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1.
Food Chem ; 400: 134075, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36075171

RESUMO

On-field detection of pesticide residue in complex-food matrices is a challenge when it comes to analytical detection involving multistep extraction and purification. In this study, we test the feasibility of an electrochemical portable device for detection of spiked pesticides Glyphosate (Glyp) and Chlorpyrifos (Chlp) in low-fat and high-fat food matrix. The immunoassay based two-plex sensing platform was fabricated using respective antibody glyphosate on one side and chlorpyrifos antibody on other side. The sensor response was tested using non-faradaic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), which showed a linear response in Glyp/Chlp concentrations from 0.3 ng/mL to 243 ng/mL with limit of detection 1 ng/mL for low fat and 1 ng/mL to 243 ng/mL with LOD 1 ng/mL for high-fat matrix respectively. The laboratory-based benchtop data was then compared with portable device for feasibility of application as portable device. Such electrochemical portable sensing approach can be a future commercial field testing tool.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Clorpirifos , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Clorpirifos/análise , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Imunoensaio/métodos , Praguicidas/análise
2.
Environ Pollut ; 302: 118961, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35183667

RESUMO

The intestinal microbiota has a key role in human health via the interaction with the somatic and immune cells in the digestive tract environment. Food, through matrix effect, nutrient and non-nutrient molecules, is a key regulator of microbiota diversity. As a food contaminant, the pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) has an effect on the composition of the intestinal microbiota and induces perturbation of microbiota. Prebiotics (and notably inulin) are known for their ability to promote an equilibrium of the microbiota that favours saccharolytic bacteria. The SHIME® dynamic in vitro model of the human intestine was exposed to CPF and inulin concomitantly for 30 days, in order to assess variations in both the bacterial populations and their metabolites. Various analyses of the microbiota (notably temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis) revealed a protective effect of the prebiotic through inhibition of the enterobacterial (E. coli) population. Bifidobacteria were only temporarily inhibited at D15 and recovered at D30. Although other potentially beneficial populations (lactobacilli) were not greatly modified, their activity and that of the saccharolytic bacteria in general were highlighted by an increase in levels of short-chain fatty acids and more specifically butyrate. Given the known role of host-microbiota communication, CPF's impact on the body's homeostasis remains to be determined.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Microbiota , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Humanos , Inulina/metabolismo , Inulina/farmacologia , Prebióticos/análise
3.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e263261, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102373

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to investigate the array of hosts, distribution and to evaluate the toxicity of four insecticides: imidacloprid, fipronil, cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos alone and in combination against 3rd instar maggot and adult stage of fruit fly Bactrocera diversa Coquillett, 1904 (Diptera: Tephritidae) during 2021. B. diversa maggots were found vigorously feeding inside the cucurbit hosts (pumpkin, cucumber, bitter gourd, watermelon, round melon, bottle gourd) collected from different localities of Poonch division of Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan, and this species is reported for the first time as new record to this region. Susceptibilities of B. diversa to insecticides were evaluated using topical method. Mortality was checked after 3, 6, 8 and 24h of exposure. Cypermethrin was most effective to kill 50% of both larval and adult stage with least LC50 [7.2(1.040±0.214), 17.4(0.748±0.193)], respectively followed by imidacloprid. Imidacloprid most effectively killed 90% of both larval and adult population with least LC90 value [73.2 (3.013±0.708) 16.9 (1.886±0.437)] respectively after 24 hours. Cypermethrin with chlorpyrifos most effectively killed 50 and 90 percent of both larval and adult stage of B. diversa with least LC50 value [11.3 (1.085±0.245), 2.5 (0.759±0.252)] and least LC90 value [171.3 (1.085±0.245), 121.9 (0.759±0.252)], respectively after 24h of exposure. Toxicity of each insecticide increased with exposure for longer time and increased dose. Cypermethrin is suggested as most effective against both larval and adult stages of B. diversa in combination with chlorpyrifos followed by imidacloprid.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Inseticidas , Tephritidae , Animais , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Larva , Neonicotinoides , Nitrocompostos , Piretrinas
4.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 35(9): 1570-1578, 2022 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048166

RESUMO

Exposure to organophosphorus pesticides (OP) can have chronic adverse effects that are independent of inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, the classic target for acute OP toxicity. In pure proteins, the organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos oxon induces a cross-link between lysine and glutamate (or aspartate) with loss of water. Tubulin is particularly sensitive to OP-induced cross-linking. Our goal was to explore OP-induced cross-linking in a complex protein sample, MAP-rich tubulin from Sus scrofa and to test 8 OP for their capacity to promote isopeptide cross-linking. We treated 100 µg of MAP-rich tubulin with 100 µM chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos oxon, methamidophos, paraoxon, diazinon, diazoxon, monocrotophos, or dichlorvos. Each sample was separated using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and stained with Coomassie blue. Five gel slices (at about 30, 50, 150, and 300 kDa, and the top of the separating gel) were removed from the lanes for each of the eight OP samples and from untreated control lanes. These gel slices were subjected to in-gel trypsin digestion. MSMS fragmentation spectra of the tryptic peptides were examined for isopeptide cross-links. Sixteen spectra yielded convincing evidence for isopeptide cross-linked peptides. Ten were from the chlorpyrifos oxon reaction, 1 from dichlorvos, 1 from paraoxon, 1 from diazinon, and 3 from diazoxon. It was concluded that catalysis of protein cross-linking is a general property of organophosphorus pesticides and pesticide metabolites. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD034529.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Monocrotofós , Praguicidas , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Ácido Aspártico , Clorpirifos/análogos & derivados , Clorpirifos/química , Diazinon , Diclorvós , Glutamatos , Lisina/química , Compostos Organofosforados/química , Paraoxon/metabolismo , Peptídeos/química , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Dodecilsulfato de Sódio , Tripsina , Tubulina (Proteína)/química , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Água
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15542, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109661

RESUMO

In this work a simple, rapid, and environmentally friendly method has been established for the determination of chlorpyrifos residue in green tea by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and gas chromatography-flame photometric detection. Some experimental parameters that influence extraction efficiency, such as the kind and volume of disperser solvents and extraction solvents, extraction time, addition of salt and pH, were investigated. And the optimal experimental conditions were obtained, quantitative analysis was carried out using external standard method. The correlation coefficient of the calibration curves was 0.999 with in 0.05 mg/kg to 5 mg/kg. The results showed that under the optimum conditions, the enrichment factors of the chlorpyrifos was about 554.51, the recoveries for standard addition fell in the range from 91.94 to 104.70% and the relative standard deviations was 4.61%. The limit of quantification of chlorpyrifos in green tea was 0.02 µg/mL at the signal/noise ratio of 3.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Microextração em Fase Líquida , Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Microextração em Fase Líquida/métodos , Solventes , Chá
6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(18): 13058-13065, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067451

RESUMO

Leaf-air partition coefficient (Kleaf-air) values are needed to understand and predict pesticide volatilization and persistence in agroecosystems. The objectives of this work were to measure Kleaf-air values and foliar penetration for the insecticide chlorpyrifos (as an active ingredient alone and in a pesticide formulation) on alfalfa (lucerne) leaves at a range of temperatures and relative humidities and when using leaves collected in different summer months. Kleaf-air values were measured using a solid-phase fugacity meter. A portion of the leaves were also used for foliar penetration experiments. Kleaf-air values for chlorpyrifos as an active ingredient alone decreased with temperature, while the effects of temperature on chlorpyrifos in the formulation were negligible. No correlations between Kleaf-air values and relative humidity were observed. Foliar penetration increased with temperature for chlorpyrifos both as an active ingredient and in the formulation. Increasing foliar penetration with temperature is attributed to increasing diffusion into inner leaf layers. Both volatilization and foliar penetration affect the measured Kleaf-air values, so understanding the link between these processes is necessary to predict Kleaf-air values. The leaf collection date had a substantial effect on the measured Kleaf-air values, highlighting the need for a better understanding of the role of leaf properties on Kleaf-air.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Inseticidas , Praguicidas , Umidade , Inseticidas/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Temperatura
7.
Langmuir ; 38(37): 11227-11235, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067516

RESUMO

Liquid-liquid extraction based on surface nanodroplets can be a green and sustainable technique to extract and concentrate analytes from a sample flow. However, because of the extremely small volume of each droplet (<10 fL, tens of micrometers in base radius and a few or less than 1 µm in height), only a few in situ analytical techniques, such as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, were applicable for the online detection and analysis based on nanodroplet extraction. To demonstrate the versatility of surface nanodroplet-based extraction, in this work, the formation of octanol surface nanodroplets and extraction were performed inside a 3 m Teflon capillary tube. After extraction, surface nanodroplets were collected by injecting air into the tube, by which the contact line of surface droplets was collected by the capillary force. As the capillary allows for the formation of ∼1012 surface nanodroplets on the capillary wall, ≥2 mL of octanol can be collected after extraction. The volume of the collected octanol was enough for the analysis of offline analytical techniques such as UV-vis, GC-MS, and others. Coupled with UV-vis, reliable extraction and detection of two common water pollutants, triclosan and chlorpyrifos, was shown by a linear relationship between the analyte concentration in the sample solution and UV-vis absorbance. Moreover, the limit of detection (LOD) as low as 2 × 10-9 M for triclosan (∼0.58 µg/L) and 3 × 10-9 M for chlorpyrifos (∼1.05 µg/L) could be achieved. The collected surface droplets were also analyzed via gas chromatography (GC) and fluorescence microscopy. Our work shows that surface nanodroplet extraction may potentially streamline the process in sample pretreatment for sensitive chemical detection and quantification by using common analytic tools.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Triclosan , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Poluentes da Água , Octanóis , Politetrafluoretileno , Poluentes da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
8.
Biomedica ; 42(3): 445-449, 2022 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36122284

RESUMO

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is a rare and potentially fatal clinical condition frequently associated with the use of antipsychotics. In the literature, there is only one case report associated with the intake of organophosphates. We present the case of a patient who presented with a clinical picture compatible with neuroleptic malignant syndrome, after the ingestion of an organophosphate (chlorpyrifos). A 57-year-old man who consulted for attempted suicide, acute deterioration of consciousness, torpid neurological evolution, and associated autonomic instability associated with rigidity, persistent hyperthermia, and elevated CPK. Bromocriptine treatment was offered, which resolved the clinical picture. The association with the ingestion of an organophosphate was established, and he was discharged without sequelae. The diagnosis of neuroleptic malignant syndrome is clinical and should be considered in any case of exposure to substances that may lead to dysregulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission in order to initiate timely therapy and impact outcomes.


El síndrome neuroléptico maligno es una condición clínica rara y potencialmente letal que frecuentemente se asocia con el uso de antipsicóticos. En la literatura especializada se encontró únicamente un reporte de caso relacionado con la ingestión de organofosforados. Se presenta un paciente con un cuadro clínico correspondiente al síndrome neuroléptico maligno posterior a la ingestión de clorpirifós. Como resultado de un intento de suicidio con el mencionado organofosforado, el hombre de 57 años presentó deterioro agudo del estado de consciencia, evolución neurológica tórpida e inestabilidad autonómica asociada a rigidez e hipertermia persistentes, así como incremento de la creatina-fosfocinasa (creatine phosphokinase, CPK). Se le administró tratamiento con bromocriptina, con lo cual el cuadro clínico remitió, y fue dado de alta sin secuelas. El diagnóstico del síndrome neuroléptico maligno es clínico y debe contemplarse en cualquier caso de exposición a sustancias que puedan resultar en una desregulación de la neurotransmisión dopaminérgica, con el fin de iniciar el tratamiento oportuno y contrarrestar efectivamente los efectos.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Clorpirifos , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica , Intoxicação por Organofosfatos , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Bromocriptina/uso terapêutico , Clorpirifos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica/etiologia , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica/terapia , Intoxicação por Organofosfatos/complicações
9.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(11): 323, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36125578

RESUMO

Chlorpyrifos (CPF), a common organophosphorus pesticide, is extensively used in agricultural practices. However, we lack sound evidence for the linkage between soil microbial diversity, soil function, and plant biomass under the influence of CPF, which prevents us from assessing the actual impact of CPF on agricultural production. In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing to test the effects of CPF on soil microbial diversity, soil function, and cotton biomass in indoor pot experiments. The use of CPF leads to a significant reduction in cotton biomass until the concentration of CPF used reaches 15 mg kg-1, and the cotton biomass is no longer significantly reduced. Compared with the original soil, the alpha-diversity of bacteria, which was significantly linearly related to cotton biomass, was significantly decreased when the soil was treated with 15 mg kg-1 CPF. Affected by CPF, the overall soil microbial composition has changed significantly. Acidobacteria, Nitrospirae, Planctomycetes, and Actinobacteria were significantly regulated after CPF treatment. Correspondingly, key soil functions, including nitrogen metabolism and iron (III) transporter, have been significantly down-regulated. The reduction of nitrogen and Fe3+ should deprive the cotton of essential nutrients during the short crop cycle and thus affect cotton biomass. Our study provides experimental evidence that CPF affects cotton rhizosphere soil microbial diversity, the relative content of key bacterial genera, and soil function, which shows that it has an important impact on plant biomass, and provides a reference for studying the actual impact of CPF on the environment and agricultural production.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Praguicidas , Bactérias , Biomassa , Ferro , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Compostos Organofosforados , Plantas , Rizosfera , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
10.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 187: 105222, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127061

RESUMO

The organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos, detected in water and food worldwide, has also been found in the Río Negro and Neuquén Valley, North Patagonia, Argentina, where the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, is one of the most abundant fish species. We analyzed whether chlorpyrifos affects the transport activity of the ATP-binding cassette protein transporters from the subfamily C (ABCC), which are critical components of multixenobiotic resistance. We exposed ex vivo O. mykiss middle intestine strips (non-polarized) and segments (polarized) for one hour to 0 (solvent control), 3, 10, and 20 µg L-1 and to 0, 10, and 20 µg L-1 chlorpyrifos, respectively. We estimated the Abcc-mediated transport rate by measuring the transport rate of the specific Abcc substrate 2,4-dinitrophenyl-S-glutathione (DNP-SG). In addition, we measured the enzymatic activity of cholinesterase, carboxylesterase, glutathione-S-transferase, and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD, indicative of the activity of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase 1A, CYP1A). We also measured lipid peroxidation using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method and the gene expression of Abcc2 and genes of the AhR pathway, AhR, ARNT, and cyp1a, by qRT-PCR. Chlorpyrifos induced the DNP-SG transport rate in middle intestine strips in a concentration-dependent manner (49-71%). In polarized preparations, the induction of the DNP-SG transport rate was observed only in everted segments exposed to 20 µg L-1 chlorpyrifos (40%), indicating that CPF only stimulated the apical (luminal) transport flux. Exposure to chlorpyrifos increased GST activity by 42% in intestine strips and inhibited EROD activity (47.5%). In addition, chlorpyrifos exposure inhibited cholinesterase (34-55%) and carboxylesterase (33-42.5%) activities at all the concentrations assayed and increased TBARS levels in a concentration-dependent manner (71-123%). Exposure to 20 µgL-1 chlorpyrifos did not affect the mRNA expression of the studied genes. The lack of inhibition of DNP-SG transport suggests that chlorpyrifos is not an Abcc substrate. Instead, CPF induces the activity of Abcc proteins in the apical membrane of enterocytes, likely through a post-translational pathway.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Oncorhynchus mykiss , Praguicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Clorpirifos/farmacologia , Colinesterases , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Intestinos , Oncorhynchus mykiss/genética , Oncorhynchus mykiss/metabolismo , Compostos Organofosforados/metabolismo , Praguicidas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Solventes , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
11.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 187: 105215, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127062

RESUMO

Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) have been associated with plant-plant-herbivorous-natural enemies communication and an enhanced response to the subsequent attack. Spodoptera litura is a serious cosmopolitan pest that has developed a high level of resistance to many insecticides. However, the underlying molecular and biochemical mechanism by which HIPV priming reduces S. litura larval sensitivity to insecticides remains largely unknown. This study was conducted to explore the potential of volatile from undamaged, or artificially damaged, or S. litura-damaged tomato plants on the susceptibility of S. litura to the insecticides beta-cypermethrin indoxacarb and chlorpyrifos. We found that larvae exposed to volatile from S. litura-damaged or artificially damaged tomato plants were significantly less susceptible to the three insecticides than those exposed to volatile from undamaged tomato plants. Elevated activities of detoxifying enzymes [cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), and esterases (ESTs)], were expressed in S. litura larvae exposed to volatile from S. litura-damaged tomato plants than those exposed to volatile from undamaged tomato plants. Similarly, seven detoxification-related genes [GSTs (SlGSTe1, SlGSTo1, and SlGSTe3) and P450s (CYP6B48, CYP9A40, CYP321A7, and CYP321B1)] in the midgut and fat body of larvae were up-regulated under exposure to volatile from S. litura-damaged tomato plants. Increased volatile organic compounds emissions were detected in the headspace of tomato plants damaged by S. litura compared to the undamaged plants. Collectively, these findings suggest that HIPVs can considerably reduce caterpillar susceptibility to insecticides, possibly through induction-enhanced detoxification mechanisms, and provide valuable information for implementing an effective integrated pest management strategy.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Inseticidas , Lycopersicon esculentum , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Animais , Clorpirifos/farmacologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Esterases , Glutationa , Herbivoria , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Larva , Spodoptera , Transferases/farmacologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia
12.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1227: 340311, 2022 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36089321

RESUMO

Since pesticide residues in food have attracted increasing concern worldwide, it is crucial to develop rapid and sensitive analytical methods to detect pesticide residues and ensure food safety. In this work, via the biotin-streptavidin (SA) recognition system, we constructed a magnetic relaxation switching (MRS) immunosensor for sensitive detection of chlorpyrifos (CPF). With a competitive immunoassay mode, H2O2 and Fe2+ were firstly optimized as the reaction substrates. Wherein, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) acted as enzyme label to catalyze H2O2 and mediated the conversion of Fe2+/Fe3+. By introducing Fe2+/Fe3+ interconversion as MRS signal output, CPF was detected by the immunoreaction induced variations of the transverse relaxation time (ΔT2). The proposed MRS immunosensor exhibited a detection linear range from 0.01 to 1000 ng mL-1 (R2 = 0.9916), with the limit of detection (LOD) of 6 pg mL-1 (3S/M, n = 3). As a proof-of-concept, CPF was easily detected among five different pesticides at a low concentration level (0.1 ng mL-1), as well as in real samples (apple, tea, and lettuce) with recoveries of 80.70-115.30%. Besides, the sensor can realize one step of "separation and detection" towards CPF with the aid of magnetic nanoparticles, which demonstrate its promising potential for pesticide residue detection in food samples and environment.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Clorpirifos , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Imunoensaio/métodos , Fenômenos Magnéticos
13.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 186: 105154, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35973759

RESUMO

Organophosphorus pesticides like Chlorpyrifos 48%EC were widely used to control agricultural pests. The present study aimed to evaluate the toxic effects of Chlorpyrifos 48%EC on B. alexandrina snails, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. After exposure of snails to serial concentrations to determine the LC50, thirty snails for each sublethal concentration (LC10 2.1 and LC25 5.6 mg/l) in each group were exposed for 24 h followed by another 24 h for recovery. After recovery random samples were collected from hemolymph and tissue to measure the impacts on Phagocytic index, histological, biochemical, and molecular parameters. The current results showed a toxic effect of Chlorpyrifos 48%EC on adult B. alexandrina snails after 24 h of exposure at LC50 9.6 mg/l. After exposure to the sub-lethal concentrations of this pesticide, it decreased the total number of hemocytes and the percentage of small cells, while increased the percentage of hyalinocytes. The granulocyte percentage was increased after exposure to LC10, while after LC25, it was decreased compared to the control group. Also, the light microscopical examination showed that some granulocytes have plenty of granules, vacuoles and filopodia. Some hyalinocytes were contained shrinked nuclei, incomplete cell division and forming pseudopodia. Besides, the phagocytic index of hemocytes was significantly increased than control in all treated groups. Also, these sub-lethal concentrations increased MDA and SOD activities, while, tissue NO, GST and TAC contents were significantly decreased after exposure. Levels of Testosterone (T) and Estradiol (E) were increased significantly after exposure compared with control group. The present results showed that the concentration of DNA and RNA was highly decreased after exposure to LC10, 25 than the control group. Therefore, B. alexandrina snails could be used as a bio monitor of the chemical pollution. Besides, this pesticide could reduce the transmission of schistosomiasis as it altered the biological system of these snails.


Assuntos
Biomphalaria , Clorpirifos , Moluscocidas , Praguicidas , Animais , Biomphalaria/genética , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Hemócitos , Moluscocidas/toxicidade , Compostos Organofosforados/farmacologia , Praguicidas/farmacologia
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(35): 10747-10761, 2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36002911

RESUMO

In this study, we annotated 49 odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) in Papilio xuthus, with four novel genes and seven improved sequences. Expression profiles identified numerous OBPs in antennae or reproductive tissues. Using two antenna-enriched general OBPs (PxutGOBP1 and PxutGOBP2) as targets, we screened three key compounds by a reverse chemical ecology strategy. Of these, an oviposition stimulant vicenin-2 could strongly interact with PxutGOBP1, representing a dissociation constant (Ki) value of 10.34 ± 0.07 µM. Molecular simulations and site-directed mutagenesis revealed the importance of His66, Thr73, and Phe118 between PxutGOBP1 and vicenin-2 interactions. Two other compounds, an ordinary floral scent ß-ionone and a widely used insecticide chlorpyrifos, exhibited high affinities to PxutGOBPs (Ki < 13 µM). Furthermore, two mutations His66Ala and Thr73Ala of PxutGOBP1 significantly reduced the binding to chlorpyrifos. Our study provides insights into the putative roles of PxutGOBPs in odorant perception and identifies key binding sites of PxutGOBP1 to vicenin-2 and chlorpyrifos.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Clorpirifos , Inseticidas , Receptores Odorantes , Animais , Feminino , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Odorantes , Percepção , Receptores Odorantes/metabolismo
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36030007

RESUMO

Chlorpyrifos (CPF) and cypermethrin (CYP) are two insecticides that have a proven negative effect on non-target aquatic organisms when they enter the surface waters. However, literature on the comparative effects of these pesticides on important aquaculture fish species, such as common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758) is not yet scientifically detailed, especially over the long-term. The idea of conducting a long-term exposure is to find out how the observed biomarkers would change compared to the short-term exposure. In the natural environment, toxicants are not present alone, but in combination. By monitoring the long-term impact of individual substances, the state of aquatic ecosystems exposed to various toxicants could be predicted. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of different concentrations of CYP (0.0002, 0.0003, and 0.0006 µg/L) and CPF (0.03, 0.05, and 0.10 µg/L) in 50-L glass tanks on C. carpio, exposed for 30 days under laboratory conditions. A set of histological and biochemical biomarkers in the gills and liver were applied with the chemical analyses of water and fish organs. Furthermore, the condition and hepatosomatic index were calculated to assess the physiological status of the treated carps. The behavioral responses were also monitored, and the respiration rate was analyzed. The results suggest that CYP had a more prominent effect on the histological structure of fish organs, biochemical responses of anti-oxidant enzymes, behavior, and respiration rate compared to the effect of CPF. In addition, the results also indicate that the liver is more susceptible to chronic and chemically induced cellular stress compared to the gills, with overall destructive changes in the histological biomarkers rather than adaptive. Regardless of the scenario, our results provide novel insights into pesticide exposure and the possible biological impacts on economically important freshwater fish, exposed to lower CYP and CPF concentrations, based on the EU legislation (maximum allowable concentrations, MAC-EQS).


Assuntos
Carpas , Clorpirifos , Praguicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Biomarcadores , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Brânquias , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
16.
Environ Res ; 214(Pt 4): 114011, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35985484

RESUMO

Chlorpyrifos (CP) is one of the Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) primarily used in agriculture to safeguard crops from pests and diseases. The pervasive use of chlorpyrifos is hazardous to humans and the environment as it inhibits the receptor for acetylcholinesterase activity, leading to abnormalities linked to the central nervous system. Hence, there is an ardent need to develop an effective and sustainable approach to the on-site degradation of chlorpyrifos. The role of microbes in the remediation of pesticides is considered the most effective and eco-friendly approach, as they have strong degradative potential due to their gene and enzymes naturally adapted to these sites. Several reports have previously been published on exploring the role of microbes in the degradation of CP. However, detection of CP as an environmental contaminant is an essential prerequisite for developing an efficient microbial-mediated biodegradation method with less harmful intermediates. Most of the articles published to date discuss the fate and impact of CP in the environment along with its degradation mechanism but still fail to discuss the analytical portion. This review is focused on the latest developments in the field of bioremediation of CP along with its physicochemical properties, toxicity, fate, and conventional (UV-Visible spectrophotometer, FTIR, NMR, GC-MS, etc) and advanced detection methods (Biosensors and immunochromatography-based methods) from different environmental samples. Apart from it, this review explores the role of metagenomics, system biology, in-silico tools, and genetic engineering in facilitating the bioremediation of CP. One of the objectives of this review is to educate policymakers with scientific data that will enable the development of appropriate strategies to reduce pesticide exposure and the harmful health impacts on both Human and other environmental components. Moreover, this review provides up-to-date developments related to the sustainable remediation of CP.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Praguicidas , Acetilcolinesterase , Biodegradação Ambiental , Clorpirifos/metabolismo , Compostos Organofosforados , Praguicidas/metabolismo
17.
Environ Health ; 21(1): 74, 2022 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Organophosphate (OP) insecticides represent one of the largest classes of sprayed insecticides in the U.S., and their use has been associated with various adverse health outcomes, including disorders of blood pressure regulation such as hypertension (HTN). METHODS: In a study of 935 adults from the NHANES 2013-2014 cycle, we examined the relationship between systolic and diastolic blood pressure changes and urinary concentrations of three OP insecticides metabolites, including 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), oxypyrimidine, and para-nitrophenol. These metabolites correspond to the parent compounds chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and methyl parathion, respectively. Weighted, multivariable linear regression analysis while adjusting for potential confounders were used to model the relationship between OP metabolites and blood pressure. Weighted, multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to model the odds of HTN for quartile of metabolites. RESULTS: We observed significant, inverse association between TCPy on systolic blood pressure (ß-estimate = -0.16, p < 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (ß-estimate = -0.15, p < 0.001). Analysis with para-nitrophenol revealed a significant, positive association with systolic blood pressure (ß-estimate = 0.03, p = 0.02), and an inverse association with diastolic blood pressure (ß-estimate = -0.09, p < 0.001). For oxypyrimidine, we observed significant, positive associations between systolic blood pressure (ß-estimate = 0.58, p = 0.03) and diastolic blood pressure (ß-estimate = 0.31, p < 0.001). Furthermore, we observed significant interactions between TCPy and ethnicity on systolic blood pressure (ß-estimate = 1.46, p = 0.0036). Significant interaction terms were observed between oxypyrimidine and ethnicity (ß-estimate = -1.73, p < 0.001), as well as oxypyrimidine and BMI (ß-estimate = 1.51 p < 0.001) on systolic blood pressure, and between oxypyrimidine and age (ß-estimate = 1.96, p = 0.02), race (ß-estimate = -3.81 p = 0.004), and BMI on diastolic blood pressure (ß-estimate = 0.72, p = 0.02). A significant interaction was observed between para-nitrophenol and BMI for systolic blood pressure (ß-estimate = 0.43, p = 0.01), and between para-nitrophenol and ethnicity on diastolic blood pressure (ß-estimate = 2.19, p = 0.006). Lastly, we observed a significant association between the odds of HTN and TCPy quartiles (OR = 0.65, 95% CI [0.43,0.99]). CONCLUSION: Our findings support previous studies suggesting a role for organophosphate insecticides in the etiology of blood pressure dysregulation and HTN. Future studies are warranted to corroborate these findings, evaluate dose-response relationships between organophosphate insecticides and blood pressure, determine clinical significance, and elucidate biological mechanisms underlying this association.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Hipertensão , Inseticidas , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Humanos , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Inseticidas/urina , Nitrofenóis , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Compostos Organofosforados/urina
18.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 38(2): 163-168, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36031576

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the protective effect of edaravone on chlorpyrifos-induced neuronal apoptosis and its mitochondrial mechanism. Methods: Under the principle of randomization and double-blindness, the rats were divided into control group, chlorpyrifos group, and edaravone group (n=6). The rats in edaravone group were treated with edaravone (10 mg/1.6 ml/kg, ip.) 1 h after chlorpyrifos injection. After continuous injection of chlorpyrifos and edaravone for 28 days, the learning and memory abilities of the rats were tested by open field and water maze tests. The rat brain tissue was collected after cardiac perfusion, and the neuronal damage in the hippocampus of the brain was detected by HE staining and the mitochondrial and nuclear damage were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The contents of Na+-K+-ATPase and ATP were measured to evaluate mitochondrial damage. The expression of mitochondrial fission protein DRP1 and phosphorylation at Ser 637 of DRP1 were determined by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. Results: Compared with the control group, the total movement distance and average speed of the rats in the chlorpyrifos group were decreased significantly within 3 minutes of the open field test (P<0.01), and the escape latency within 1 minute of the water maze test was prolonged significantly. The number of platform crossings was reduced significantly (P<0.01), the activity of ATPase in brain tissue was decreased significantly (P<0.01) , the content of ATP and the phosphorylation level of Ser637 of mitochondrial DRP1 were decreased significantly (P<0.05, P<0.01). After edaravone treatment, the total movement distance and average speed of rats in the open field test were increased (P<0.05), the latency in the water maze test was decreased, and the number of crossing platforms was increased (P<0.01), brain pathological sections showed that nerve cells were arranged neatly, nucleus and mitochondrial damage was significantly improved, the activity of ATPase in brain tissue was increased (P<0.01), the levels of ATP and mitochondrial DRP1 Ser637 phosphorylation increased (P<0.05, P<0.01).Conclusion: Edaravone alleviates chlorpyrifos-induced brain injury in rats by promoting the phosphorylation of DRP1 at Ser637.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas , Clorpirifos , Adenosina Trifosfatases , Trifosfato de Adenosina , Animais , Edaravone , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(36): 11192-11200, 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36043880

RESUMO

Functions of insect CYP2 clan P450s in insecticide resistance are relatively less reported. In Spodoptera litura, a gene from the CYP2 clan (CYP304F1) was validated to be up-regulated significantly in a pyrethroid- and organophosphate-resistant population (QJ) than a susceptible population by RNA-Seq and qRT-PCR. Spatial-temporal expression indicated the high expression of CYP304F1 in the fourth, fifth, and sixth instar larvae and the metabolism-related tissue fat body and malpighian tubules. CYP304F1 was knocked out by CRISPR/Cas9, and a homozygous population (QJ-CYP304F1) with a G-base deletion at exon 2 was obtained after selection. Bioassay results showed that the LD50 values to ß-cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos in the QJ-CYP304F1 population decreased significantly, and the resistance ratio was both 1.81-fold in the QJ population compared with that in the QJ-CYP304F1 population. The toxicity of fenvalerate, cyhalothrin, or phoxim showed no significant change. These results suggested that CYP304F1 is involved in ß-cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos resistance in S. litura.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Inseticidas , Piretrinas , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Clorpirifos/metabolismo , Clorpirifos/farmacologia , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva/genética , Piretrinas/metabolismo , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Spodoptera
20.
Environ Pollut ; 311: 119983, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35988674

RESUMO

The spread of pesticides in water bodies integrated into agricultural landscapes may prevent some areas from being colonized. In this study, the effects on the colonization responses of D. magna exerted by gradients of realistic environmental concentrations of the pesticides chlorpyrifos, terbuthylazine and their mixtures were tested in a novel multicompartment non-forced exposure system. Furthermore, the effects of both pesticides and their mixtures on the swimming behavior and the neurotransmission activity of D. magna were analyzed using a traditional forced exposure system. The synthesis and concentration of the main environmental metabolites of terbuthylazine were also analyzed. Results confirmed that D. magna exposed to mixture gradients were able to detect the pollutants and their colonization dynamics were drastically inhibited. The swimming behavior increased in D. magna exposed to the highest concentration of the mixture treatment. AChE activity was only significantly inhibited in the D. magna exposed to the highest concentration of chlorpyrifos. Changes in swimming behavior could not be directly related to the effects on AChE. Furthermore, the synthesis of the metabolite terbuthylazine 2-hydroxy during the course of the experiments was confirmed. These results demonstrate the importance of integrating pesticide mixtures in both non-forced and forced exposure systems during ecotoxicological assays.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Praguicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Daphnia , Ecossistema , Praguicidas/análise , Triazinas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
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