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1.
Life Sci ; 346: 122633, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615746

RESUMO

AIMS: Systemic administration of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl), an acidifying agent used in human patients and experimental conditions, causes hypothermia in mice, however, the mechanisms of the thermoregulatory response to NH4Cl and whether it develops in other species remained unknown. MAIN METHODS: We studied body temperature (Tb) changes in rats and mice induced by intraperitoneal administration of NH4Cl after blockade of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) or ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) channels. KEY FINDINGS: In rats, NH4Cl decreased Tb by 0.4-0.8°C (p < 0.05). The NH4Cl-induced hypothermia also developed in Trpv1 knockout (Trpv1-/-) and wild-type (Trpv1+/+) mice, however, the Tb drop was exaggerated in Trpv1-/- mice compared to Trpv1+/+ controls with maximal decreases of 4.0 vs. 2.1°C, respectively (p < 0.05). Pharmacological blockade of TRPV1 channels with AMG 517 augmented the hypothermic response to NH4Cl in genetically unmodified mice and rats (p < 0.05 for both). In contrast, when NH4Cl was infused to mice genetically lacking the TRPA1 channel, the hypothermic response was significantly attenuated compared to wild-type controls with maximal mean Tb difference of 1.0°C between the genotypes (p = 0.008). Pretreatment of rats with a TRPA1 antagonist (A967079) also attenuated the NH4Cl-induced Tb drop with a maximal difference of 0.7°C between the pretreatment groups (p = 0.003). SIGNIFICANCE: TRPV1 channels limit, whereas TRPA1 channels exaggerate the development of NH4Cl-induced hypothermia in rats and mice, but other mechanisms are also involved. Our results warrant for regular Tb control and careful consideration of NH4Cl treatment in patients with TRPA1 and TRPV1 channel dysfunctions.


Assuntos
Hipotermia , Canal de Cátion TRPA1 , Canais de Cátion TRPV , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Ratos , Cloreto de Amônio/farmacologia , Temperatura Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipotermia/induzido quimicamente , Hipotermia/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Canal de Cátion TRPA1/metabolismo , Canal de Cátion TRPA1/genética , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética
2.
Urolithiasis ; 52(1): 52, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564033

RESUMO

Urolithiasis is a prevalent urological disorder that contributes significantly to global morbidity. This study aimed to assess the anti-urolithic effects of Cymbopogon proximus (Halfa Bar) and Petroselinum crispum (parsley) seed ethanolic extract /Gum Arabic (GA) emulsion, and its nanogel form against ethylene glycol (EG) and ammonium chloride (AC)-induced experimental urolithiasis in rats. Rats were divided into four groups: group 1 served as the normal control, group 2 received EG with AC in drinking water for 14 days to induce urolithiasis, groups 3 and 4 were orally administered emulsion (600 mg/kg/day) and nanogel emulsion (600 mg/kg/day) for 7 days, followed by co-administration with EG and AC in drinking water for 14 days. Urolithiatic rats exhibited a significant decrease in urinary excreted magnesium, and non-enzymic antioxidant glutathione and catalase activity. Moreover, they showed an increase in oxalate crystal numbers and various urolithiasis promoters, including excreted calcium, oxalate, phosphate, and uric acid. Renal function parameters and lipid peroxidation were intensified. Treatment with either emulsion or nanogel emulsion significantly elevated urolithiasis inhibitors, excreted magnesium, glutathione levels, and catalase activities. Reduced oxalate crystal numbers, urolithiasis promoters' excretion, renal function parameters, and lipid peroxidation while improving histopathological changes. Moreover, it decreased renal crystal deposition score and the expression of Tumer necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and cleaved caspase-3. Notably, nanogel emulsion showed superior effects compared to the emulsion. Cymbopogon proximus (C. proximus) and Petroselinum crispum (P. crispum) seed ethanolic extracts/GA nanogel emulsion demonstrated protective effects against ethylene glycol induced renal stones by mitigating kidney dysfunction, oxalate crystal formation, and histological alterations.


Assuntos
Cymbopogon , Água Potável , Cálculos Renais , Polietilenoglicóis , Polietilenoimina , Urolitíase , Animais , Ratos , Petroselinum , Cloreto de Amônio , Goma Arábica , Emulsões , Catalase , Magnésio , Nanogéis , Urolitíase/induzido quimicamente , Urolitíase/tratamento farmacológico , Urolitíase/prevenção & controle , Sementes , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Etanol , Glutationa , Oxalatos , Etilenoglicóis , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 919: 170676, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350567

RESUMO

As one of the most commonly used biocidal cationic surfactants, benzalkonium chlorides (BACs) have been an increasing concern as emerging contaminants. Wastewater has been claimed the main point for BACs to enter into the environment, but to date, it is still largely unknown how the BACs affect the microbes (especially microalgae) in the practical wastewater and how to cost-effectively remove them. In this study, the inhibitory effects of a typical BACs, dodecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (DDBAC), on a green microalga Chlorella sp. in oxidation pond wastewater were investigated. The results showed that though a hermetic effect at the first 2 days was observed with the DDBAC at low concentration (<6 mg/L), the algal growth and photosynthesis were significantly inhibited by the DDBAC at all the tested concentrations (3 to 48 mg/L). Fortunately, a new microbial consortium (MC) capable of degrading DDBAC was screened through a gradient domestication method. The MC mainly composed of Wickerhamomyces sp., Purpureocillium sp., and Achromobacter sp., and its maximum removal efficiency and removal rate of DDBAC (48 mg/L) respectively reached 98.1 % and 46.32 mg/L/d. Interestingly, a microbial-microalgal system (MMS) was constructed using the MC and Chlorella sp., and a synergetic effect between the two kinds of microorganisms was proposed: microalga provided oxygen and extracellular polysaccharides as co-metabolic substrates to help the MC to degrade DDBAC, while the MC helped to eliminate the DDBAC-induced inhibition on the alga. Further, by observing the seven kinds of degradation products (mainly including CH5O3P, C6H5CH2-, and C8H11N), two possible chemical pathways of the DDBAC degradation were proposed. In addition, the metagenomic sequencing results showed that the main functional genes of the MMS included antibiotic-resistant genes, ABC transporter genes, quorum sensing genes, two-component regulatory system genes, etc. This study provided some theoretical and application findings for the cost-effective pollution prevention of BACs in wastewater.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Microalgas , Águas Residuárias , Cloreto de Amônio/metabolismo , Consórcios Microbianos , Chlorella/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cocultura , Biomassa
4.
Microbiol Spectr ; 12(2): e0234623, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38226804

RESUMO

Salmonella enterica is a prominent cause of foodborne disease in the United States. However, the mechanism and route of pathogen transmission that leads to Salmonella infection in commercial processing plants are poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the effect of mixed-species biofilms on S. enterica survival and persistence under sanitizer stress [Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs)] by analyzing 78 floor drain samples from a meat processing facility and three S. enterica strains (serovars Cerro, Montevideo, and Typhimurium) isolated from that facility and an unrelated source. The four test groups were as follows: control, QAC treatment, Salmonella addition, and QAC treatment with Salmonella addition. DNAs were extracted, and 16S rRNA gene based on the variable region V4 amplicon sequencing was performed to analyze the relative abundance, core microbiome, and Alpha and Beta diversity using the qiime2 pipeline. At the genus level, the Brochothrix (45.56%), Pseudomonas (38.94%), Carnobacterium (6.18%), Lactococcus (4.68%), Serratia (3.14%), and Staphylococcus (0.82%) were shown to be the most prevalent in all drain samples. The results demonstrate that the relative abundance of different bacterial genera was affected by both QAC treatment and Salmonella addition, with some genera showing increases or decreases in abundance. Notably, the correlation network was constructed to understand the relationships between the different bacteria. Nitrospira had the greatest number of connections in the floor drain environment network, with two negative and eight positive correlations. The results suggest that Nitrospira in the mixed-species biofilm community may play a role in converting ammonium in the QAC sanitizer into nitrites. Thus, Nitrospira could be a potentially important genus in providing sanitizer resistance to pathogen-encompassed mixed-species biofilms.IMPORTANCESalmonella contamination in meat processing facilities can lead to foodborne illness outbreaks. Our study characterized the microbiome dynamics in beef facility drains and their response to Salmonella addition and common sanitizer (QAC). Nitrospira could be an important genus in providing sanitizer resistance to pathogen-encompassed mixed-species biofilms. The results provide insight into the impact of mixed-species biofilms on Salmonella survival and persistence under sanitizer stress in meat processing facilities. The results highlight the need to consider mixed-species biofilm effects when developing targeted interventions to enhance food safety.


Assuntos
Salmonella enterica , Saneamento , Animais , Bovinos , Cloreto de Amônio/farmacologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Salmonella/fisiologia , Biofilmes
5.
Mar Drugs ; 22(1)2024 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38248665

RESUMO

The present study focused on the design and preparation of acid-responsive benzimidazole-chitosan quaternary ammonium salt (BIMIXHAC) nanogels for a controlled, slow-release of Doxorubicin HCl (DOX.HCl). The BIMIXHAC was crosslinked with sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) using the ion crosslinking method. The method resulted in nanogels with low polydispersity index, small particle size, and positive zeta potential values, indicating the good stability of the nanogels. Compared to hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan-Doxorubicin HCl-sodium tripolyphosphate (HACC-D-TPP) nanogel, the benzimidazole-chitosan quaternary ammonium salt-Doxorubicin HCl-sodium tripolyphosphate (BIMIXHAC-D-TPP) nanogel show higher drug encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity (BIMIXHAC-D-TPP 93.17 ± 0.27% and 31.17 ± 0.09%), with acid-responsive release profiles and accelerated release in vitro. The hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan-sodium tripolyphosphate (HACC-TPP), and benzimidazole-chitosan quaternary ammonium salt-sodium tripolyphosphate (BIMIXHAC-TPP) nanogels demonstrated favorable antioxidant capability. The assay of cell viability, measured by the MTT assay, revealed that nanogels led to a significant reduction in the cell viability of two cancer cells: the human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line (A549) and the human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). Furthermore, the BIMIXHAC-D-TPP nanogel was 2.96 times less toxic than DOX.HCl to the mouse fibroblast cell line (L929). It was indicated that the BIMIXHAC-based nanogel with enhanced antioxidant and antitumor activities and acidic-responsive release could serve as a potential nanocarrier.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Polietilenoglicóis , Polietilenoimina , Polifosfatos , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Nanogéis , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cloreto de Amônio , Benzimidazóis , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/farmacologia
6.
J Hazard Mater ; 463: 132834, 2024 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37918070

RESUMO

Benzalkonium chlorides (BACs) are quaternary ammonium compounds (QUATs) that are used as biocides. The degradation of these compounds in wastewater treatment plants is essential to reduce their spread into the environment and thus prevent the development of QUAT-resistant genes. The biodegradation of two BACs (BAC-12 and BAC-14) was investigated in moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs). Degradation half-lives of 12 and 20 h for BAC-12 and - 14, respectively, were detected as well as the formation of 42 metabolites. Two new degradation pathways for the BACs were identified in this study: 1) one involving an ω-oxidation, followed by ß-oxidation and 2) one via an ω-oxidation followed by an α-oxidation that was succeeded by ß-oxidation. Similar metabolites were detected for both BAC-12 and BAC-14. Additional metabolites were detected in the study, that could not be assigned to the above-mentioned pathways, revealing even more metabolic pathways in the MBBR which is probably due to the complexity of the microbial community in the biofilm. Interestingly, both TP194 (Benzyl-(carboxymethyl)-dimethylazanium) and TP208B (Benzyl-(2-carboxyethyl)-dimethylazanium) were identified as end products of the ω/ß-pathway and the α/ß-pathway. TP208B, TP152 and TP250 that were identified in this study, as well as the known BDMA were discovered in the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant.


Assuntos
Compostos de Benzalcônio , Biofilmes , Compostos de Benzalcônio/metabolismo , Cloreto de Amônio , Reatores Biológicos
7.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 6194, 2023 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37798269

RESUMO

Ammonium (NH4+), a breakdown product of amino acids that can be toxic at high levels, is detected by taste systems of organisms ranging from C. elegans to humans and has been used for decades in vertebrate taste research. Here we report that OTOP1, a proton-selective ion channel expressed in sour (Type III) taste receptor cells (TRCs), functions as sensor for ammonium chloride (NH4Cl). Extracellular NH4Cl evoked large dose-dependent inward currents in HEK-293 cells expressing murine OTOP1 (mOTOP1), human OTOP1 and other species variants of OTOP1, that correlated with its ability to alkalinize the cell cytosol. Mutation of a conserved intracellular arginine residue (R292) in the mOTOP1 tm 6-tm 7 linker specifically decreased responses to NH4Cl relative to acid stimuli. Taste responses to NH4Cl measured from isolated Type III TRCs, or gustatory nerves were strongly attenuated or eliminated in an Otop1-/- mouse strain. Behavioral aversion of mice to NH4Cl, reduced in Skn-1a-/- mice lacking Type II TRCs, was entirely abolished in a double knockout with Otop1. These data together reveal an unexpected role for the proton channel OTOP1 in mediating a major component of the taste of NH4Cl and a previously undescribed channel activation mechanism.


Assuntos
Papilas Gustativas , Paladar , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Cloreto de Amônio/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Prótons , Paladar/fisiologia , Papilas Gustativas/fisiologia
8.
Poult Sci ; 102(12): 103093, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37783192

RESUMO

Ammonia poses a significant challenge in the contemporary intensive breeding industry, resulting in substantial economic losses. Despite this, there is a dearth of research investigating efficacious strategies to prevent ammonia poisoning in poultry. Consequently, the objective of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms through which Luteolin (Lut) safeguards mitochondria and restores equilibrium to energy metabolism disorders, thereby shielding chicken spleen lymphocytes from the detrimental effects of ammonia poisoning. Chicken spleen lymphocytes were categorized into 3 distinct groups: the control group, the ammonia group (with the addition of 1 mmol/L of ammonium chloride), and the Lut group (with the treatment of 0.5 µg/mL of Lut for 12 h followed by the addition of 1 mmol/L of ammonium chloride). These groups were then cultured for a duration of 24 h. To investigate the potential protective effect of Lut on lymphocytes exposed to ammonia, various techniques were employed, including CCK-8 analysis, ultrastructural observation, reagent kit methodology, fluorescence microscopy, and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The findings indicate that Lut has the potential to mitigate the morphological damage of mitochondria caused by ammonia poisoning. Additionally, it can counteract the decline in mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP content, and ATPase activities (specifically Na+/K+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase, Mg2+-ATPase, and Ca/Mg2+-ATPase) following exposure to ammonia in lymphocytes. Lut also has the ability to regulate the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial fusion (Opa1, Mfn1, and Mfn2) and division (Drp1 and Mff) in spleen lymphocytes after ammonia exposure. This regulation leads to a balanced energy metabolism (HK1, HK2, LDHA, LDHB, PFK, PK, SDHB, and ACO2) and provides protection against ammonia poisoning.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Baço , Animais , Baço/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Amônia/metabolismo , Luteolina/metabolismo , Luteolina/farmacologia , Cloreto de Amônio/metabolismo , Cloreto de Amônio/farmacologia , Metabolismo Energético , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Adenosina Trifosfatases/farmacologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Linfócitos/metabolismo
9.
PLoS One ; 18(9): e0291649, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37713420

RESUMO

Bone disease is highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), leading to an increased risk of bone fractures. This is due in part to metabolic acid-induced bone dissolution. Bisphosphonates (BPPs) are a potential treatment for inhibiting bone dissolution; however, there are limited studies observing the use of BPPs on acidotic patients. We aimed to determine efficacy of BPPs on maintaining bone health and pH regulation in acid-exposed mice. Using a diet-induced murine model of metabolic acidosis, we examined bone structure, composition, and mechanics as well as blood gases for three groups: control, acidosis, and acidosis + bisphosphonates (acidosis+BPP). Acidosis was induced for 14 days and alendronate was administered every 3 days for the acidosis+BPP group. The administration of BPP had little to no effect on bone structure, mechanics, and composition of the acidosis bones. However, administration of BPP did cause the mice to develop more severe acidosis than the acidosis only group. Overall, we discovered that BPPs may exacerbate acidosis symptoms by inhibiting the release of buffering ions from bone. Therefore, we propose that BPP administration should be carefully considered for those with CKD and that alkali supplementation could help minimize acidifying effects.


Assuntos
Acidose , Osteólise , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Animais , Camundongos , Alendronato/efeitos adversos , Cloreto de Amônio , Difosfonatos/efeitos adversos , Acidose/induzido quimicamente
10.
PLoS One ; 18(9): e0291243, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37703250

RESUMO

Nitrogen use efficiency is an important index in ruminants and can be indirectly evaluated through the N isotopic discrimination between the animal and its diet (Δ15Nanimal-diet). The concentration and source of N may determine both the extent of the N isotopic discrimination in bacteria and N use efficiency. We hypothesised that the uptake and release of ammonia by rumen bacteria will affect the natural 15N enrichment of the bacterial biomass over their substrates (Δ15Nbacteria-substrate) and thereby further impacting Δ15Nanimal-diet. To test this hypothesis, two independent in vitro experiments were conducted using two contrasting N sources (organic vs inorganic) at different levels either in pure rumen bacteria culture incubations (Experiment #1) or in mixed rumen cultures (Experiment #2). In Experiment #1, tryptone casein or ammonium chloride were tested at low (1 mM N) and high (11.5 mM N) concentrations on three rumen bacterial strains (Fibrobacter succinogenes, Eubacterium limosum and Xylanibacter ruminicola) incubated in triplicate in anaerobic batch monocultures during 48h. In Experiment #2 mixed rumen cultures were incubated during 120 h with peptone or ammonium chloride at five different levels of N (1.5, 3, 4.5, 6 and 12-mM). In experiment #1, Δ15Nbacteria-substrate was lowest when the ammonia-consumer bacterium Fibrobacter succinogenes was grown on ammonium chloride, and highest when the proteolytic bacterial strain Xylanibacter ruminicola was grown on tryptone. In experiment #2, Δ15Nbacteria-substrate was lower with inorganic (ammonium chloride) vs organic (peptone) N source. A strong negative correlation between Δ15Nbacteria-substrate and Rikenellaceae_RC9_gut_group, a potential fibrolytic rumen bacterium, was detected. Together, our results showed that Δ15Nbacteria-substrate may change according to the balance between synthesis of microbial protein from ammonia versus non-ammonia N sources and confirm the key role of rumen bacteria as modulators of Δ15Nanimal-diet.


Assuntos
Peptonas , Rúmen , Animais , Isótopos de Nitrogênio , Cloreto de Amônio , Bactérias , Nitrogênio , Amônia , Bacteroides
11.
Bioresour Technol ; 388: 129784, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37739187

RESUMO

The purpose of this work was to determine the effect of the addition of NH4Cl to oat straw on the evolved gases, kinetic triplet, and thermodynamic parameters of the pyrolysis process at 873 K. A complementary approach allowed to assess the effects of the pyrolysis of chlorine- and nitrogen-enriched biomass. The thermal analysis of biomass was performed for four heating rates (5, 10, 20, and 30 K/min). The doping of NH4Cl in the straw favoured i) carbonisation of the chars, ii) formation of C-N bonds, iii) reduction of evolved CH4 and CO2, and iv) an increase in the mean values of the effective activation energy and all thermodynamic parameters. A group of reactions that best fit the experimental data of the pyrolysis process was selected. It was necessary to use unspecified mechanisms to describe the reaction model, particularly for samples enriched with NH4Cl.


Assuntos
Avena , Gases , Cloreto de Amônio , Pirólise , Termogravimetria , Termodinâmica , Cinética , Biomassa , Cloretos
12.
Carbohydr Polym ; 321: 121293, 2023 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37739502

RESUMO

Fruit rotting at the postharvest stage severely limits their marketing supply chains and shelf-life. Thus, developing a green and cost-effective approach to extend the shelf-life of perishable foods is highly desired. In this study, inspired by the mussel-adhesion strategy, a multifunctional fruit coating material has been developed using a quaternized catechol-functionalized chitosan (CQ-CS) grafted with 2, 3-epoxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride and 3, 4-dihydroxy benzaldehyde. The as-prepared CQ-CS coating exhibited excellent mechanical properties, universal surface adhesion abilities, antimicrobial and antioxidant capacities without any potential toxicity effects. Using strawberry and banana as model fruits, we showed that the CQ-CS coating could effectively maintain the fruit's firmness and color, decrease the weight loss rate, and prevent microbial growth, thus finally extending their shelf- life when compared to uncoated samples, indicating the universal application of the as-prepared CQ-CS coating. These findings demonstrated that this novel conformal coating of CQ-CS has great potential for fruit preservation in the food industry.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Filmes Comestíveis , Frutas , Cloreto de Amônio , Antioxidantes/farmacologia
13.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 107(23): 7313-7330, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37741936

RESUMO

As lipogenic yeasts are becoming increasingly harnessed as biofactories of oleochemicals, the availability of efficient protocols for the determination and optimization of lipid titers in these organisms is necessary. In this study, we optimized a quick, reliable, and high-throughput Nile red-based lipid fluorometry protocol adapted for oleaginous yeasts and validated it using different approaches, the most important of which is using gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization detection and mass spectrometry. This protocol was applied in the optimization of the concentrations of ammonium chloride and glycerol for attaining highest lipid titers in Rhodotorula toruloides NRRL Y-6987 and Yarrowia lipolytica W29 using response surface central composite design (CCD). Results of this optimization showed that the optimal concentration of ammonium chloride and glycerol is 4 and 123 g/L achieving a C/N ratio of 57 for R. toruloides, whereas for Y. lipolytica, concentrations are 4 and 139 g/L with a C/N ratio of 61 for Y. lipolytica. Outside the C/N of 33 to 74 and 45 to 75, respectively, for R. toruloides and Y. lipolytica, lipid productions decrease by more than 10%. The developed regression models and response surface plots show the importance of the careful selection of C/N ratio to attain maximal lipid production. KEY POINTS: • Nile red (NR)-based lipid fluorometry is efficient, rapid, cheap, high-throughput. • NR-based lipid fluorometry can be well used for large-scale experiments like DoE. • Optimal molar C/N ratio for maximum lipid production in lipogenic yeasts is ~60.


Assuntos
Lipídeos , Yarrowia , Glicerol , Cloreto de Amônio , Biomassa , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Leveduras/química
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(18)2023 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37762468

RESUMO

Supercapacitors, with high energy density, rapid charge-discharge capabilities, and long cycling ability, have gained favor among many researchers. However, the universality of high-performance carbon-based electrodes is often constrained by their complex fabrication methods. In this study, the common industrial materials, zinc gluconate and ammonium chloride, are uniformly mixed and subjected to a one-step carbonization strategy to prepare three-dimensional hierarchical porous carbon materials with high specific surface area and suitable nitrogen doping. The results show that a specific capacitance of 221 F g-1 is achieved at a current density of 1 A g-1. The assembled symmetrical supercapacitor achieves a high energy density of 17 Wh kg-1, and after 50,000 cycles at a current density of 50 A g-1, it retains 82% of its initial capacitance. Moreover, the operating voltage window of the symmetrical device can be easily expanded to 2.5 V when using Et4NBF4 as the electrolyte, resulting in a maximum energy density of up to 153 Wh kg-1, and retaining 85.03% of the initial specific capacitance after 10,000 cycles. This method, using common industrial materials as raw materials, provides ideas for the simple preparation of high-performance carbon materials and also provides a promising method for the large-scale production of highly porous carbons.


Assuntos
Carbono , Gluconatos , Porosidade , Cloreto de Amônio
15.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 89: 103747, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37647785

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The paper describes the introduction, and early use of chemically and electrically induced convulsive therapies, at the Mysore Government Mental Hospital (MGMH), now the National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, Bangalore, India. Cardiazol and ammonium chloride were used at MGMH before the introduction of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The study examines the early history, clinical correlates and outcome of convulsive therapies and attempts to contextualize how local conditions influenced implementation. METHOD: Three sets of archival case-records from 1938 to 1948, each of a period of 9 months following the implementation of a particular mode of convulsive therapy were reviewed. RESULTS: During the examined timeframe, 40 patients received cardiazol, 95 ammonium chloride and 50 unmodified ECT. Schizophrenia was the commonest clinical indication for convulsive therapy across all modalities of treatment. When outcomes were examined, 45%, 48.4% and 62% of patients were clinically reported to have been either cured/improved after receiving cardiazol, ammonium chloride and ECT respectively. Those receiving cardiazol had a high mortality of 22.5%, compared to 3.1% for ammonium chloride and 4% with ECT. CONCLUSIONS: Convulsive therapies were one of the first somatic psychiatric treatments, introduced around 1930s and 1940s all over the world, including in India. Our archival records suggest that many international ideas about somatic treatments were quickly adopted in India. Electroconvulsive therapy and other novel neuromodulatory interventions continue to be used and actively researched in India.


Assuntos
Convulsoterapia , Eletroconvulsoterapia , Humanos , Hospitais Psiquiátricos , Pentilenotetrazol/uso terapêutico , Cloreto de Amônio , Índia , Eletroconvulsoterapia/efeitos adversos
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 30(38): 89690-89704, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37458881

RESUMO

Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) contain a plethora of valuable metals, considered an attractive secondary resource. In the current research, a hydrometallurgical process combined ammonia/ammonium chloride leaching and reduction (using L-ascorbic acid) to recover copper and its oxide (CuO) as nanosized particles from WPCBs was investigated. The results of leaching indicated that 96.7% of copper could be recovered at a temperature of 35 °C for a leaching duration of 2 h with ammonium chloride and ammonia concentration of 2 mol/L at a solid:liquid ratio of 1:10 g/cm3. The synthesized particles exhibit spherical and distorted sphere morphology with average particle size of 460 nm and 50 nm for Cu and CuO NPs, respectively. The antibacterial activity of Cu, CuO, and a (1:1) blend of both (Cu/CuO) has been examined against five different bacterial and fungal strains. The highest zone of inhibition was measured as 21.2 mm for Cu NPs toward Escherichia coli and 16.7 mm for Cu/CuO blend toward Bacillus cereus bacteria. The highest zone of inhibition was measured as 13 mm and 13.8 mm for Cu/CuO blend toward Fusarium proliferatum and Penicillium verrucosum fungi. Cu/CuO blend showed notable photocatalytic activity towards Rhodamine B dye under visible light irradiation with 96% degradation rate within 120 min. Using the process developed in this study, copper and its oxide as nanoparticles can be produced from WPCBs and used for multifunctional applications.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanopartículas , Cobre/farmacologia , Amônia , Cloreto de Amônio , Fungos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Óxidos
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 891: 164507, 2023 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37268138

RESUMO

With the rapid development of industry and agriculture, excessive nitrogen and phosphorus released into natural surface water have caused eutrophication. Applying submerged plants to manage eutrophic water has attracted widespread attention. However, there are limited studies on the effects of different nitrogen and phosphorus in the water environment on submerged plants and their epiphytic biofilm. Therefore, this paper investigated the effects of eutrophic water with ammonium chloride (IN), urea (ON), potassium dihydrogen phosphate (IP), and sodium-ß-glycerophosphate (OP) on Myriophyllum verticillatum and epiphytic biofilms. The results showed that Myriophyllum verticillatum exhibited a good purification effect on the eutrophic water with inorganic phosphorus, the removal rates of IP were 68.0%, and the plants grew best in this condition. The fresh weight of the IN group and ON group increased by 12.24% and 7.12%, and the shoot length of the IN group and the ON group increased by 17.71% and 8.33%; the fresh weight of the IP group and OP group increased by 19.19% and 10.83%, the shoot length of the IP group and the OP group increased by 21.09% and 18.23%. In addition, the enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, nitrate reductase, and acid phosphatase in plant leaves were significantly changed in eutrophic water with different forms of nitrogen and phosphorus. Finally, the analysis of the epiphytic bacteria showed that different forms of nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients could significantly alter the abundance and structure of microorganisms and microbial metabolism also had significant changes. This study provides a new theoretical basis for evaluating the removal of different forms of nitrogen and phosphorus by Myriophyllum verticillatum, and it also provides new insights for the subsequent engineering of epiphytic microorganisms to improve the capability of submerged plants to treat eutrophic water.


Assuntos
Saxifragales , Água , Cloreto de Amônio , Ureia , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo
18.
Nurs Health Sci ; 25(2): 187-196, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37263618

RESUMO

This quasi-experimental study aimed to identify the effect of decontamination using quaternary ammonium chloride (QAC) on bacterial burden on hospital privacy curtains. The objects were the high-touch edges of 66 polyester curtains in inpatient wards. The decontamination was performed daily (n = 22), twice-weekly (n = 22), or not performed (n = 22) for 28 days. The bacterial burden on the curtains was measured based on the number of bacteria, the proportion of curtains with >2.5 colony-forming unit/cm2 , and the proportion of curtains with multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). As a result, the daily or twice-weekly decontamination groups showed a significantly lower increase in bacterial burden than the no-decontamination group overall and at all four posttest times. On day 28, daily decontamination showed a lower increase in the number of bacteria (p < 0.001) and proportions of curtains with >2.5 colony form units/cm2 (p < 0.001) than the no-decontamination condition, and in the number of curtains with MDROs than twice-weekly decontamination. In conclusion, decontamination of curtains using QAC helps reduce bacterial burden, and daily decontamination is recommended up to 28 days after installation.


Assuntos
Hospitais , Privacidade , Humanos , Cloreto de Amônio/farmacologia , Bactérias
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37182410

RESUMO

In this work, the effect of the salt modulators potassium chloride, ammonium chloride, ammonium sulfate, and potassium sulfate on the elution behavior of insulin in reversed-phase chromatography with ethanol as the organic modifier was investigated. Without the addition of salt modulators, insulin shows the formation of multiple peaks under non-linear loading conditions, presumably due to an aggregate formation equilibrium. Flow rate and temperature did not influence the appearance of multiple peaks. The addition of chloride and sulfate salt modulators changed the monomer-multimer equilibrium, and multi-peak formation no longer occurred. Chloride salts induce a Langmuirian elution behavior, whereas sulfate salts induce additional insulin-insulin interactions resulting in an anti-Langmuirian elution behavior. The elution behavior can be influenced by the combination of both chloride and sulfate salts and by varying the concentration ratio. The separation with respect to two product-related impurities also showed significant differences under Langmuirian and anti-Langmuirian elution conditions and the purification of insulin could be optimized. Induced anti-Langmuirian elution by lowering the chloride/sulfate ratio suppresses an observed tag-along effect of one variant resulting in a slightly smaller pool volume with increased insulin concentration and a significantly increased insulin recovery.


Assuntos
Insulina , Sais , Sais/química , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa , Cloretos , Cloreto de Amônio , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Sulfatos
20.
Urol J ; 20(6): 397-402, 2023 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37245086

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Ziziphus jujuba (Z. jujuba) leaf hydroalcoholic extract on the prevention/treatment of kidney stones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups: control, Sham (kidney stone induction (KSI) by ethylene glycol 1% + ammonium chloride 0.25% through drinking water for 28 days), Prevention groups 1, 2 (KSI and Z. jujuba leaf (250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively) through gavage for 28 days), and Treatment groups 1, 2 (KSI and Z. jujuba leaf (250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively) from the 15th day). On the 29th day, the rats' 24-hour urine was assessed, the animals were weighed, and blood samples were taken. Finally, after nephrectomy and weighing the kidneys, tissue sections were prepared to examine the number of calcium oxalate crystals and tissue changes. RESULTS: The results indicated a significant increase in kidney weight and index, tissue changes, and the number of calcium oxalate crystals in the Sham group compared to the control; using Z. jujuba leaf considerably reduced them in experimental groups compared to the Sham. Body weight decreased in the Sham and experimental groups (except the prevention 2 group) compared to the control, while this observed reduction was lower in all experimental groups compared to the Sham. The mean urinary calcium, uric acid, creatinine, and serum creatinine in Sham and experimental groups (except the prevention 2 group) indicated a substantial increase compared to the control and decreased significantly in all experimental groups compared to the Sham. CONCLUSION: Hydroalcoholic extract of Z. jujuba leaf is effective in the reduction of calcium oxalate crystals forming, and its most effective dose was 500mg/kg.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais , Extratos Vegetais , Ziziphus , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Cloreto de Amônio/efeitos adversos , Oxalato de Cálcio/análise , Creatinina , Etilenoglicol/efeitos adversos , Rim , Cálculos Renais/induzido quimicamente , Cálculos Renais/prevenção & controle , Cálculos Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Folhas de Planta/química , Ratos Wistar
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