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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149989, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525720

RESUMO

Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are promising equipment for water treatment and power generation. The catalyst used in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode is a critical factor for efficacy of MFCs. Therefore, it is important to develop cost-effective cathode catalysts to enhance application of MFCs. In the current study, a novel cathode catalyst was developed, which was annealed with watermelon rind as raw material and transition metals including iron, and manganese were introduced. The 700Mn/Fe@WRC catalyst, which was annealed at 700 °C, exhibited excellent electrochemical performance. The high relative content of pyridine nitrogen caused by the inherent nitrogen element of the watermelon rind and the high content of iron and manganese elements introduced resulted in increase in electrochemical surface area to 657.6 m2/g. The number of electrons transferred ORR was 3.96, indicating that ORR occurs through a four-electron pathway. The maximum power density of MFCs was 399.3 ± 7.4 mW/m2 with a fitting total internal resistance of 15.242 Ω, and the removal efficiency of COD was 97.1 ± 1.2%. The cost of the 700Mn/Fe@WRC catalyst was approximately 0.15 $/g, which is significantly lower compared with Pt/C (33.0 $/g). Experimental verification showed that the 700Mn/Fe@WRC prepared using the economical watermelon rind biochar (WRC) is an excellent substitute for non-precious metal catalysts used in MFCs.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Citrullus , Catálise , Carvão Vegetal , Eletrodos , Manganês , Oxigênio
2.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131776, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371355

RESUMO

Biosorption using modified biochar has been increasingly adopted for the sustainable removal of uranium-contaminated from an aqueous solution. In this research study, the facile preparation and surface characteristics of magnetized biochar derived from waste watermelon rind to treat U(VI) contaminated water were investigated. The porosity, specific surface area, adsorption capacity, reusability, and stability were effectively improved after the magnetization of biochar. The kinetics and isotherm studies found that the U(VI) adsorption was rate-limiting monolayer sorption on the homogeneous surface of magnetized watermelon rind biochar (MWBC). The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 323.56 mg of U(VI) per g of MWBC at pH 4.0 and 293 K that was higher than that of watermelon rind biochar (WBC) (135.86 mg g-1) and other sourced biochars. The surface interaction mechanism, environmental feasibility, applicability for real-filed water treatment studied in the electromagnetic semi-batch column, and reusability of MWBC were also explored. Furthermore, salient raised the ion exchange and complexation action capacity of MWBC due to the presence of Fe oxide. The overall results indicated that MWBC was not only inexpensive and had a high removal capacity for U(VI), but it also easily enabled phase separation from an aqueous solution, with more than three times reusability at a minimum removal capacity of 99%.


Assuntos
Citrullus , Urânio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Adsorção , Carvão Vegetal , Fenômenos Eletromagnéticos , Cinética , Urânio/análise
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150426, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818756

RESUMO

Chemical fumigants and organic fertilizer are commonly used in facility agriculture to control soil-borne diseases and promote soil health. However, there is a lack of evidence for the effect of non-antibiotic fumigants on the distribution of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in plant rhizosphere soils. Here, the response of a wide spectrum of ARGs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) to dazomet fumigation practice in the rhizosphere soil of watermelon was investigated along its branching, flowering and fruiting growth stages in plastic shelters using high-throughput quantitative PCR approach. Our results indicated that soil fumigation combined with organic fertilizer application significantly increased the relative abundance of ARGs and MGEs in the rhizosphere soil of watermelon plant. The positive correlations between the relative abundance of ARGs and MGEs suggested that soil fumigation might increase the horizontal gene transfer (HGT) potential of ARGs. This result was further confirmed by the enhanced associations between ARG and MGE subtypes in the networks of fumigation treatments. Moreover, bipartite associations between ARGs/MGEs and microbial communities (bacteria and fungi) revealed a higher percentage of linkage between MGEs and microbial taxa in the fumigated soils. Structural equation model analysis further suggested that the increases in antibiotic resistance after fumigation and organic fertilizer application were mainly driven by MGEs and fungal community. Together, our results provide vital evidence that dazomet fumigation process combined with organic fertilizer in plastic shelters has the great potential to promote ARGs' dissemination in the rhizosphere, and raise cautions of the acquired resistance by soil-borne fungal pathogen and the potential spreading of ARGs along soil-plant continuum.


Assuntos
Citrullus , Solo , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Fertilizantes , Fumigação , Genes Bacterianos , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo
4.
Kyobu Geka ; 74(12): 1043-1046, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795151

RESUMO

We experienced a case of a foreign body in the lung with granuloma by aspiration of watermelon seeds. A 72-year-old woman who had been diagnosed as having lung foreign body was admitted to our hospital for the treatment of the pulmonary shadow caused by the granuloma. A foreign body could not be identified by bronchoscopy, and the thoracoscopic partial resection of right S4 was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged from our hospital on the second day after the operation.


Assuntos
Citrullus , Corpos Estranhos , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Idoso , Broncoscopia , Humanos , Pulmão
5.
Plant Sci ; 313: 111074, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763866

RESUMO

Developing dwarf watermelon is a major objective among breeders. The dsh dwarf watermelon germplasm developed in our laboratory is genetically stable. We previously produced preliminary evidence that Cla010726, which encodes a gibberellin 20-oxidase-like protein, is the primary gene controlling dwarfism in watermelon. However, the underlying genetic mechanism was unknown. In this study, we characterized the spontaneous recessive mutant dsh, which is a gibberellin (GA)-deficient mutant. Many of the phenotypic traits of dsh plants are similar to those of known GA-deficient mutants. The dsh plants were sensitive to exogenous bioactive GAs, which increased seedling height. Moreover, a quantitative analysis of endogenous GA3 proved that the bioactive GA3 content was substantially lower than normal in dsh. Additionally, the T5ClaGA20ox RNAi plants generally exhibited dwarfism, with short stems and internodes as well as small leaves and fruit. An examination of the transgenic plants carrying the ClaGA20ox1 promoter-GUS and mutant ClaGA20ox2 promoter-GUS constructs confirmed that two promoter sites are involved in the regulation of ClaGA20ox expression. Hence, mutations in the promoter of the GA20ox gene, which encodes a key enzyme involved in gibberellin biosynthesis, lead to the dwarfism of watermelon plants. The dsh mutant is a potentially useful germplasm resource for developing new watermelon varieties exhibiting dwarfism.


Assuntos
Citrullus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Citrullus/genética , Mutação/genética , Fenótipo , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/genética , China , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo
6.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(8): 2967-2974, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664471

RESUMO

In order to clarify the controlling effect of reductive soil disinfestation (RSD) during low-temperature stubble idle period on watermelon Fusarium wilt, we conducted a pot experiment, containing control (CK), flooded control (FCK), and RSD treatments incorporated with 2% (w/w) alfalfa meal (AL), 0.25% acetic acid (AC), and AL+AC. Real time PCR and Illumian Miseq sequencing were used to determine the abundances of fungi and Fusarium oxysporum as well as fungal community composition. The disease incidence and yield of watermelon were measured. Results showed that the abundance of Fusarium oxysporum and the ratio of Fusarium oxysporum to fungi significantly decreased in the FCK and three RSD treatments, and the disinfestation effects of these treatments ranged from 86.1% to 94.6%. The yield and disease incidence of watermelon significantly increased and decreased in all of the RSD treatments, respectively. There was no significant diffe-rence between FCK and CK treatments. The control efficiencies of Fusarium wilt in AL, AC, and AL+AC were 63.2%, 73.7%, and 94.7%, respectively. The compositions of fungal community in the AL and AC treatments were significantly changed, whereas FCK did not affect fungal community. The relative abundances of dominant fungal genera, such as Zopfiella, Pseudeurotium, Geotrichum, Ascobolus, Westerdykella, and Guehomyces, increased in the RSD treatments. Most of those genera were significantly and negatively correlated with the abundance of Fusarium oxysporum, the ratio of Fusarium oxysporum to fungi, and the disease incidence. In conclusion, RSD treated in the low-temperature stubble free period could effectively control watermelon Fusarium wilt by reshaping fungal community composition.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Citrullus , Fusarium , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Temperatura
7.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684757

RESUMO

Sustainable wastewater treatment is one of the biggest issues of the 21st century. Metals such as Zn2+ have been released into the environment due to rapid industrial development. In this study, dried watermelon rind (D-WMR) is used as a low-cost adsorption material to assess natural adsorbents' ability to remove Zn2+ from synthetic wastewater. D-WMR was characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). According to the results of the analysis, the D-WMR has two colours, white and black, and a significant concentration of mesoporous silica (83.70%). Moreover, after three hours of contact time in a synthetic solution with 400 mg/L Zn2+ concentration at pH 8 and 30 to 40 °C, the highest adsorption capacity of Zn2+ onto 1.5 g D-WMR adsorbent dose with 150 µm particle size was 25 mg/g. The experimental equilibrium data of Zn2+ onto D-WMR was utilized to compare nonlinear and linear isotherm and kinetics models for parameter determination. The best models for fitting equilibrium data were nonlinear Langmuir and pseudo-second models with lower error functions. Consequently, the potential use of D-WMR as a natural adsorbent for Zn2+ removal was highlighted, and error analysis indicated that nonlinear models best explain the adsorption data.


Assuntos
Citrullus/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Zinco/isolamento & purificação , Adsorção , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Modelos Lineares , Termodinâmica , Águas Residuárias/química , Zinco/química
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 226: 112828, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600289

RESUMO

Vanadium (V) is the fifth most abundant transition metal, elevated levels of V are hazardous to plants. Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient for plants and can mitigate heavy metal toxicity. However, the mechanism used by B to promote tolerance to vanadium is unknown. In this study, a combination of physiological and gene expression analysis was used to explain mechanism of B (75 µM) induced V (40 mg L-1) stress tolerance in watermelon. V stress severely reduced root and shoot growth and increased the accumulation of ROS. B application improved tolerance to V by enhancing the expression of B transporter genes (ClaNIP5;1-1, ClaNIP5;1-2, ClaBOR4) that facilitated B uptake and transport while restricting V transport in plant tissues. At cellular level, the higher V retention in leaves was achieved by cell wall chelation, whereas, the higher V exclusion in vacuole of root cell was driven by elevated vacuolar H+-ATPase, H+-PPase activities, and transcript level of ClaVHP1;1, ClaPDR12-1 and ClaPDR12-2 genes facilitated by B application. Moreover, B application reduced tissue ROS cascade by enhancing antioxidant enzymatic activity and expression of superoxide dismutase (ClaCSD1-1, ClaCSD1-2, ClaCSD3, ClaMSD1) and catalase (ClaCAT2-1, ClaCAT2-2) genes that enhanced the defense mechanism of the V treated plants, improved root and shoot growth and tolerance index of watermelon. In conclusion, we demonstrate that ameliorative effect of B in tolerance to V of watermelon was based on B homeostasis and improved antioxidant defense system. These findings might help to increase watermelon production in V polluted soils.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Citrullus , Boro/toxicidade , Citrullus/genética , Folhas de Planta , Raízes de Plantas , Vanádio/toxicidade
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445115

RESUMO

The SWEET (Sugars Will Eventually be Exported Transporter) proteins are a novel family of sugar transporters that play key roles in sugar efflux, signal transduction, plant growth and development, plant-pathogen interactions, and stress tolerance. In this study, 22 ClaSWEET genes were identified in Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) through homology searches and classified into four groups by phylogenetic analysis. The genes with similar structures, conserved domains, and motifs were clustered into the same groups. Further analysis of the gene promoter regions uncovered various growth, development, and biotic and abiotic stress responsive cis-regulatory elements. Tissue-specific analysis showed most of the genes were highly expressed in male flowers and the roots of cultivated varieties and wild cultivars. In addition, qRT-PCR results further imply that ClaSWEET proteins might be involved in resistance to Fusarium oxysporum infection. Moreover, a significantly higher expression level of these genes under various abiotic stresses suggests its multifaceted role in mediating plant responses to drought, salt, and low-temperature stress. The genome-wide characterization and phylogenetic analysis of ClaSWEET genes, together with the expression patterns in different tissues and stimuli, lays a solid foundation for future research into their molecular function in watermelon developmental processes and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses.


Assuntos
Transporte Biológico/genética , Citrullus/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Família Multigênica/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Açúcares/metabolismo , Fusarium/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Filogenia , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética
10.
Gene ; 805: 145910, 2021 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419567

RESUMO

Ethylene is an important regulatory phytohormone for sex differentiation and flower development. As the rate-limiting enzyme encoding genes in ethylene biosynthesis, ACS gene family has been well studied in cucumber; however, little is known in other cucurbit crops, such as melon and watermelon, which show diverse sex types in the field. Here, we identified and characterized eight ACS genes each in the genomes of melon and watermelon. According to the conserved serine residues at C-terminal, all the ACS genes could be characterized into three groups, which were supported by the exon-intron organizations and conserved motif distributions. ACS genes displayed diverse tissue-specific expression patterns among four melon and three watermelon sex types. Furthermore, a comparative expression analysis in the shoot apex identified orthologous pairs with potential functions in sex determination, e.g., ACS1s and ACS6s. All ACS orthologs in melon and watermelon exhibited similar expression patterns in monoecious and gynoecious genotypes, except for ACS11s and ACS12s. As expected, the majority of ACS genes were responsive to exogenous ethephon; however, some orthologs exhibited opposite expression patterns, such as ACS1s, ACS9s, and ACS10s. Collectively, our findings provide valuable ACS candidates related to flower development in various sex types of melon and watermelon.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae/genética , Etilenos/metabolismo , Liases/metabolismo , Diferenciação Sexual/genética , Citrullus/genética , Citrullus/metabolismo , Cucumis sativus/genética , Cucumis sativus/metabolismo , Cucurbitaceae/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Genótipo , Liases/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Diferenciação Sexual/fisiologia
11.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 167: 77-90, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340025

RESUMO

Although Al3+-toxicity is one of the limiting factors for crop production in acidic soils, little is known about the Al3+-tolerance mechanism in watermelon, a fairly acid-tolerant crop. This work aimed to identify the interaction between the H2O2 scavenging pathway and auxin glycosylation relevant to watermelon Al3+-tolerance. By analyzing expressions of hormone-related ClUGTs and antioxidant enzyme genes in Al3+-tolerant (ZJ) and Al3+-sensitive (NBT) cultivars, we identified ClUGT75s (B1, B2, and D1) and ClSOD1-2-ClCAT as crucial components associated with Al3+-tolerance. Al3+-stress significantly increased H2O2 content by 92.7% in NBT and 42.3% in ZJ, accompanied by less Al3+-, auxin (IAA and IBA), and MDA contents in ZJ than NBT. These findings coincided with significant ClSOD1-2 expression and stable dismutation activity in NBT than ZJ. Hence, higher H2O2 content in the root apex of NBT than ZJ correlated with a significant increase in auxin content and ClSOD1-2 up-regulation. Moreover, Al3+-activated ClUGT75D1 and ClUGT75B2 in ZJ coincided with no considerable change in IBA content, suggesting that glycosylation-mediated changes in IBA content might be relevant to Al3+-tolerance in watermelon. Furthermore, exogenous H2O2 and IBA indicated ClUGT75D1 modulating IBA is likely dependent on H2O2 background. We hypothesize that a higher H2O2 level in NBT represses ClUGT75, resulting in increased auxin than those in ZJ roots. Thus, excess in both H2O2 and auxin aggravated the inhibition of root elongation under Al3+-stress. Our findings provide insights on the permissive action of H2O2 in the mediation of auxin glycosylation by ClUGT75 in root apex for Al3+-tolerance in watermelon.


Assuntos
Citrullus , Ácidos Indolacéticos , Citrullus/genética , Glicosilação , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Raízes de Plantas
12.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(10): 2959-2968, 2021 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Watermelon juice is a rich food source of cardioprotective compounds such as arginine, citrulline, and lycopene. Preventative interventions are warranted as risk of cardiovascular disease increases among women after menopause, and age alone is an independent risk factor for vascular dysfunction. Thus, this study evaluated the effects of 100% watermelon juice on measures of vascular function. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial, 21 healthy postmenopausal women were randomized to consume two 360 mL servings of 100% watermelon juice per day or an isocaloric placebo for four weeks. Following a two-week washout period, they consumed the other beverage for an additional four weeks. Before and after each treatment arm, a fasting blood sample was taken for measurement of serum arginine, citrulline, lycopene, glucose, and insulin. Assessments of vascular function included pulse pressure, pulse wave velocity, 24-h ambulatory blood pressure, and flow-mediated dilation. General linear mixed models with intent-to-treat analyses were used to examine the effects of the intervention. Despite a significant treatment effect for circulating lycopene (p = 0.002), no changes in arginine, citrulline, or any vascular measures were observed. Although the juice intervention resulted in a slight but significant increase in fasting serum glucose (p = 0.001), changes in glucose homeostasis were not clinically significant. CONCLUSION: In contrast to findings from previous studies in younger adults and those with pre-existing hypertension, measures of vascular function in this cohort of healthy postmenopausal women were not impacted by supplemental watermelon juice. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT03626168.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Citrullus , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Rigidez Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Alabama , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Homeostase , Humanos , Licopeno/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360809

RESUMO

To investigate the importance of light on healing and acclimatization, in the present study, grafted watermelon seedlings were exposed to darkness (D) or light, provided by blue (B), red (R), a mixture of R (68%) and B (RB), or white (W; 35% B, 49% intermediate spectra, 16% R) LEDs for 12 days. Survival ratio, root and shoot growth, soluble carbohydrate content, photosynthetic pigments content, and photosynthetic performance were evaluated. Seedling survival was not only strongly limited in D but the survived seedlings had an inferior shoot and root development, reduced chlorophyll content, and attenuated photosynthetic efficiency. RB-exposed seedlings had a less-developed root system. R-exposed seedlings showed leaf epinasty, and had the smallest leaf area, reduced chlorophyll content, and suppressed photosynthetic apparatus performance. The R-exposed seedlings contained the highest amount of soluble carbohydrate and together with D-exposed seedlings the lowest amount of chlorophyll in their scions. B-exposed seedlings showed the highest chlorophyll content and improved overall PSII photosynthetic functioning. W-exposed seedling had the largest leaf area, and closely resembled the photosynthetic properties of RB-exposed seedlings. We assume that, during healing of grafted seedlings monochromatic R light should be avoided. Instead, W and monochromatic B light may be willingly adopted due to their promoting effect on shoot, pigments content, and photosynthetic efficiency.


Assuntos
Citrullus , Luz , Fotossíntese , Plântula , Aclimatação , Citrullus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Citrullus/metabolismo , Escuridão , Folhas de Planta , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo
14.
Environ Pollut ; 284: 117498, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261216

RESUMO

A monitoring network was established in streams within a catchment near the Costa Rican Pacific coast (2008-2011) to estimate the impact of pesticides in surface water (84 samples) and sediments (84 samples) in areas under the influence of melon and watermelon production. A total of 66 (water) and 47 (sediment) pesticides were analyzed, and an environmental risk assessment (ERA) was performed for four taxa (algae, Daphnia magna, fish and Chironomus riparius). One fungicide and seven insecticides were detected in water and/or sediment; the fungicide azoxystrobin (water) and the insecticide cypermethrin (sediments) were the most frequently detected pesticides. The insecticides endosulfan (5.76 µg/L) and cypermethrin (301 µg/kg) presented the highest concentrations in water and sediment, respectively. The ERA revealed acute risk in half of the sampling points of the melon-influenced area and in every sampling point from the watermelon-influenced area. Safety levels were exceeded within and around the crop fields, suggesting that agrochemical contamination was distributed along the catchment, with potential influence of nearby crops. Acute risk was caused by the insecticides chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and endosulfan to D. magna, fish and C. riparius; the latter was the organism with the overall highest/continuous risk. High chronic risk was determined in all but one sampling point, and revealed a higher number of pesticides of concern. Cypermethrin was the only pesticide to pose chronic risk for all benchmark organisms. The results provide new information on the risk that tropical crops pose to aquatic ecosystems, and highlight the importance of including the analysis of sediment concentrations and chronic exposure in ERA.


Assuntos
Citrullus , Cucurbitaceae , Praguicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
15.
Planta ; 254(2): 35, 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292405

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Accumulation patterns and gene regulatory networks of sugars and cucurbitacins and related primary and secondary metabolites during cultivated watermelon 'Cheng Lan' and wild watermelon 'PI 632,751' fruit development were identified. Metabolites are the end products of cellular regulatory processes and play important roles in fruit taste formation. However, comprehensive studies on the accumulation patterns of watermelon fruit metabolites and transcriptional regulatory networks are still scarce. In this study, 451 annotated metabolites were identified at four key fruit developmental stages in wild watermelon 'PI 632,751' and modern cultivated watermelon 'Cheng Lan'. Interestingly, 11 sugars and 25 major primary metabolites were mainly accumulated in 'Cheng Lan' during fruit development, which are considered to be the potential metabolites beneficial to the formation of watermelon taste. Cucurbitacins and the main flavonoids were mainly specifically accumulated in 'PI 632,751', not being considered to be responsible for the taste. Moreover, forty-seven genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, glycolysis, and TCA cycle were highly expressed in 'Cheng Lan', which was positively correlated with the accumulation of major primary metabolites. Alternatively, seven UDP-glycosyltransferase genes are closely related to the glycosylation of cucurbitacins through co-expression analysis. Our findings established a global map of metabolite accumulation and gene regulation during fruit development in wild and cultivated watermelons and provided valuable information on taste formation in watermelon fruit.


Assuntos
Citrullus , Citrullus/genética , Frutas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Metaboloma , Paladar , Transcriptoma/genética
16.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2289: 97-110, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270065

RESUMO

Doubled haploid (DH) technology is very advantageous in plant breeding. This technique is beneficial for reducing the time required to obtain pure lines and contributes to the selection efficiency. Using this technique, 100% homozygosity can be achieved in a single generation, while the development of stable lines using the traditional self-pollination method takes from 6 to 8 years. It has long been used in diverse crops including cucurbits. DHs can be obtained via parthenogenesis (pollination mostly with irradiated pollen), gynogenesis (in vitro culture of ovules and ovaries), and androgenesis (in vitro culture of microspores and anthers). All these methods have been used for over 30 years to develop haploid and DH lines in cucurbit crops. Nowadays, many researchers benefit from these techniques routinely. However, there are still many limits for using DH technology in watermelon breeding programmes. The number of developed DH lines is still very low.In this chapter, we present a protocol based on the different studies on haploids and DHs induced in watermelon through irradiated pollen technique, unfertilized ovule/ovary culture and anther/microspore culture. According to the results of all these studies, it is crucial to develop an efficient protocol for haploid embryo induction to enhance the frequency of obtaining haploid embryos in watermelon.


Assuntos
Citrullus/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Haploidia , Óvulo Vegetal/genética , Partenogênese/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Pólen/genética , Polinização/genética
17.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 116: 107-114, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256133

RESUMO

An eight-week investigation was conducted to access the potential impact of dietary watermelon rind powder (WMRP) and L. plantarum CR1T5 (LP) administered individually or in combination on immunity, disease resistance, and growth rate of Nile tilapia fingerlings cultured in a biofloc system. Three hundred twenty fish (average weight 16.57 ± 0.14 g) were distributed into 16 tanks at a rate of 20 fish per tank. The fish were fed different diets: Diet 1 (0 g kg-1 WMRP and 0 CFU g-1 L. plantarum) (control), Diet 2 (40 g kg-1 WMRP), Diet 3 (108 CFU g-1 LP), and Diet 4 (40 g kg-1 WMRP + 108 CFU g-1 LP) for eight weeks. A completely randomized design (CRD) with four replications was applied. Skin mucus, serum immunity, and growth parameters were analyzed every 4 weeks, and a challenge study against S. agalactiae was conducted at the end of the experiment. The findings showed that the inclusion of WMRP + LP, administrated individually or in a mixture, significantly (P<0.05) stimulated growth, skin mucus, and serum immune parameters of Nile tilapia fingerlings compared with the control. The highest values were detected in fish fed the combination of WMRP and LP, as opposed to individual administration of either WMRP or LP, in which no significant differences were detected. Within the challenge study, the relative percent survival (RPS) in Diet 2, Diet 3, and Diet 4 was 48.0%, 52.0%, and 68.0%, respectively. Fish fed 40 g kg-1 WMRP + LP produced significantly higher RPS and protection against S. agalactiae than the other treated groups. Current results suggest that the dual administration of WMRP and LP maybe an effective feed additive for Nile tilapia grown in an indoor biofloc system, capable of improving growth parameters and increasing resistance to S. agalactiae infection.


Assuntos
Citrullus , Lactobacillus plantarum , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Prebióticos , Simbióticos , Ração Animal , Animais , Aquicultura , Ciclídeos/sangue , Ciclídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ciclídeos/imunologia , Dieta/veterinária , Resistência à Doença , Contagem de Leucócitos , Micrococcus , Muco/enzimologia , Muco/imunologia , Muramidase/imunologia , Peroxidase/imunologia , Fagocitose , Pós , Explosão Respiratória , Pele/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/prevenção & controle , Streptococcus agalactiae
18.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 166: 818-826, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225006

RESUMO

Low temperature is a major environmental factor that severely impairs plant growth and productivity. Although the response to low temperature stress is well studied, the mechanisms of chilling tolerance are still not well understood. Here, we describe experiments that aimed to determine whether relative humidity (RH) contribute to chilling tolerance by regulating leaf water potential in watermelon seedlings. Plants exposed to chilling stress (10 °C/5 °C day/night) were severely wilted, and the water potential in their leaves was decreased. We found that maintaining high RH when plants were subjected to chilling-stress conditions attenuated the reduction in leaf water potential, reduced electrolyte leakage, improved the stability of photosynthesis, and alleviated chilling damage. Pretreatment with ABA increased chilling tolerance in low RH conditions but became ineffective in high RH conditions. Analysis of endogenous ABA content indicated that water potential mediated chilling tolerance was independent of ABA. Analysis of stomatal resistance indicated that the maintenance of water potential was related to stomatal resistance but that the balance between water absorption and loss is more important. In conclusion, high RH maintained leaf water potential and cell turgor, maintained better cell morphology, improved stomatal conductance and thus, ultimately improved the chilling tolerance of watermelon seedlings.


Assuntos
Citrullus , Plântula , Umidade , Folhas de Planta , Água
19.
Arch Virol ; 166(10): 2829-2834, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34319452

RESUMO

Watermelon crinkle leaf-associated virus 1 and watermelon crinkle leaf-associated virus 2 (WCLaV-1 and WCLaV-2), two unclassified members of the order Bunyavirales, are phylogenetically related to members of the genus Coguvirus (family Phenuiviridae). The genome of both viruses was reported previously to be composed of three RNA segments. However, the terminal sequences of two genomic RNA segments, namely those encoding the putative movement protein (MP) and the nucleocapsid (NP) protein, remained undetermined. High-throughput sequencing of total RNA and small RNA preparations, combined with reverse transcription PCR amplification followed by sequencing, revealed that the WCLaV-1 and WCLaV-2 possess a bipartite genome consisting of a negative-sense RNA1, encoding the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and an ambisense RNA2, encoding the putative movement (MP) and nucleocapsid (NP) proteins. The two open reading frames of RNA2 are in opposite orientations and are separated by a long AU-rich intergenic region (IR) that may assume a hairpin conformation. RNA1 and RNA2 of both viruses share almost identical 5' and 3' termini, which are complementary to each other up to 20 nt. This genome organization is typical of members of the genus Coguvirus, with which WCLaV-1 and WCLaV-2 also share similar terminal 5' and 3' sequences of RNA1 and RNA2. These molecular features, together with phylogenetic reconstructions support the classification of WCLaV-1 and WCLaV2 as members of two new species in the genus Coguvirus.


Assuntos
Citrullus/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Vírus de RNA de Sentido Negativo/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Vírus de RNA de Sentido Negativo/classificação , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/genética , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Folhas de Planta/virologia , Proteínas do Movimento Viral em Plantas/genética , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Food Chem ; 364: 130432, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182364

RESUMO

Our previous studies had shown that watermelon seed antioxidant peptides (WSAPs: P1-P5) possessed good activities. However, the structure-activity relationship of P1 is still unclear. Quantum chemistry and molecular docking were used to investigate the antioxidant mechanism of P1. The active site of P1 is located at C6H14 on Arg. P1 can bind to DPPH/ABTS through hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interaction. Compared with P2-P4, P1 has the strongest antioxidant capacity. The molecular simulation showed that P1 could enhance the stability of Keap1 by interacting with Asn382, Arg380 and Tyr 334 in the active sites. Compared with the model group, the expression of Keap1 was down-regulated (p < 0.05), while the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 was up-regulated (p < 0.05) after P1 treatment. P1 has the potential ability to activate the signaling pathway Keap1-Nrf2 and improve the antioxidant defense system. This study provides a new perspective for the rational design and mechanism of antioxidant peptides.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Citrullus , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Citrullus/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/genética , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
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