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1.
J Pharm Sci ; 111(4): 970-981, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758340

RESUMO

Eight antimicrobial preservatives used in parenteral multidose formulations (thimerosal, 2-phenoxy ethanol, phenol, benzyl alcohol, m-cresol, chlorobutanol, methyl paraben, propyl paraben) were examined for their effects on the storage stability (4 °C, 25 °C) of an Alhydrogel® (AH) adjuvanted formulation of the non-replicating rotavirus vaccine (NRRV) recombinant P[4] protein antigen. The stability of AH-adsorbed P[4] was monitored for antigen-antibody binding, conformational stability, and antigen-adjuvant interaction via competitive ELISA, DSC, and SDS-PAGE, respectively. There was an unexpected correlation between increasing storage stability of the AH-adsorbed P[4] and preservative hydrophobicity (log P) (e.g., the parabens and chlorobutanol were least destabilizing). We used hydrogen exchange-mass spectrometry (HX-MS) to better understand the destabilizing effects of temperature and preservative on backbone flexibility of AH-adsorbed P[4]. Thimerosal addition immediately increased the backbone flexibility across much of the AH-adsorbed P[4] protein backbone (except the N-terminal P2 region and residues G17-Y38), and further increase in P[4] backbone flexibility was observed after storage (4 °C, 4 weeks). HX-MS analysis of AH-adsorbed P[4] stored for 4 weeks at 25 °C revealed structural alterations in some regions of the epitope involved in P[4] specific mAb binding. These combined results are discussed in terms of a generalized workflow for multi-dose vaccine formulation development for recombinant protein antigens.


Assuntos
Parabenos , Timerosal , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Adjuvantes Farmacêuticos , Alumínio , Antígenos , Clorobutanol , Conservantes Farmacêuticos/química , Timerosal/química
2.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(5): 2129-2141, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748770

RESUMO

Oxytocin is used for the prevention and treatment of postpartum hemorrhage, the leading cause of maternal mortality in low- and middle-income countries. Because of the high instability of oxytocin, most products are labeled for storage at 2-8°C. Some other products are on the market which are labeled for non-refrigerated storage, but independent evaluations of their stability hardly exist. In the present study, seven brands (nine batches) of oxytocin were purchased from wholesalers and medical stores in Malawi and Rwanda and investigated by accelerated stability testing according to the ICH/WHO guidelines. Two oxytocin brands approved by a stringent regulatory authority (SRA) or by the WHO Prequalification of Medicines program and purchased in Europe were used as comparison. All investigated brands which were either produced in countries with SRAs, or were WHO-prequalified products, were labeled for storage at 2-8°C, and all of them passed stability testing with very good results. Even exposure to 25°C or 30°C for several months hardly affected their oxytocin content. However, two other investigated brands were labeled for non-refrigerated storage, and both of them had been produced in countries without SRAs. These two preparations showed not higher but lower stability than the brands labeled for storage at 2-8°C, and, for both of them, noncompliance with pharmacopoeial specifications was found after accelerated stability testing. At 40°C, and in forced degradation studies at 80°C, chlorobutanol showed a remarkable stabilizing effect on oxytocin, which may deserve further investigation. The results of the present study support the policy "Buy Quality Oxytocin, Keep It Cool."


Assuntos
Clorobutanol/farmacologia , Ocitócicos/farmacologia , Ocitocina/farmacologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Conservantes Farmacêuticos/farmacologia , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Humanos , Malaui , Ocitócicos/química , Ocitocina/química , Ruanda , Temperatura
3.
Comb Chem High Throughput Screen ; 23(10): 1090-1099, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32691707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis, acute nasal congestion and sinusitis are one of the most common health problems and have a major effect on the quality of life. Several medications are used to improve the symptoms of such diseases in humans. Pharmaceutical pomade form containing Ephedrine (EPD) HCl, Naphazoline (NPZ) HCl, Antazoline (ANT) HCl, and Chlorobutanol (CLO) is one of them. OBJECTIVE: For these reasons, this study includes the development of spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods for the determination of EPD HCl, NPZ HCl, ANT HCl, and CLO active agents in the pharmaceutical pomade. METHOD: In the spectrophotometric method, third-order derivative of the amplitudes at 218 nm n=5 and the first-order derivative of the amplitudes 254 nm n=13 was selected for the determination of EPD, ANT, respectively while NPZ was determined by the second derivative at 234 nm and n=21. Colorimetric detection was applied for assay analysis of CLO at 540 nm. Furthermore, a reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP- HPLC) method has been developed and optimized by using Agilent Zorbax Eclipse XDB C18 (75 mm x 3.0 mm, 3.5µm) column. The column temperature was 40°C, binary gradient elution was used and the mobile phase consisted of 15 mM phosphate buffer in distilled water (pH 3.0) and methanol, and the flow rate was 0.6 mL min-1 and the UV detector was detected at 210 nm. The linear operating range was obtained as 11.97-70, 0.59-3, 2.79-30, and 2.92-200 µg mL-1 for EPD HCl, NPZ HCl, ANT HCl, and CLO respectively. RESULTS: The LOD values were found to be 3.95, 0.19, 0.92 and 0.96 µg mL-1 for EPD HCl, NPZ HCl, ANT HCl, and CLO in the spectrophotometric method, respectively. The linear ranges in the RP-HPLC method were 8.2-24.36 µg mL-1, 0.083 - 0.75 µg/mL, 2.01-7.5 µg mL-1 and 2.89-24.4 µg mL-1 for EPD HCl, NPZ HCl, ANT HCl, and CLO, respectively. The LOD values in the validation studies were 2.7, 0.025, 0.66 and 0.86 µg mL-1 for EPD HCl, NPZ HCl, ANT HCl, and CLO in RP-HPLC method respectively. CONCLUSION: The results of the spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods were compared and no differences were found between the two methods.


Assuntos
Antazolina/análise , Clorobutanol/análise , Efedrina/análise , Nafazolina/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Estrutura Molecular
4.
Drug Saf ; 42(7): 907-913, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888625

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Drug-induced torsades de pointes (TdP) is a potentially lethal ventricular arrhythmia that is associated with drugs that prolong the QT interval on the electrocardiogram (ECG) due to their interference with the cardiac potassium current, IKR. Intravenous (IV) formulations of methadone have been associated with TdP and contain the preservative chlorobutanol, which, like methadone, blocks IKR. The combinations of chlorobutanol with methadone or terfenadine, another IKR blocker, produce synergistic IKR block. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine and summarize the evidence available to address the question: what other IV drug formulations contain chlorobutanol and are they associated with TdP? METHODS: IV drug products containing the preservative chlorobutanol were identified by searching the websites DailyMed ( https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/index.cfm ) and Drugs@FDA ( https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cder/daf/ ). For each drug identified, PubMed and the FDA's Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) were searched for reports of TdP and/or QT prolongation and FAERS data were analyzed for disproportionality of reports. RESULTS: The search found nine drugs (methadone, epinephrine, papaverine, oxytocin, vasopressin, testosterone, estradiol, isoniazid, and desmopressin) that contain chlorobutanol 2.5 (n = 1) or 5.0 mg/mL. All nine drugs had reports of QT prolongation or TdP reported in FAERS and all but estradiol, testosterone, desmopressin, and isoniazid had reports of QT prolongation or TdP in PubMed. Two of the nine drugs (epinephrine and methadone) had positive signals (by disproportionality analysis) for TdP in FAERS (EB05 2.88 and 23.81, respectively) and four (methadone, epinephrine, papaverine, and vasopressin) were reported in published articles as the suspect drugs in cases of TdP. CONCLUSION: The pharmacologic profile of chlorobutanol (synergistic IKR block) and its association with reports of TdP and QT prolongation suggest the need for a full evaluation of its cardiac safety when used as a preservative in IV drug and vitamin formulations.


Assuntos
Clorobutanol/efeitos adversos , Conservantes Farmacêuticos/efeitos adversos , Torsades de Pointes/induzido quimicamente , Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Food and Drug Administration
5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD012171, 2018 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30043448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ear wax (cerumen) is a normal bodily secretion that can become a problem when it obstructs the ear canal. Symptoms attributed to wax (such as deafness and pain) are among the commonest reasons for patients to present to primary care with ear trouble.Wax is part of the ear's self-cleaning mechanism and is usually naturally expelled from the ear canal without causing problems. When this mechanism fails, wax is retained in the canal and may become impacted; interventions to encourage its removal may then be needed. Application of ear drops is one of these methods. Liquids used to remove and soften wax are of several kinds: oil-based compounds (e.g. olive or almond oil); water-based compounds (e.g. sodium bicarbonate or water itself); a combination of the above or non-water, non-oil-based solutions, such as carbamide peroxide (a hydrogen peroxide-urea compound) and glycerol. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of ear drops (or sprays) to remove or aid the removal of ear wax in adults and children. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane ENT Trials Register; Cochrane Register of Studies; PubMed; Ovid Embase; CINAHL; Web of Science; ClinicalTrials.gov; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the most recent search was 23 March 2018. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which a 'cerumenolytic' was compared with no treatment, water or saline, an alternative liquid treatment (oil or almond oil) or another 'cerumenolytic' in adults or children with obstructing or impacted ear wax. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. The primary outcomes were 1) the proportion of patients (or ears) with complete clearance of ear wax and 2) adverse effects (discomfort, irritation or pain). Secondary outcomes were: extent of wax clearance; proportion of people (or ears) with relief of symptoms due to wax; proportion of people (or ears) requiring further intervention to remove wax; success of mechanical removal of residual wax following treatment; any other adverse effects recorded and cost. We used GRADE to assess the quality of the evidence for each outcome; this is indicated in italics. MAIN RESULTS: We included 10 studies, with 623 participants (900 ears). Interventions included: oil-based treatments (triethanolamine polypeptide, almond oil, benzocaine, chlorobutanol), water-based treatments (docusate sodium, carbamide peroxide, phenazone, choline salicylate, urea peroxide, potassium carbonate), other active comparators (e.g. saline or water alone) and no treatment. Nine of the studies were more than 15 years old.The overall risk of bias across the 10 included studies was low or unclear. PRIMARY OUTCOME: proportion of patients (or ears) with complete clearance of ear waxSix studies (360 participants; 491 ears) contributed quantitative data and were included in our meta-analyses.Active treatment versus no treatmentOnly one study addressed this comparison. The proportion of ears with complete clearance of ear wax was higher in the active treatment group (22%) compared with the no treatment group (5%) after five days of treatment (risk ratio (RR) 4.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00 to 16.80); one study; 117 ears; NNTB = 8) (low-quality evidence).Active treatment versus water or salineWe found no evidence of a difference in the proportion of patients (or ears) with complete clearance of ear wax when the active treatment group was compared to the water or saline group (RR 1.47, 95% CI 0.79 to 2.75; three studies; 213 participants; 257 ears) (low-quality evidence). Two studies applied drops for five days, but one study only applied the drops for 15 minutes. When we excluded this study in a sensitivity analysis it did not change the result.Water or saline versus no treatmentThis comparison was only addressed in the single study cited above (active versus no treatment) and there was no evidence of a difference in the proportion of ears with complete wax clearance when comparing water or saline with no treatment after five days of treatment (RR 4.00, 95% CI 0.91 to 17.62; one study; 76 ears) (low-quality evidence).Active treatment A versus active treatment BSeveral single studies evaluated 'head-to-head' comparisons between two active treatments. We found no evidence to show that one was superior to any other.Subgroup analysis of oil-based active treatments versus non-oil based active treatmentsWe found no evidence of a difference in this outcome when oil-based treatments were compared with non-oil-based active treatments. PRIMARY OUTCOME: adverse effects: discomfort, irritation or painOnly seven studies planned to measure and did report this outcome. Only two (141 participants;176 ears) provided useable data. There was no evidence of a significant difference in the number of adverse effects between the types of ear drops in these two studies. We summarised the remaining five studies narratively. All events were mild and reported in fewer than 30 participants across the seven studies (low-quality evidence).Secondary outcomesThree studies reported 'other' adverse effects (how many studies planned to report these is unclear). The available information was limited and included occasional reports of dizziness, unpleasant smell, tinnitus and hearing loss. No significant differences between groups were reported. There were no emergencies or serious adverse effects reported in any of the 10 studies.There was very limited or no information available on our remaining secondary outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Although a number of studies aimed to evaluate whether or not one type of cerumenolytic is more effective than another, there is no high-quality evidence to allow a firm conclusion to be drawn and the answer remains uncertain.A single study suggests that applying ear drops for five days may result in a greater likelihood of complete wax clearance than no treatment at all. However, we cannot conclude whether one type of active treatment is more effective than another and there was no evidence of a difference in efficacy between oil-based and water-based active treatments.There is no evidence to show that using saline or water alone is better or worse than commercially produced cerumenolytics. Equally, there is also no evidence to show that using saline or water alone is better than no treatment.


Assuntos
Cerume , Meato Acústico Externo , Higiene , Tensoativos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Antipirina/uso terapêutico , Benzocaína/uso terapêutico , Peróxido de Carbamida , Carbonatos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Clorobutanol/uso terapêutico , Colina/análogos & derivados , Colina/uso terapêutico , Ácido Dioctil Sulfossuccínico/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Etanolaminas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Peróxidos/uso terapêutico , Soluções Farmacêuticas/uso terapêutico , Óleos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Potássio/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Salicilatos/uso terapêutico , Cloreto de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Ureia/uso terapêutico , Água
8.
Int J Pharm ; 489(1-2): 252-60, 2015 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25957699

RESUMO

Ketorolac tromethamine (KT) was potent to treat moderate to moderately severe pains. However, KT solutions for nasal delivery lost quickly from the nasal route. Thermo- and ion-sensitive in-situ hydrogels (ISGs) are appropriate for nasal drug delivery because the intranasal temperature maintains ∼37 °C and nasal fluids consist of plentiful cations. In this study, a novel nasal thermo- and ion-sensitive ISG of KT was prepared with thermo-sensitive poloxamer 407 (P407) and ion-sensitive deacetylated gellan gum (DGG). The optimal formulation of the KT ISG consisted of 3% (w/v) DGG and 18% (w/v) P407 and its viscosity was up to 7.63 Pas at 37 °C. Furthermore, penetration enhancers and bacterial inhibitors were added and their fractions in the ISG were optimized based on transmucosal efficiencies and toxicity on toad pili. Sulfobutyl ether-ß-cyclodextrin of 2.5% (w/v) and chlorobutanol of 0.5% (w/v) were chosen as the penetration enhancer and the bacterial inhibitor, respectively. The Fick's diffusion and dissolution of KT could drive it continuous release from the dually sensitive ISG according to the in vitro investigation. Two methods, writhing frequencies induced by acetic acid and latency time of tails retracting from hot water, were used to evaluate the pharmacodynamics of the KT ISG on the mouse models. The writhing frequencies significantly decreased and the latency time of tail retracting was obviously prolonged (p<0.05) for the KT ISG compared to the control. The thermo- and ion-sensitive KT ISG had appropriate gelation temperature, sustained drug release, improved intranasal absorption, obvious pharmacodynamic effect, and negligible nasal ciliotoxicity. It is a promising intranasal analgesic formulation.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Hidrogéis/administração & dosagem , Cetorolaco de Trometamina/administração & dosagem , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Anuros , Azepinas/química , Carbocianinas/administração & dosagem , Carbocianinas/química , Carbocianinas/farmacologia , Clorobutanol/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada/administração & dosagem , Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Feminino , Hidrogéis/química , Cetorolaco de Trometamina/química , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mucosa Nasal/efeitos dos fármacos , Poloxâmero/química , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/química , Ovinos , Viscosidade , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química
9.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 79(7): 1155-63, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25704646

RESUMO

We investigated the ameliorative effect of freshwater clam extract (FCE) on fatty liver, hypercholesterolemia, and liver injury in rats exposed to chloretone. Furthermore, we examined the effects of major FCE components (fat and protein fractions) to determine the active components in FCE. Chloretone increased serum aminotransferase activities and led to hepatic lipid accumulation. Serum aminotransferase activities and hepatic lipid content were lower in rats fed total FCE or fat/protein fractions of FCE. Expression of fatty acid synthase and fatty acid desaturase genes was upregulated by chloretone. Total FCE and fat/protein fractions of FCE suppressed the increase in gene expression involved in fatty acid synthesis. Serum cholesterol levels increased twofold upon chloretone exposure. Total FCE or fat/protein fractions of FCE showed hypocholesterolemic effects in rats with hypercholesterolemia induced by chloretone. These suggest that FCE contains at least two active components against fatty liver, hypercholesterolemia, and liver injury in rats exposed to chloretone.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/farmacologia , Clorobutanol/efeitos adversos , Corbicula/química , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos de Tecidos/farmacologia , Animais , Anticolesterolemiantes/química , Colesterol/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fezes , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/induzido quimicamente , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/dietoterapia , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , Extratos de Tecidos/química , Transaminases/metabolismo
10.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 62(4): 395-8, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24695350

RESUMO

The analysis of genotoxic impurities (GTIs) in active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) is a challenging task. The target detection limit (DL) in an API is typically around 1 ppm (1 µg/g API). Therefore, a sensitive and selective analytical method is required for their analysis. 4-Chloro-1-butanol, an alkylating agent, is one of the GTIs. It is generated when tetrahydrofuran and hydrochloric acid are used during the synthesis of the APIs. In this study, a sensitive and robust gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed and validated for the identification of 4-chloro-1-butanol in APIs. In the GC-MS method, 3-chloro-1-butanol was employed as an internal standard to ensure accuracy and precision. Linearity was observed over the range 0.08 to 40 ppm (µg/g API), with a R(2) value of 0.9999. The DL and quantitation limit (QL) obtained were 0.05 ppm and 0.08 ppm (0.13 ng/mL and 0.20 ng/mL as the 4-chloro-1-butanol concentration), respectively. These DL and QL values are well over the threshold specified in the guidelines. The accuracy (recovery) of detection ranged from 90.5 to 108.7% between 0.4 ppm and 20 ppm of 4-chloro-1-butanol. The relative standard deviation in the repeatability of the spiked recovery test was 6.0%. These results indicate the validity of the GC-MS method developed in this study. The GC-MS method was applied for the determination of 4-chloro-1-butanol in the API (Compound A), which is under clinical trials. No 4-chloro-1-butanol was found in Compound A (below QL, 0.08 ppm).


Assuntos
Alquilantes/análise , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Clorobutanol/análogos & derivados , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Clorobutanol/análise , Limite de Detecção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
Anal Sci ; 30(3): 377-82, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24614733

RESUMO

An alkylating agent, 4-chloro-1-butanol, is a genotoxic impurity (GTI); it may be generated during the synthesis of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). For the trace-level detection of GTIs in APIs, usually, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is employed. In this study, a novel LC-inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-MS method was developed and validated. Linearity was observed over the 0.5-50 ppm (µg/g API) range, with an R(2) value of 0.9994. The detection limit (DL) and quantitation limit (QL) were 0.2 and 0.5 ppm, respectively. The DL and QL values are well over the thresholds specified in the guidelines. The accuracy was 95.1-114.7% for concentrations of 1-50 ppm, and the relative standard deviation of the spiked recovery test's repeatability was 6.2%. In addition, six lots of an API were analyzed, and all results were lower than the reported threshold (1 ppm).


Assuntos
Clorobutanol/análogos & derivados , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Clorobutanol/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/instrumentação , Espectrometria de Massas/instrumentação
12.
Cornea ; 32(10): 1311-4, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23974885

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy of bandage contact lenses (BCLs) in comparison with that of ocular lubricants (OLs) in the initial management of recurrent corneal erosion syndrome. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial of 29 patients with recurrent corneal erosion syndrome presenting to the ophthalmology departments of the Oxford Eye Hospital and the Royal Berkshire Hospital, United Kingdom. The patients were randomized to wear either BCLs (for a 3-month duration, replaced every 30 days) or use OLs (4 times a day, with Lacri-Lube ointment at night for 3 months). The patients were assessed monthly for 4 months, and their symptoms were graded by visual analog scores. The main outcome measure was the complete resolution of symptoms with no noticeable corneal surface abnormality. Patients with a complete resolution were followed up for another 3 months to check for recurrence. RESULTS: Fourteen patients were randomized to the BCL arm, and 15 were randomized to the OL arm. After 3 months, a complete resolution was achieved in 71% of the patients (10/14) with BCLs compared with that achieved in 73% of the patients (11/15) on OLs (P > 0.05). Partial resolution was noted in 7% of the patients with BCLs versus 13% of the patients on OLs. Twenty-one percent of the patients in the BCL group and 13% of the patients in the OL group failed to respond to the treatment. Patients on BCLs had earlier resolution of symptoms, with a mean time of 5 weeks compared with 9 weeks for OLs (P = 0.02). None of the patients with BCLs developed adverse side effects. CONCLUSIONS: BCLs do not increase the likelihood of complete resolution when compared with OLs in the initial management of RCES. However, BCL treatment seems safe, and some patients experience earlier relief from symptoms.


Assuntos
Bandagens , Clorobutanol/uso terapêutico , Lentes de Contato Hidrofílicas , Doenças da Córnea/terapia , Lanolina/uso terapêutico , Óleo Mineral/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças da Córnea/fisiopatologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Dor Ocular/fisiopatologia , Dor Ocular/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pomadas/uso terapêutico , Recidiva , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Toxicol Sci ; 38(3): 431-43, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23665942

RESUMO

For molecular analysis in anatomically-specific brain regions for rodent studies, it is necessary to establish a fast and accurate procedure for tissue sampling to achieve high integrity and expression fidelity of extracted molecules. The present study was performed to examine suitability of whole brain fixation with methacarn and subsequent tissue sampling using punch-biopsy devices for gene expression analysis in rats. After fixation, each specific region, i.e., hippocampal dentate gyrus, corpus callosum, cingulate cortex or cerebellar vermis was collected, and the integrity and variability of expression data of extracted total RNAs and polypeptides were examined. Methacarn fixation, acetone fixation, and unfixed tissues were compared. Methacarn fixation resulted in high integrity of total RNAs sufficient for conducting global expression analysis and superior in terms of uniformity in the integrity among brain regions to that of acetone fixation. Extracted polypeptide after methacarn fixation revealed similar integrity to that without fixation or with acetone fixation. Methacarn fixation resulted in lower mRNA expression variability between samples than acetone fixation in microarray analysis. The fidelity of polypeptide expression was mostly equivalent between methacarn and acetone fixation in 2-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis, although the expression levels of a small number of polypeptides from acetone-fixed tissues were affected. These results suggest that whole brain fixation with methacarn retains advantages for global analyses of mRNAs and polypeptides in rodent studies.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Clorofórmio , Fixadores , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Metanol , Peptídeos/análise , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Animais , Clorobutanol , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fixação de Tecidos
14.
Pharm Dev Technol ; 17(5): 614-24, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21428703

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to study the interaction of four commonly used ophthalmic antimicrobial preservatives [benzyl alcohol (BA), chlorbutol (CBL), benzalkonium chloride (BKC), and chlorhexidine gluconate (CG)] with Blow-Fill-Seal (BFS) packs. Effect of packaging material [low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP)], humidity (25% RH, 75% RH) and concentration (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mM BA/CBL in LDPE) was studied. BKC and CG gave negligible loss (<4%) in BFS packs over a period of 3 months. BA and CBL, however, gave marked losses in LDPE (ca. 70-90%) and PP (ca. 7-25%) packs. Humidity did not have any effect on the sorption loss of any preservative. Loss of BA switched from Case II to anomalous behavior with increasing initial concentration. A two-stage sorption behavior was inherent at all concentrations. Loss of CBL followed anomalous behavior with biphasic kinetics of loss. It was concluded that all the four preservatives were appropriate for use in PP BFS packs. However, only BKC and CG were amenable to be used in LDPE BFS packs. Lastly, an empirical expression consisting of the "solubility parameter distance" and "molar volume" of preservatives was developed to correlate the preservative loss in LDPE with the physicochemical properties of the preservatives.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Compostos de Benzalcônio/química , Álcool Benzílico/química , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Clorobutanol/química , Embalagem de Medicamentos , Conservantes Farmacêuticos/química , Adsorção , Clorexidina/química , Embalagem de Medicamentos/métodos , Umidade , Polietileno/química , Polipropilenos/química , Solubilidade
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22154261

RESUMO

The conformational stability of 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol and 1,1,1-trichloro-2-methyl-2-propanol (chlorobutanol) was investigated by the DFT-B3LYP/6-311+G**, MP2/6-311+G** and MP4(SDQ)/6-311+G** levels of theory. From the calculations chlorobutanol was predicted to exist in a non-planar gauche structure. The planar cis and trans structures of chlorobutanol were calculated to be about 3kcal/mol higher in energy than the gauche structure. From the calculations 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol was predicted to exist in a Ggg1 and Ggg conformational mixture at ambient temperature. In the low energy structures of both alcohols the non-bonded Cl⋯H(O) distance was calculated to be of about 2.6-2.7Å. The observation of a broad and very intense band at about 3400cm(-1) in the infrared spectra of the two alcohols supports the presence of strong intermolecular Cl⋯H(O) dipolar interactions in their condensed phases. The analysis of the Raman spectra of 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol suggests the presence of a second high energy Ggg structure of the dichloride at room temperature. The vibrational frequencies of 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol and chlorobutanol in their low energy structures were computed at the B3LYP level and tentative vibrational assignments were made for their normal modes on the basis of combined calculated and experimental data.


Assuntos
Clorobutanol/química , Mutagênicos/química , Conservantes Farmacêuticos/química , alfa-Cloridrina/análogos & derivados , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Análise Espectral Raman , alfa-Cloridrina/química
17.
J Exp Biol ; 214(Pt 7): 1063-7, 2011 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21389189

RESUMO

Changes in animal behavior resulting from genetic or chemical intervention are frequently used for phenotype characterizations. The majority of these studies are qualitative in nature, especially in systems that go beyond the classical model organisms. Here, we introduce a quantitative method to characterize behavior in the freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Wild-type locomotion in confinement was quantified using a wide set of parameters, and the influences of intrinsic intra-worm versus inter-worm variability on our measurements was studied. We also examined the effect of substrate, confinement geometry and the interactions with the boundary on planarian behavior. The method is based on a simple experimental setup, using automated center-of-mass tracking and image analysis, making it an easily implemented alternative to current methods for screening planarian locomotion phenotypes. As a proof of principle, two drug-induced behavioral phenotypes were generated to show the capacity of this method.


Assuntos
Planárias/fisiologia , Anestésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorobutanol/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Dopamina/farmacologia , Genótipo , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Microscopia de Vídeo/métodos , Fenótipo , Planárias/genética , Sulpirida/farmacologia
18.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 52(2): 228-32, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20417976

RESUMO

Cerumen impaction may affect hearing and decrease hearing acuity, thus decreasing cognitive functions among the elderly. The objective of this study was to compare the safety and the efficacy of three cerumenolytic agents and to assess the effect of cerumen removal on cognition. Thirty eight elderly subjects (mean age: 78 years, total 76 ears) were treated with either Auro®, Cerumol® or the newer CleanEars®, and the change in the degree of ear canal occlusion was examined after a week. In addition, a change in cognition following cerumen removal was evaluated using Raven's standard progressive matrices (RSPM) test. There was no difference regarding the eventual degree of occlusion between the three treatment groups. Only in the CleanEars® group a complete resolution of obstruction in both ears was achieved. A statistically significant difference between the RSPM score before and after the removal of cerumen was found. Using CleanEars® is as effective and safe as other agents and may be advantageous due to its spray application. Removal of cerumen significantly improves the well-being of elderly patients.


Assuntos
Cerume , Ceruminolíticos/administração & dosagem , Cognição , Meato Acústico Externo , Transtornos da Audição/etiologia , Óleos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Arachis , Benzocaína/administração & dosagem , Peróxido de Carbamida , Clorobenzenos/administração & dosagem , Clorobutanol/administração & dosagem , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Transtornos da Audição/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Azeite de Oliva , Peróxidos/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Irrigação Terapêutica , Resultado do Tratamento , Ureia/administração & dosagem , Ureia/análogos & derivados
20.
Toxicol Sci ; 114(2): 346-55, 2010 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20071423

RESUMO

Several noncardiovascular drugs have the potential to induce Torsades de Pointes cardiac arrhythmias via blockade of the rapid component of the cardiac delayed rectifier K(+) current (I(Kr)), which is encoded by human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG). The aim of the present study was to characterize possible interactions between terfenadine, binding to a site located inside the central cavity, and the following substances with various binding sites: dofetilide, fluvoxamine, chlorobutanol, and a hERG-specific toxin isolated from scorpion venom (CnErg1). The whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique was employed on hERG channels stably expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Terfenadine does not interact with dofetilide or fluvoxamine at hERG channels. Slight subadditive inhibitory effects on hERG peak tail currents were observed when terfenadine and CnErg1 were administered in combination. Terfenadine and chlorobutanol synergistically inhibit hERG peak tail currents and enhance each other's inhibitory effect in a concentration-dependent way. In conclusion, terfenadine interacts with CnErg1 and chlorobutanol, but not with dofetilide or fluvoxamine, at hERG channels. It is shown that interactions between chlorobutanol and a hERG channel blocker binding inside the central cavity (terfenadine) produce synergistic effects on hERG currents.


Assuntos
Canais de Potássio Éter-A-Go-Go/genética , Antagonistas não Sedativos dos Receptores H1 da Histamina/farmacologia , Terfenadina/farmacologia , Sítios de Ligação/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Clorobutanol/farmacologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Canal de Potássio ERG1 , Canais de Potássio Éter-A-Go-Go/metabolismo , Fluvoxamina/farmacologia , Humanos , Rim/citologia , Rim/embriologia , Rim/metabolismo , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Fenetilaminas/farmacologia , Venenos de Escorpião/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia
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