma anticoagulants affect QPMS test results. Heparin plasma showed comparable results to serum. Reduced concentrations in citrate plasma can be explained by dilution, whereas reduced recovery in EDTA-plasma is dependent on altered proteolytic digestion efficiency. The results highlight the importance of a standardized pre-analytical phase for accurate QPMS applications in clinical chemistry.


Assuntos
Heparina , Fase Pré-Analítica , Humanos , Ácido Edético , Espectrometria de Massas , Anticoagulantes , Ácido Cítrico , Citratos
5.
Metabolism ; 138: 155346, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) and bariatric surgery have proven to be effective treatments for obesity and cardiometabolic conditions. We aimed to explore the early metabolomic changes in response to GLP-1RA (liraglutide) therapy vs. placebo and in comparison to bariatric surgery. METHODS: Three clinical studies were conducted: a bariatric surgery cohort study of participants with morbid obesity who underwent either Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or sleeve gastrectomy (SG) studied over four and twelve weeks, and two randomized placebo-controlled, crossover double blind studies of liraglutide vs. placebo administration in participants with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and participants with obesity studied for three and five weeks, respectively. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-derived metabolomic data were assessed in all eligible participants who completed all the scheduled in-clinic visits. The primary outcome of the study was to explore the changes of the metabolome among participants with obesity with and without T2D receiving the GLP-1RA liraglutide vs. placebo and participants with obesity undergoing bariatric surgery during the three to five-week study period. In addition, we assessed the bariatric surgery effects longitudinally over the twelve weeks of the study and the differences between the bariatric surgery subgroups on the metabolome. The trials are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT03851874, NCT01562678 and NCT02944500. RESULTS: Bariatric surgery had a more pronounced effect on weight and body mass index reduction (-14.19 ± 5.27 kg and - 5.19 ± 5.27, respectively, p < 0.001 for both) and resulted in more pronounced metabolomic and lipidomic changes compared to liraglutide therapy at four weeks postoperatively. Significant changes were observed in lipoprotein parameters, inflammatory markers, ketone bodies, citrate, and branched-chain amino acids after the first three to five weeks of intervention. After adjusting for the amount of weight loss, a significant difference among the study groups remained only for acetoacetate, ß-hydroxybutyrate, and citrate (p < 0.05 after FDR correction). Glucose levels were significantly reduced in all intervention groups but mainly in the T2D group receiving GLP-1RA treatment. After adjusting for weight loss, only glucose levels remained significant (p = 0.001 after FDR correction), mainly due to the glucose change in the T2D group receiving GLP-1RA. Similar results with those observed at four weeks were observed in the surgical group when delta changes at twelve weeks were assessed. Comparing the two types of bariatric surgery, an intervention effect was more pronounced in the RYGB subgroup regarding total triglycerides, triglyceride-rich lipoprotein size, and trimethylamine-N-oxide (p for intervention: 0.031, 0.028, 0.036, respectively). However, after applying FDR correction, these changes deemed to be only suggestive; only time effects remained significant with no significant changes persisting in relation to the types of bariatric surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that the early metabolomic, lipid and lipoprotein changes observed between liraglutide treatment and bariatric surgery are similar and result largely from the changes in patients' body weight. Specific changes observed in the short-term post-surgical period between bariatric vs. nonsurgical treated participants, i.e., acetoacetate, ß-hydroxybutyrate, and citrate changes, may reflect changes in patient diets and calorie intake indicating potential calorie and diet-driven metabolomics/lipidomic effects in the short-term postoperatively. Significant differences observed between SG and RYGB need to be confirmed and extended by future studies.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Derivação Gástrica , Liraglutida , Obesidade Mórbida , Humanos , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico , Acetoacetatos , Citratos , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/cirurgia , Gastrectomia , Glucose , Lipoproteínas , Liraglutida/uso terapêutico , Obesidade Mórbida/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Redução de Peso
6.
Semin Nucl Med ; 53(1): 4-17, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35902280

RESUMO

18F-FDG PET/CT, 67Ga-citrate and white blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy are molecular imaging techniques currently used in the diagnostic workup of fever of unknown origin. However, it is unknown which technique fits which patient group best. A systematic literature search has been performed for original articles regarding the use of molecular imaging in fever of unknown origin. A total of 820 eligible studies were screened of which 63 articles evaluating 5094 patients met the inclusion criteria. 18F-FDG PET/CT provided good diagnostic accuracy (with a weighted mean sensitivity, specificity, positive predicting value, negative predictive value, accuracy and helpfulness of 84.4%, 61.8%, 80.7%, 67.8%, 76.3%, and 61.1%, respectively). Even within specific patient groups such as children, elderly, patients with connective tissue diseases, patients on renal replacement therapy, and HIV-infected patients, 18F-FDG PET/CT provided good diagnostic values. For 67Ga-citrate scintigraphy, the weighted mean sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and helpfulness were 42.2%, 80.3%, 82.4%, 41.9%, and 42.2%, respectively. WBC scintigraphy shows a weighted mean sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of 73.5%, 86.3%, 79.1%, 82.4%, and 79.5%, respectively. However, compared to 67Ga-citrate and WBC scintigraphy, significantly more research has been performed using 18F-FDG PET/CT and 18F-FDG PET/CT has the advantage of relatively short procedural duration; it is therefore the preferred molecular diagnostic imaging technique. 67Ga-citrate and WBC scintigraphy can only be considered if 18F-FDG PET/CT is not available.


Assuntos
Febre de Causa Desconhecida , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Criança , Humanos , Idoso , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Citratos , Imagem Molecular , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos
7.
Langmuir ; 39(1): 256-264, 2023 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36577094

RESUMO

Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are one of the most commonly used reagents in colloidal science and biosensor technology. In this work, we first compared AuNPs prepared using four different reducing agents including citrate, glucose, ascorbate, and 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES). At the same absorbance at the surface plasmon peak of 520-530 nm, citrate-AuNPs and glucose-AuNPs adsorbed more DNA and achieved higher affinity to the adsorbed DNA. In addition, citrate-AuNPs had better sensitivity than glucose-AuNPs for label-free DNA detection. Then, using citrate-AuNPs, the effect of aging was studied by incubation of the AuNPs at 22 °C (room temperature) and at 4 °C for up to 6 months. During aging, the colloidal stability and DNA adsorption efficiency gradually decreased. In addition, the DNA sensing sensitivity using a label-free method also dropped around 4-fold after 6 months. Heating at boiling temperature of the aged citrate-AuNPs could not rejuvenate the sensing performance. This study shows that while citrate-AuNPs are initially better than the other three AuNPs in their colloid properties and sensing properties, this edge in performance might gradually decrease due to constantly changing surface properties caused from the aging effect.


Assuntos
Ouro , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Substâncias Redutoras , Ácido Cítrico , DNA , Citratos
8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 57(1): 741-750, 2023 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36535081

RESUMO

Manganese (Mn) oxides have a high surface area and redox potential that facilitate sorption and/or oxidation of organic carbon (OC), but their role in regulating soil C storage is relatively unexplored. Small OC compounds with distinct structures were reacted with Mn(III/IV)-oxides to investigate the effects of OC/Mn molar ratios on Mn-OC interaction mechanisms. Dissolved and solid-phase OC and Mn were measured to quantify the OC sorption to and/or the redox reaction with Mn-oxides. Mineral transformation was evaluated using X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Higher OC/Mn ratios resulted in higher sorption and/or redox transformation; however, interaction mechanisms differed at low or high OC/Mn ratios for some OC. Citrate, pyruvate, ascorbate, and catechol induced Mn-oxide dissolution. The average oxidation state of Mn in the solid phase did not change during the reaction with citrate, suggesting ligand-promoted mineral dissolution, but decreased significantly during reactions with the other compounds, suggesting reductive dissolution mechanisms. Phthalate primarily sorbed on Mn-oxides with no detectable formation of redox products. Mn-OC interactions led primarily to C loss through OC oxidation into inorganic C, except phthalate, which was predominantly immobilized in the solid phase. Together, these results provided detailed fundamental insights into reactions happening at organo-mineral interfaces in soils.


Assuntos
Compostos de Manganês , Óxidos , Oxirredução , Óxidos/química , Óxidos/metabolismo , Compostos de Manganês/química , Minerais , Citratos , Estresse Oxidativo
9.
Mol Metab ; 67: 101653, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36513219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Key cellular metabolites reflecting the immediate activity of metabolic enzymes as well as the functional metabolic state of intracellular organelles can act as powerful signal regulators to ensure the activation of homeostatic responses. The citrate/acetyl-CoA pathway, initially recognized for its role in intermediate metabolism, has emerged as a fundamental branch of this nutrient-sensing homeostatic response. Emerging studies indicate that fluctuations in acetyl-CoA availability within different cellular organelles and compartments provides substrate-level regulation of many biological functions. A fundamental aspect of these regulatory functions involves Nε-lysine acetylation. SCOPE OF REVIEW: Here, we will examine the emerging regulatory functions of the citrate/acetyl-CoA pathway and the specific role of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) acetylation machinery in the maintenance of intracellular crosstalk and homeostasis. These functions will be analyzed in the context of associated human diseases and specific mouse models of dysfunctional ER acetylation and citrate/acetyl-CoA flux. A primary objective of this review is to highlight the complex yet integrated response of compartment- and organelle-specific Nε-lysine acetylation to the intracellular availability and flux of acetyl-CoA, linking this important post-translational modification to cellular metabolism. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: The ER acetylation machinery regulates the proteostatic functions of the organelle as well as the metabolic crosstalk between different intracellular organelles and compartments. This crosstalk enables the cell to impart adaptive responses within the ER and the secretory pathway. However, it also enables the ER to impart adaptive responses within different cellular organelles and compartments. Defects in the homeostatic balance of acetyl-CoA flux and ER acetylation reflect different but converging disease states in humans as well as converging phenotypes in relevant mouse models. In conclusion, citrate and acetyl-CoA should not only be seen as metabolic substrates of intermediate metabolism but also as signaling molecules that direct functional adaptation of the cell to both intracellular and extracellular messages. Future discoveries in CoA biology and acetylation are likely to yield novel therapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Ácido Cítrico , Lisina , Camundongos , Animais , Humanos , Acetilcoenzima A/metabolismo , Lisina/metabolismo , Ácido Cítrico/metabolismo , Acetilação , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Citratos/metabolismo
10.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 54(6): 1261-1269, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) it is frequently found a reduction in urinary citrate of unknown origin. It has been suggested that it could be a marker of acid retention in chronic kidney disease. Our aim was to compare urinary citrate in ADPKD with other nephropathies and to show its relation with serum bicarbonate. METHODS: We determined urinary citrate in patients with several nephropathies and varied renal function. We included 291 patients, 119 with glomerular diseases, 116 with ADPKD, 21 with other nephropathies, and 35 patients with normal renal function. RESULTS: Urinary citrate was higher in women and in patients with normal renal function. ADPKD patients showed similar values of urinary citrate to patients with glomerular diseases and with other nephropathies. We observed a progressive reduction in urinary citrate with renal impairment, in a comparable way among patients with ADPKD and glomerular diseases. We did not observe a relationship with serum bicarbonate. Serum uric acid levels were significantly higher in patients with glomerular diseases than in ADPKD patients, even after correction with the degree of renal function. CONCLUSIONS: Hypocitraturia is not specific of ADPKD but it is also present in all tested nephropathies and is related with renal impairment and not with serum bicarbonate. It could be interesting to study urinary citrate as a marker of renal function and as a prognostic factor.


Assuntos
Rim Policístico Autossômico Dominante , Insuficiência Renal , Bicarbonatos , Biomarcadores , Citratos , Ácido Cítrico , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Rim/fisiologia , Masculino , Rim Policístico Autossômico Dominante/complicações , Ácido Úrico
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36462792

RESUMO

Ingestion and transdermal delivery are two common routes of nanoparticle (NP) exposure. In this study, the intracellular uptake, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of 14 nm and 20 nm citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), 14 nm polyethylene glycol (PEG)-liganded carboxyl AuNPs, 14 nm PEG-liganded hydroxyl AuNPs and 14 nm PEG-liganded amine AuNPs were assessed on human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells and the human skin keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells. The uptake of AuNPs in the cells was confirmed through darkfield microscopy and hyperspectral imaging followed by spectral angle mapping (SAM). A high level of citrate AuNPs was found in both cell lines whilst uptake of PEGylated AuNPs was low, irrespective of their functional groups. Cytotoxicity assessed by cell impedance was only observed for the 14 nm citrate-stabilized AuNPs. Enhanced cell proliferation was also observed in 14 nm PEG-liganded hydroxyl and 14 nm PEG-liganded amine AuNP-treated Caco-2 and HaCaT cells. For the assessment of genotoxicity, the in vitro micronucleus assay was used. Dose-dependent genotoxicity was observed in both Caco-2 and HaCaT cells, with all the AuNPs inducing genotoxicity. In conclusion, the entry of NPs into the cells as well as toxicity was dependent on their physicochemical properties such as surface coating and different chemical functional groups.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasias Colorretais , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Humanos , Células HaCaT , Ouro/toxicidade , Células CACO-2 , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Queratinócitos , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Polietilenoglicóis , Ácido Cítrico , Citratos , Aminas
12.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 54(6): 1134-1140, 2022 Dec 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36533345

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between 24 h urinary ion content and kidney stones, and to explore the diagnostic values of kidney stone in primary gout patients. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with primary gout had ultrasound scanning of both feet and kidneys in Peking University First Hospital from Jan. 2020 to May 2021. Their clinical characteristics were compared between the positive and negative kidney stone groups, and the relationship between kidney stone and urinary ion composition were analyzed. Risk factors of kidney stone were analyzed. The explored diagnostic values were evaluated for urinary oxalate and citrate according with uric acid kidney stones by dual-energy computed tomography (DECT). RESULTS: Among the 100 gouty patients, 80 patients had uric acid crystal deposition in lower joints of extremity by ultrasonography, 61 patients had kidney stone, and 34 had kidney uric acid stones by DECT. All the multiple kidney stones were proved as uric acid kidney stones by DECT. Compared with patients without kidney stone group proved by ultrasonography, patients with kidney stone had longer gouty duration [(48.7±26.6) months vs. (84.0±30.6) months, P=0.01], higher 24 h urinary oxalate [(20.1±9.6) mg vs. (28.6±20.7) mg, P=0.001] and lower 24 h urinary citrate [(506.3±315.4) mg vs. (355.7±219.6) mg, P=0.001]. Compared with the patients without kidney stone by DECT, the patients with uric acid kidney stone also had longer disease duration [(49.1±28.4) months vs. (108.3±72.2) months, P=0.001], higher 24 h urinary oxalate [(23.6±16.9) mg vs. (28.5±18.8) mg, P < 0.05], lower 24 h urinary citrate [(556.0±316.3) mg vs. (391.7±261.2) mg, P < 0.05], higher serum uric acid [(466.2±134.5) µmol/L vs. (517.2±18.1) µmol/L, P < 0.05] and higher 24 h urinary uric acid [(1 518.1±893.4) mg vs. (1 684.2±812.1) mg, P < 0.05]. Logistic regression analysis showed long gout disease duration (OR=1.229, 95%CI: 1.062-1.522, P < 0.05), high serum uric acid level (OR=1.137, 95%CI: 1.001-1.213, P=0.01), low 24 h urinary citrate (OR=0.821, 95%CI: 0.659-0.952, P=0.01) were all risk factors of kidney stones by ultrasonography. Also, long gout disease duration (OR=1.201, 95%CI: 1.101-1.437, P=0.005), high serum creatine uric level (OR=1.145, 95%CI: 1.001-1.182, P=0.04), low 24 h urinary citrate (OR=0.837, 95%CI: 0.739-0.931, P=0.02) were all risk factors of kidney uric acid stones by DECT. CONCLUSION: Long disease duration and low 24 h urinary citrate were risk factors for kidney stones.


Assuntos
Gota , Cálculos Renais , Cálculos Urinários , Humanos , Ácido Úrico/análise , Ácido Cítrico , Cálculos Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Gota/complicações , Gota/diagnóstico por imagem , Citratos , Oxalatos
13.
J Mass Spectrom ; 57(12): e4899, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36517208

RESUMO

Oseltamivir phosphate is widely used to treat and prevent influenza, and is available in the form of capsules, powder for oral suspension, pediatric solutions, and granules. Because of the amino group, oseltamivir is easy to react with the excipients of the formulation to generate drug-excipient interaction impurities. In this research, two degradation products in a commercial oseltamivir phosphate powder for oral suspension due to interaction between API and citrate were investigated. They were characterized to be 3-((-6-acetamido-3-(ethoxycarbonyl)-5-(pentan-3-yloxy)cyclohex-3-en-1-yl)carbamoyl)-3-hydroxypentanedioic acid and 2-(2-((-6-acetamido-3-(ethoxycarbonyl)-5-(pentan-3-yloxy)cyclohex-3-en-1-yl)amino)-2-oxoethyl)-2-hydroxysuccinic acid by MS and NMR, respectively. Furthermore, the formation mechanisms of these impurities were verified, and the method of analysis of covariance was used to assess the rate of impurities' degradation. HIGHLIGHTS: Two excipient interaction degradation products in commercial oseltamivir phosphate powder for oral suspension were studied and elucidated in detail via LC-MS/MS and NMR. The incompatibility risk of pH conditioners such as citrate and citric acid with formulations that contain an amino group was disclosed in this article. Analysis of covariance was demonstrated to assess the impact of various formulations and preparation techniques on the rate of impurity degradation.


Assuntos
Excipientes , Oseltamivir , Humanos , Criança , Oseltamivir/química , Excipientes/química , Pós , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Fosfatos , Citratos
14.
Molecules ; 27(24)2022 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36558186

RESUMO

The influence of stabilizing activity of citric buffers on betacyanins, as well as their thermal dehydrogenation and decarboxylation in a beetroot betalain-rich extract (BRE), was studied at pH 3-8 and temperature 30, 50 and 85 °C with an additional effect of EDTA. In acetate/phosphate buffers, the highest stability is observed at pH 5 and it decreases toward pH 3 as well as pH 8, which is more remarkable at 85 °C. For the citrates, a contradictory effect was observed. Citric buffers tend to stabilize the substrate pigments and their intermediary products in acidic solutions, although increase their reactivity at pH 6-8. The highest impact of EDTA addition on pigment retention in acetate buffers is observed at 85 °C and pH 3-5 as well as 8, reflecting the preserving activity of EDTA at the most unfavorable conditions. At lower temperatures, pigment stability in more acidic conditions is still at higher levels even without addition of citrates or EDTA. The most striking effect on generation of betanin derivatives during heating is 2-decarboxylation which preferentially proceeds in the most acidic environment and this generation rate at 85 °C is much higher in the citrate buffers compared to acetates.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris , Betalaínas , Betacianinas , Ácido Edético , Citratos , Descarboxilação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Extratos Vegetais
15.
Environ Health Perspect ; 130(12): 127004, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36541774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevating dietary calcium (Ca) intake can reduce metal(loid)oral bioavailability. However, the ability of a range of Ca minerals to reduce oral bioavailability of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) from indoor dust remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the ability of Ca minerals to reduce Pb, Cd, and As oral bioavailability from indoor dust and associated mechanisms. METHODS: A mouse bioassay was conducted to assess Pb, Cd, and As relative bioavailability (RBA) in three indoor dust samples, which were amended into mouse chow without and with addition of CaHPO4, CaCO3, Ca gluconate, Ca lactate, Ca aspartate, and Ca citrate at 200-5,000µg/g Ca. The mRNA expression of Ca and phosphate (P) transporters involved in transcellular Pb, Cd and As transport in the duodenum of mice was quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Serum 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], parathyroid hormone (PTH), and renal CYP27B1 activity controlling 1,25(OH)2D3 synthesis were measured using ELISA kits. Metal(loid) speciation in the feces of mice was characterized using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. RESULTS: In general, mice exposed to each of the Ca minerals exhibited lower Pb-, Cd-, and As-RBA for three dusts. However, RBAs with the different Ca minerals varied. Among minerals, mice fed dietary CaHPO4 did not exhibit lower duodenal mRNA expression of Ca transporters but did have the lowest Pb and Cd oral bioavailability at the highest Ca concentration (5,000µg/g Ca; 51%-95% and 52%-74% lower in comparison with the control). Lead phosphate precipitates (e.g., chloropyromorphite) were observed in feces of mice fed dietary CaHPO4. In comparison, mice fed organic Ca minerals (Ca gluconate, Ca lactate, Ca aspartate, and Ca citrate) had lower duodenal mRNA expression of Ca transporters, but Pb and Cd oral bioavailability was higher than in mice fed CaHPO4. In terms of As, mice fed Ca aspartate exhibited the lowest As oral bioavailability at the highest Ca concentration (5,000µg/g Ca; 41%-72% lower) and the lowest duodenal expression of P transporter (88% lower). The presence of aspartate was not associated with higher As solubility in the intestine. DISCUSSION: Our study used a mouse model of exposure to household dust with various concentrations and species of Ca to determine whether different Ca minerals can reduce bioavailability of Pb, Cd, and As in mice and elucidate the mechanism(s) involved. This study can contribute to the practical application of optimal Ca minerals to protect humans from Pb, Cd, and As coexposure in the environment. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP11730.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Cádmio , Animais , Camundongos , Humanos , Disponibilidade Biológica , Poeira , Chumbo , Minerais , Gluconatos , Citratos , RNA Mensageiro
16.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 135(20): 2478-2487, 2022 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36583864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A simplified protocol for regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) using a commercial calcium-containing replacement solution, without continuous calcium infusion, is more efficient for use in continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). We aim to design a randomized clinical trial to compare the safety and efficacy between calcium-free and calcium-containing replacement solutions in CRRT with RCA. METHODS: Of the 64 patients receiving RCA-based postdilution continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) enrolled from 2017 to 2019 in West China Hospital of Sichuan University, 35 patients were randomized to the calcium-containing group and 29 to the calcium-free replacement solution group. The primary endpoint was circuit lifespan and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed. Secondary endpoints included hospital mortality, kidney function recovery rate, and complications. The amount of 4% trisodium citrate solution infusion was recorded. Serum and effluent total (tCa) and ionized (iCa) calcium concentrations were measured during CVVHDF. RESULTS: A total of 149 circuits (82 in the calcium-containing group and 67 in the calcium-free group) and 7609 circuit hours (4335 h vs. 3274 h) were included. The mean circuit lifespan was 58.1 h (95% CI 53.8-62.4 h) in the calcium-containing group vs. 55.3 h (95% CI 49.7-60.9 h, log rank P = 0.89) in the calcium-free group. The serum tCa and iCa concentrations were slightly lower in the calcium-containing group during CRRT, whereas the postfilter iCa concentration was lower in the calcium-free group. Moreover, the mean amounts of 4% trisodium citrate solution infusion were not significantly different between the groups (171.1 ±â€Š15.9 mL/h vs. 169.0 ±â€Š15.1 mL/h, P = 0.49). The mortality (14/35 [40%] vs. 13/29 [45%], P = 0.70) and kidney function recovery rates of AKI patients (19/26, 73% vs. 14/24, 58%, P = 0.27) were comparable between the calcium-containing and calcium-free group during hospitalization, respectively. Six (three in each group) patients showed signs of citrate accumulation in this study. CONCLUSIONS: When compared with calcium-free replacement solution, RCA-based CVVHDF with calcium-containing replacement solution had a similar circuit lifespan, hospital mortality and kidney outcome. Since the calcium-containing solution obviates the need for a separate venous catheter and a large dose of intravenous calcium solution preparation for continuous calcium supplementation, it is more convenient to be applied in RCA-CRRT practice. REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (www.chictr.org.cn, ChiCTR-IPR-17012629).


Assuntos
Ácido Cítrico , Terapia de Substituição Renal Contínua , Humanos , Ácido Cítrico/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Citratos/uso terapêutico , Terapia de Substituição Renal
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18401, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319679

RESUMO

Casein microparticles obtained from casein micelles by volume exclusion of added pectin and subsequent film drying remain stable in the acidic and neutral pH range, but swell strongly in the basic range. Calcium significantly impacts on the stability and water-binding behavior of phosphorylated caseins and the aggregates and gels formed from them. For a future effective and controlled use as a carrier for bioactive substances, e.g. via the gastrointestinal tract, we therefore investigated how the addition of the calcium chelating agent citrate affects the swelling and stability of the microparticles. Citrate concentrations of 2 mM and above cause a stronger swelling of the microparticles at pH 8, while above 4 mM the second characteristic swelling step starts earlier and thus can also be investigated within the observation time of 120 min. All swelling kinetics can be simulated using seven parameters of a dynamic model, which reproduces the individual swelling steps via volume inflows and outflows into a reservoir. While the rate coefficient for swelling step 1 increases linearly with citrate concentration, no such dependence could be found for swelling step 2. The more citrate is used, the faster the microparticles decompose in turbidity experiments after the addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate, which can be related to a weakening of the hydrophobic interactions.


Assuntos
Caseínas , Ácido Cítrico , Caseínas/química , Micelas , Citratos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
18.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 23(11): 931-942, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36379612

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Safe and effective anticoagulation is essential for hemodialysis patients who are at high risk of bleeding. The purpose of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of two-stage regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) combined with sequential anticoagulation and standard calcium-containing dialysate in intermittent hemodialysis (IHD) treatment. METHODS: Patients at high risk of bleeding who underwent IHD from September 2019 to May 2021 were prospectively enrolled in 13 blood purification centers of nephrology departments, and were randomly divided into RCA group and saline flushing group. In the RCA group, 0.04 g/mL sodium citrate was infused from the start of the dialysis line during blood draining and at the venous expansion chamber. The sodium citrate was stopped after 3 h of dialysis, which was changed to sequential dialysis without anticoagulant. The hazard ratios for coagulation were according to baseline. RESULTS: A total of 159 patients and 208 sessions were enrolled, including RCA group (80 patients, 110 sessions) and saline flushing group (79 patients, 98 sessions). The incidence of severe coagulation events of extracorporeal circulation in the RCA group was significantly lower than that in the saline flushing group (3.64% vs. 20.41%, P<0.001). The survival time of the filter pipeline in the RCA group was significantly longer than that in the saline flushing group ((238.34±9.33) min vs. (221.73±34.10) min, P<0.001). The urea clearance index (Kt/V) in the RCA group was similar to that in the saline flushing group with no statistically significant difference (1.12±0.34 vs. 1.08±0.34, P=0.41). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with saline flushing, the two-stage RCA combined with a sequential anticoagulation strategy significantly reduced extracorporeal circulation clotting events and prolonged the dialysis time without serious adverse events.


Assuntos
Ácido Cítrico , Hemorragia , Humanos , Ácido Cítrico/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Citrato de Sódio , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Citratos/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos
19.
Water Res ; 226: 119301, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36369688

RESUMO

In this study, a citrate-modified photo-Fenton process was successfully applied to decontaminate a Chlorella vulgaris microalgae culture spiked with the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus (5 individuals mL-1). The applied treatment (1 mg L-1 Fe2+, 20 mg L-1 H2O2, 17.5 mg L-1 citric acid) had only moderate effects on viability and regrowth of the microalgae since, after a short post-treatment delay of a few days, they reached final cell densities similar to that obtained for microalgae cultures that were not spiked. The decontamination was effective as no regrowth of rotifers was observed in the microalgae cultures after treatment. The efficacy of the citrate-modified photo-Fenton treatment was also studied with a higher starting concentration of 20 rotifers mL-1 and was compared with a solar light/H2O2 treatment. Results show that both treatments had similar efficacies on the rotifer elimination, but that the citrate-modified photo-Fenton treatment had a lower negative impact on the regrowth of microalgae than the solar light/H2O2 treatment. However, when microalgae cultures were spiked with 20 rotifers mL-1, rotifers were only partially inactivated and post-treatment regrowth occurred, which highlights the importance to apply the photo-Fenton process at an early stage of a contamination to achieve full rotifer elimination. In any case, a contamination with 5 rotifers mL-1 is already a significant threat as numbers above 1000 rotifers mL-1 were reached after 14 days and caused the microalgae culture to fail. Overall, our treatment suggests that the citrate-modified solar photo-Fenton process is an environmentally friendly solution to support the maintenance of contaminant-free microalgal cultures.


Assuntos
Chlorella vulgaris , Microalgas , Rotíferos , Animais , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Citratos
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20122, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418453

RESUMO

The optimal use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) and parenteral iron in managing anemia in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) remains controversial. One-size-fits-all rule-based algorithms dominate dosing protocols for ESA and parenteral iron. However, the Food & Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines for using ESAs in chronic kidney disease recommend individualized therapy for the patient. This prospective quality assurance project was at a single hemodialysis (HD) center comprising three 6-month phases (A, B, C) separated by 3-month washout periods. Standard bi-weekly ESA dose titration and intravenous (IV) iron sucrose protocols were used in baseline Phase A, and ferric pyrophosphate citrate (FPC) augmented iron in Phase B. In Phase C, an FPC protocol and weekly, individualized ESA management were used. We examined clinic-level mean differences in hemoglobin (Hb) and ESRD-related outcomes by phase with repeated ANOVA. To examine the Hb at the patient level, we used multi-level mixed-effect regression adjusting for phase, month, and other relevant confounders at each month over time to derive the mean marginal effects of phase. There were 54, 78, and 66 patients in phases A, B, and C, respectively, with raw mean Hb values of 9.9, 10.2, and 10.3 g/dL. The percentage of Hb values < 9 g/dL declined from 14.3% in Phase A to 7.6% in Phase C (p = 0.007). The multivariable mixed-effect regression results showed mean marginal Hb was higher by 0.3 mg/dL and 0.4 mg/dL in Phases B and C, respectively, compared to Phase A. We also observed reduced ferritin (p = 0.003) and transferrin saturation (TSAT) (p = 0.008) levels from Phase A to Phase C with the repeated ANOVA analysis. Ferric pyrophosphate citrate (FPC) appears to support more efficient ESA-stimulated erythropoiesis. Moreover, individualized ESA management combined with FPC (Phase C) was associated with further improvement in efficiency as we observed the fewest patients with Hb values < 9 g/dL concurrent with greater decreases in ferritin levels and reduced ESA doses. However, future prospective studies to confirm these findings on a larger, more diverse cohort of ESRD patients are warranted.


Assuntos
Anemia , Hematínicos , Falência Renal Crônica , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Anemia/etiologia , Anemia/complicações , Ferro/metabolismo , Hematínicos/uso terapêutico , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Falência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Ferritinas , Citratos/uso terapêutico
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