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1.
Exp Parasitol ; 223: 108079, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524381

RESUMO

Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, and it is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Latin America. There are no vaccines, and the chemotherapy available to treat this infection has serious side effects. In a search for alternative treatments, we determined the in vitro susceptibility of epimastigote and trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi and the cytotoxic effects on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of ethanolic extracts obtained from six different plant species. The ethanolic extracts of Ageratina vacciniaefolia, Clethra fimbriata and Siparuna sessiliflora showed antiprotozoal activity against epimastigotes and low cytotoxicity in mammalian cells. However, only the ethanolic extract of C. fimbriata showed activity against T. cruzi trypomastigotes, and it had low cytotoxicity in PBMCs. An analysis on the phytochemical composition of C. fimbriata extract showed that its metabolites were primarily represented by two families of compounds: flavonoids and terpenoids. Lastly, we analyzed whether the A. vacciniaefolia, C. fimbriata, or S. sessiliflora ethanolic extracts induced IFN-γ or TNF-α production. Significantly, ethanolic extracts of C. fimbriata induced TNF-α production and S. sessiliflora induced both cytokines. In addition, C. fimbriata and S. sessiliflora induced the simultaneous secretion of IFN-γ and TNF-α in CD8+ T cells. The antiprotozoal and immunomodulatory activity of C. fimbriata may be related to the presence of flavonoid and triterpene compounds in the extract. Thus, these findings suggest that C. fimbriata may represent a valuable source of new bioactive compounds for the therapeutic treatment of Chagas disease that combines trypanocidal activity with the capacity to boost the immune response.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Ageratina/química , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Clethraceae/química , Colômbia , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Laurales/química , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
2.
BMC Res Notes ; 13(1): 426, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912303

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Plant carnivory is distributed across the tree of life and has evolved at least six times independently, but sequenced and annotated nuclear genomes of carnivorous plants are currently lacking. We have sequenced and structurally annotated the nuclear genome of the carnivorous Roridula gorgonias and that of a non-carnivorous relative, Madeira's lily-of-the-valley-tree, Clethra arborea, both within the Ericales. This data adds an important resource to study the evolutionary genetics of plant carnivory across angiosperm lineages and also for functional and systematic aspects of plants within the Ericales. RESULTS: Our assemblies have total lengths of 284 Mbp (R. gorgonias) and 511 Mbp (C. arborea) and show high BUSCO scores of 84.2% and 89.5%, respectively. We used their predicted genes together with publicly available data from other Ericales' genomes and transcriptomes to assemble a phylogenomic data set for the inference of a species tree. However, groups of orthologs showed a marked absence of species represented by a transcriptome. We discuss possible reasons and caution against combining predicted genes from genome- and transriptome-based assemblies.


Assuntos
Clethraceae , Ericales , Magnoliopsida , Planta Carnívora , Carnivoridade , Genoma de Planta/genética , Filogenia
3.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 37(3): 860-870, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29080359

RESUMO

Systemic neonicotinoid insecticides used in urban arboriculture could pose a risk to bees and other pollinators foraging on treated plants. We measured uptake and dissipation of soil-applied imidacloprid and dinotefuran in nectar and leaves of 2 woody plant species, a broadleaf evergreen tree (Ilex × attenuata) and a deciduous shrub (Clethra alnifolia), to assess concentrations to which pollinators and pests might be exposed in landscape settings. Three application timings, autumn (postbloom), spring (prebloom), and summer (early postbloom), were evaluated to see if taking advantage of differences in the neonicotinoids' systemic mobility and persistence might enable pest control while minimizing transference into nectar. Nectar and tissue samples were collected from in-ground plants and analyzed for residues by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) in 2 successive years. Concentrations found in nectar following autumn or spring applications ranged from 166 to 515 ng/g for imidacloprid and from 70 to 1235 ng/gg for dinotefuran, depending on plant and timing. These residues exceed concentrations shown to adversely affect individual- and colony-level traits of bees. Summer application mitigated concentrations of imidacloprid (8-31 ng/g), but not dinotefuran (235-1191 ng/g), in nectar. Our data suggest that dinotefuran may be more persistent than is generally believed. Implications for integrated pest and pollinator management in urban landscapes are discussed. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:860-870. © 2017 SETAC.


Assuntos
Clethraceae/química , Ilex/química , Neonicotinoides/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Néctar de Plantas/química , Madeira/química , Análise de Variância , Animais , Abelhas , Flores/química , Guanidinas/análise , Inseticidas/análise , Nitrocompostos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
4.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 137(2): 215-220, 2017.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28154334

RESUMO

Recently, the investigation of bioactive constituents from natural products has been performed extensively around the world, yet many plants remain to be studied, even now. The author is especially interested in saponins, which are included in various natural products and Kampo medicines. Based on these study aims, we isolated the chemical constituents of Dianthus japonicus and Clethra barbinervis. The aerial parts of Dianthus japonicus were isolated into nine new (1-9) and seven known oleanane-type triterpene saponins. The structural elucidation of their chemical constituents was examined by several spectroscopic methods. Two new C-glycosyl flavones, two glycosidic derivative of anthranilic acid amides and a maltol glucoside were also isolated from this plant. The isolated compounds were evaluated according to cytotoxic inhibition toward A549 cell lines. Compounds 7-9 showed moderate inhibitory activity. The isolation of a MeOH extract of Clethra barbinervis leaves led to three new triterpene glucosides, i.e. an ursane (ryobunin A, 22), a seco-ursane (ryobunin B, 23) and an oleanane-type glucoside (ryobunin C, 24), along with four known compounds.


Assuntos
Clethraceae/química , Dianthus/química , Saponinas/isolamento & purificação , Células A549 , Antibacterianos , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos , Produtos Biológicos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Flavonas/química , Flavonas/isolamento & purificação , Flavonas/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/química , Glucosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Humanos , Japão , Saponinas/química , Saponinas/farmacologia , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , ortoaminobenzoatos/química , ortoaminobenzoatos/isolamento & purificação , ortoaminobenzoatos/farmacologia
5.
PLoS One ; 11(12): e0169089, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28030648

RESUMO

Clethra barbinervis Sieb. et Zucc. is a tree species that grows naturally at several mine sites and seems to be tolerant of high concentrations of heavy metals, such as Cu, Zn, and Pb. The purpose of this study is to clarify the mechanism(s) underlying this species' ability to tolerate the sites' severe heavy-metal pollution by considering C. barbinervis interaction with root fungal endophytes. We measured the heavy metal concentrations of root-zone soil, leaves, branches, and fine roots collected from mature C. barbinervis at Hitachi mine. We isolated fungal endophytes from surface-sterilized root segments, and we examined the growth, and heavy metal and nutrient absorption of C. barbinervis seedlings growing in sterilized mine soil with or without root fungal endophytes. Field analyses showed that C. barbinervis contained considerably high amounts of Cu, Zn, and Pb in fine roots and Zn in leaves. The fungi, Phialocephala fortinii, Rhizodermea veluwensis, and Rhizoscyphus sp. were frequently isolated as dominant fungal endophyte species. Inoculation of these root fungal endophytes to C. barbinervis seedlings growing in sterilized mine soil indicated that these fungi significantly enhanced the growth of C. barbinervis seedlings, increased K uptake in shoots and reduced the concentrations of Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, and Pb in roots. Without root fungal endophytes, C. barbinervis could hardly grow under the heavy-metal contaminated condition, showing chlorosis, a symptom of heavy-metal toxicity. Our results indicate that the tree C. barbinervis can tolerate high heavy-metal concentrations due to the support of root fungal endophytes including P. fortinii, R. veluwensis, and Rhizoscyphus sp. via growth enhancement, K uptake promotion and decrease of heavy metal concentrations.


Assuntos
Clethraceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Endófitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alimentos , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Mineração , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Envenenamento/prevenção & controle , Biodegradação Ambiental , Clethraceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Clethraceae/microbiologia , Endófitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Envenenamento/etiologia
6.
Environ Geochem Health ; 38(2): 437-48, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26119806

RESUMO

The young leaves of Clethra barbinervis Sieb. et Zucc, which is a deciduous tree species found in secondary forests widely in Japan, are used in spring as a local traditional food by local populations, and the bark of this plant is also preferred by sika deer, Cervus nippon. However, C. barbinervis has been known to accumulate heavy metals in its leaves. Then, we aimed to clarify the characteristics of microelement contents in C. barbinervis and to discuss the value of this species as food for humans and animals through the analysis of seasonal changes and distribution in various organs of C. barbinervis growing under two different geological conditions. We found that C. barbinervis is an accumulating and tolerant plant for Ni, Co and Mn. It accumulates Ni from serpentine soil containing Ni at high concentration, and Co and Mn from acidic soils based on crystalline schist. The seasonal variation in element concentrations in leaves indicates that the young leaves contain Cu at high concentration and that eating them in spring season may be advantageous to humans, due to the associated increase in Cu intake. The high concentrations of Cu and Zn in the bark of C. barbinervis might explain why deer prefer to eat the bark of this species.


Assuntos
Clethraceae/química , Alimentos , Geologia , Metais Pesados/análise , Animais , Humanos
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 16(9): 21378-91, 2015 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26370968

RESUMO

Clethra barbinervis Sieb. et Zucc. accumulates Nickel (Ni) and Cobalt (Co) at high concentrations., We hypothesized that C. barbinervis cannot distinguish between Ni and Co because of the similar chemical properties of these two elements. To confirm this hypothesis and understand the role of these elements in C. barbinervis, we conducted a hydroponic split-root experiment using Ni and Co solutions. We found that the bioconcentration factor (BCF; metal concentration of each tissue/metal concentrations of each treatment solution) of Ni and Co did not significantly differ in the roots, but the BCF for Co was higher than that for Ni in the leaves. The leaves of C. barbinervis accumulated Ni or Co at high concentrations. We also found the simultaneous accumulation of Ni and Co by the multiple heavy metal treatments (Ni and Co) at high concentrations similar to those for the single treatments (Ni or Co). Elevated sulfur concentrations occurred in the roots and leaves of Co-treated seedlings but not in Ni. This result indicates that S was related to Co accumulation in the leaves. These results suggest that C. barbinervis distinguishes between Ni and Co during transport and accumulation in the leaves but not during root uptake.


Assuntos
Clethraceae/metabolismo , Cobalto/metabolismo , Níquel/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Biomassa , Clethraceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
8.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 61(5): 581-6, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23649201

RESUMO

From a MeOH extract of the leaves of Clethra barbinervis Sieb. et Zucc., ryobunins A-C, three new triterpene glucosides, i.e. one ursane, one seco-ursane and one oleanane-type glucoside, along with four known compounds were isolated. Their structures were elucidated based on chemical and spectral evidence.


Assuntos
Clethraceae/química , Glucosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Saponinas/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Glucosídeos/química , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Saponinas/química , Estereoisomerismo , Triterpenos/química
9.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 61(2): 134-43, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23207679

RESUMO

An extract of Clethra barbinervis with an inhibitory effect on hyaluronidase activity was fractionated guided by the results of an assay. From the active fractions, seven new triterpene saponins (1-4, 6-8) and a new lignan glycoside (14) were isolated together with 14 known compounds (5, 9-13, 15-22). Some of the saponins (2, 3, 9) were revealed as hyaluronidase inhibitors similar to epicatechin (17).


Assuntos
Clethraceae/química , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Saponinas/química , Triterpenos/química , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Conformação Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Saponinas/isolamento & purificação , Saponinas/metabolismo , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/metabolismo
10.
Ann Bot ; 109(5): 921-36, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22442339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Ericales are a major group of extant asterid angiosperms that are well represented in the Late Cretaceous fossil record, mainly by flowers, fruits and seeds. Exceptionally well preserved fossil flowers, here described as Glandulocalyx upatoiensis gen. & sp. nov., from the Santonian of Georgia, USA, yield new detailed evidence of floral structure in one of these early members of Ericales and provide a secure basis for comparison with extant taxa. METHODS: The floral structure of several fossil specimens was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), light microscopy of microtome thin sections and synchrotron-radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM). For direct comparisons with flowers of extant Ericales, selected floral features of Actinidiaceae and Clethraceae were studied with SEM. KEY RESULTS: Flowers of G. upatoiensis have five sepals with quincuncial aestivation, five free petals with quincuncial aestivation, 20-28 stamens arranged in a single series, extrorse anther orientation in the bud, ventral anther attachment and a tricarpellate, syncarpous ovary with three free styles and numerous small ovules on axile, protruding-diffuse and pendant placentae. The calyx is characterized by a conspicuous indumentum of large, densely arranged, multicellular and possibly glandular trichomes. CONCLUSIONS: Comparison with extant taxa provides clear evidence for a relationship with core Ericales comprised of the extant families Actinidiaceae, Roridulaceae, Sarraceniaceae, Clethraceae, Cyrillaceae and Ericaceae. Within this group, the most marked similarities are with extant Actinidiaceae and, to a lesser degree, with Clethraceae. More detailed analyses of the relationships of Glandulocalyx and other Ericales from the Late Cretaceous will require an improved understanding of the morphological features that diagnose particular extant groups defined on the basis of molecular data.


Assuntos
Actinidiaceae/anatomia & histologia , Evolução Biológica , Clethraceae/anatomia & histologia , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Magnoliopsida/anatomia & histologia , Actinidiaceae/genética , Clethraceae/genética , Flores/genética , Flores/ultraestrutura , Fósseis , Frutas/anatomia & histologia , Frutas/genética , Georgia , Magnoliopsida/genética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Filogenia , Sementes/anatomia & histologia , Sementes/genética
11.
J AOAC Int ; 91(3): 637-45, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18567311

RESUMO

For the simultaneous determination of nickel(ll) and copper(ll) in plant samples, a rapid and accurate method was developed. In this method, solid-phase extraction (SPE) and first-order derivative spectrophotometry (FDS) are combined, and the result is coupled with the H-point standard addition method (HPSAM). Compared with normal spectrophotometry, derivative spectrophotometry offers the advantages of increased selectivity and sensitivity. As there is no need for carrying out any pretreatment of the sample, the spectrophotometry method is easy, but because of a high detection limit, it is not so practical. In order to decrease the detection limit, it is suggested to combine spectrophotometry with a preconcentration method such as SPE. In the present work, after separation and preconcentration of Ni(ll) and Cu(ll) on modified clinoptilolite zeolite that is loaded with 2-[1-(2-hydroxy-5-sulforphenyl)-3-phenyl-5-formaza-no]-benzoic acid monosodium salt (zincon) as a selective chromogenic reagent, FDS-HPSAM, which is a simple and selective spectrophotometric method, has been applied for simultaneous determination of these ions. With optimum conditions, the detection limit in original solutions is 0.7 and 0.5 ng/mL, respectively, for nickel and copper. The linear concentration ranges in the proposed method for nickel and copper ions in original solutions are 1.1 to 3.0 x 10(3) and 0.9 to 2.0 x 10(3) ng/mL, respectively. The recommended procedure is applied to successful determination of Cu(ll) and Ni(ll) in standard and real samples.


Assuntos
Cobre/análise , Níquel/análise , Plantas/química , Espectrofotometria/métodos , Adsorção , Compostos Azo , Compostos Cromogênicos , Clethraceae/química , Clethraceae/toxicidade , Cobre/normas , Cobre/toxicidade , Formazans , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Níquel/normas , Níquel/toxicidade , Plantas/toxicidade , Padrões de Referência , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrofotometria/normas , Zeolitas
12.
Mycorrhiza ; 15(2): 73-7, 2005 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15007710

RESUMO

Colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi was investigated in cucumber (Cucumis sativus), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and Clethra barbinervis (Ericales) grown in field-collected soil known from previous studies to generate Paris-type arbuscular mycorrhizae in C. barbinervis. Spores of Paraglomus, Acaulospora, Glomus, and Gigaspora were found in the soil. Formation of hyphal coils and arbusculate coils of Paris-type mycorrhizae and of arbuscules of Arum-type mycorrhizae in roots raised in this soil in the growth chamber were compared with the detection of DNA of AM fungi from the same root systems using Glomales-specific primers. Only Paris-type mycorrhizae with extensive arbusculate coils developed in C. barbinervis, but cucumber and tomato developed both Paris- and Arum-types in the same root systems. Glomaceae and Archaeosporaceae and/or Paraglomaceae were detected strongly in the DNA from both cucumber and tomato roots, in which Arum-type mycorrhizae were observed. In contrast, DNA of Glomaceae was detected more sparingly in C. barbinervis, in which Paris-type mycorrhizae dominated. Acaulosporaceae and Gigasporaceae were strongly detected in the DNA from both C. barbinervis and tomato, whereas they were more weakly detected in cucumber. These results indicate that the morphology of colonization is strongly influenced by the selection of fungi to colonize the host plant from among those in the soil environment.


Assuntos
Cucumis/microbiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Clethraceae/microbiologia , Fungos/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia
13.
Plant Physiol ; 136(3): 3795-803, 2004 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15516516

RESUMO

The incidence of plasmodesmata in the minor vein phloem of leaves varies widely between species. On this basis, two pathways of phloem loading have been proposed: symplastic where frequencies are high, and apoplastic where they are low. However, putative symplastic-loading species fall into at least two categories. In one, the plants translocate raffinose-family oligosaccharides (RFOs). In the other, the primary sugar in the phloem sap is sucrose (Suc). While a thermodynamically feasible mechanism of symplastic loading has been postulated for species that transport RFOs, no such mechanism is known for Suc transporters. We used p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid inhibition of apoplastic loading to distinguish between the two pathways in three species that have abundant minor vein plasmodesmata and are therefore putative symplastic loaders. Clethra barbinervis and Liquidambar styraciflua transport Suc, while Catalpa speciosa transports RFOs. The results indicate that, contrary to the hypothesis that all species with abundant minor vein plasmodesmata load symplastically, C. barbinervis and L. styraciflua load from the apoplast. C. speciosa, being an RFO transporter, loads from the symplast, as expected. Data from these three species, and from the literature, also indicate that plants with abundant plasmodesmata in the minor vein phloem have abundant plasmodesmata between mesophyll cells. Thus, plasmodesmatal frequencies in the minor veins may be a reflection of overall frequencies in the lamina and may have limited relevance to phloem loading. We suggest that symplastic loading is restricted to plants that translocate oligosaccharides larger than Suc, such as RFOs, and that other plants, no matter how many plasmodesmata they have in the minor vein phloem, load via the apoplast.


Assuntos
Bignoniaceae/metabolismo , Clethraceae/metabolismo , Liquidambar/metabolismo , Bignoniaceae/citologia , Bignoniaceae/ultraestrutura , Transporte Biológico Ativo/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Clethraceae/citologia , Clethraceae/ultraestrutura , Liquidambar/citologia , Liquidambar/ultraestrutura , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plasmodesmos/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
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