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1.
Food Res Int ; 156: 111363, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35650982

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of glycosylation with four different sources of pectin on the structural, interfacial and emulsifying properties of coconut protein isolate (CPI). The conjugates achieved the degree of graft of 59.11%, 52.80%, 41.39% and 39.26% for apple pectin, citrus pectin, mango pectin and sugar beet pectin, respectively. The covalent bonding of the conjugates was further confirmed by SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis and FT-IR spectra. In addition, CD spectra exhibited that the conjugates had less α-helix and ß-sheet, and more random coil, resulting in more flexible and loose protein structure. Attributed to glycosylation and the strong steric hindrance effects of pectin, fluorescence intensity of the conjugates decreased significantly. Moreover, the solubility, soluble free sulfhydryl content, surface hydrophobicity, emulsifying activity and emulsifying stability of the conjugates improved significantly after glycosylation. The results of adsorption kinetics showed that glycosylation could increase interfacial pressure, adsorption and rearrangement rates of CPI at the oil-water interface. In summary, the glycosylation between CPI and the four different sources of pectin can significantly improve their emulsifying properties, in particular, citrus pectin and sugar beet pectin have more significant effects.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris , Malus , Mangifera , Beta vulgaris/química , Cocos , Glicosilação , Pectinas/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Açúcares , Verduras
2.
Molecules ; 27(9)2022 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35566226

RESUMO

We report on our study of the interactions between coconut protein extracted from coconut meat and three hydrocolloids (gelatin, xanthan gum, and soybean polysaccharide) and their interfacial adsorption and emulsification properties. We used Zeta potential, fluorescence spectroscopy scanning and ITC to investigate the interactions between a fixed concentration (1%) of coconut protein and varying concentrations of hydrocolloid. Through the interfacial tension and interfacial viscoelasticity, the interfacial properties of the hydrocolloid and coconut protein composite solution were explored. The physical stability of the corresponding emulsion is predicted through microstructure and stability analysis. Xanthan gum forms a flocculent complex with coconut protein under acidic conditions. Soy polysaccharides specifically bind to coconut protein. Under acidic conditions, this complex is stabilized through the steric hindrance of soy polysaccharides. Due to gelatin-coconut protein interactions, the isoelectric point of this complex changes. The interfacial tension results show that as time increases, the interfacial tensions of the three composite solutions decrease. The increase in the concentration of xanthan gum makes the interfacial tension decrease first and then increase. The addition of soybean polysaccharides reduces the interfacial tension of coconut protein. The addition of xanthan gum forms a stronger elastic interface film. Emulsion characterization showed that the gelatin-added system showed better stability. However, the addition of xanthan gum caused stratification quickly, and the addition of soybean polysaccharides also led to instability because the addition of polysaccharides led to a decrease in thermodynamic compatibility. This research lays the foundation for future research into coconut milk production technology.


Assuntos
Cocos , Gelatina , Coloides , Emulsões/química , Gelatina/química , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/química , Proteínas , Soja , Água/química
3.
Molecules ; 27(9)2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35566340

RESUMO

Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is one of the most critical economic crops in the tropics and sub-tropics. Although coconut protein has attracted more and more attention due to its nutritional potential, the lack of proteomic information has limited its practical application. The present study aimed to investigate the coconut meat proteome by shotgun proteomics and protein-based bioinformatic analysis. A grand total of 1686 proteins were identified by searching the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) protein database and self-constructed C. nucifera transcriptome repository. Among them, 17 and 9 proteins were identified as antioxidant proteins and globulins, respectively. Network analysis of the globulins referred to the sub-works of Cupin and Oleosin, and the antioxidant proteins were related to the sub-networks of glutathione metabolism and peroxisome. The bioactive peptides acquired by in-silico digestion of the targeted proteins have the potential to be applied as antioxidants and emulsifiers for both healthcare and food stabilization.


Assuntos
Cocos , Proteômica , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cocos/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
4.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 54(2): 84-89, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35546458

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a quite common chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disorder affecting the oral cavity and skin. The current treatment relies on systemic or topical corticosteroids but is known to cause side effects thereby demanding a search for an alternative. AIM: This study aims to assess and to compare the efficacy of topical Coconut (Cocos nucifera) 50% cream and Clobetasol propionate 0.05% ointment for the management of OLP. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: An institution-based double-blinded randomized control trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty clinically diagnosed OLP patients were allotted to two groups (30 in each): Group I (Coconut cream-50%) and Group II (Clobetasol Propionate ointment-0.05%). Patients were examined every 15 days until two months for a change in the lesion size and reduction in the burning sensation. The measurement of lesion size and burning sensation was done using Adobe Photoshop software (version CS3) and Numeric Pain Rating scale (NPS), respectively. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: The recordings were subjected to the statistical analysis using Wilcoxon matched-pairs and Mann-Whitney U tests for intra-group and inter-group comparisons, respectively. RESULTS: There was an 85% regression in the size of the lesion in Group I whereas Group II had it to be 95%, and a 100% reduction in the NPS score in Group I whereas Group II had it to be 95%. CONCLUSION: The Coconut cream showed a significant decrease in the size of the lesion and the burning sensation with no side effects neither any signs of toxicity reported during the treatment or follow-up, thereby proving to be a safe and promising medication for OLP.


Assuntos
Líquen Plano Bucal , Administração Tópica , Clobetasol/uso terapêutico , Cocos , Emolientes , Glucocorticoides , Humanos , Líquen Plano Bucal/tratamento farmacológico , Pomadas/uso terapêutico , Dor/tratamento farmacológico
5.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 211: 271-280, 2022 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35577184

RESUMO

The optimization of the parameters involved in lignin extraction is crucial for obtaining a lignin with specific structural features for its further valorization. The aim of this work was to develop an eco-friendly organosolv protocol for tuning the acetylation degree of coconut shell lignins (CSLs) by using MgCl2 and HCl as catalyst and co-catalyst, respectively. CSLs were obtained by mixing coconut shell powder with 90% v/v acetic acid combined to no catalyst, 2% v/v HCl and 2% w/v MgCl2 (1, 2 and 3 h) and 2% w/v MgCl2 combined to 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5% v/v HCl (2 h) at 110 °C. CSLs were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, GPC and TGA. The effects of the acetylation degree were evaluated on their antioxidant activity (DPPH assay) and UV-blocking capacity in sunscreen formulations. The results have shown that the use of HCl as co-catalyst increased the lignin yield (from 21.4 to 48.8%) and the acetylation degree (from 0.81 to 1.58 mmol g-1), which positively affected thermal (200 < Tonset < 226 °C), antioxidant (46.6 < IC50 < 67.5 µg mL-1) and UV-blocking capacities of CSLs. It can be concluded that the design of the organosolv process was capable of generating lignins with peculiar functionalities and properties through an eco-friendly protocol.


Assuntos
Cocos , Lignina , Acetilação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Lignina/química , Solubilidade
6.
Food Chem ; 391: 132966, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35609458

RESUMO

Response surface methodology optimization based on central composite design was applied to extract flavonoids from the exocarp of three coconut genera. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and structures of the flavonoids were determined. The results indicated that the optimal extraction conditions were ethanol concentration, 60%; temperature, 50 ℃; time, 90 min; liquid/material ratio, 40 mL/g; ultrasonic power, 150 W. Under these conditions, the yields of green, red and yellow coconut exocarp were 366.03 ± 7.57, 596.38 ± 10.32, and 403.78 ± 5.56 mg rutin/g powder, respectively. The flavonoids exhibited eminent DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities with IC50 values of 0.01-0.02 mg/mL. At a concentration of 2 mg/mL, they exhibited antimicrobial activity against Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In total, 17 flavonoids and 5 phenolic acids were characterized by UPLC-IT-TOF-MS/MS; among them, catechin, kaempferol, and quercetin were abundant. Yellow coconut had a distinct flavonoid spectrogram from other genera and contained more methoxy flavonoids.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Flavonoides , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cocos , Flavonoides/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
7.
Chemosphere ; 301: 134762, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35490751

RESUMO

Aiming at the problems of lack of carbon sources for nitrogen removal and low phosphorus removal efficiency of constructed wetlands (CWs) in treating wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, an electrolysis assisted constructed wetland (E-CW) with coconut fiber as substrate and solid carbon sources was constructed. The synthetic secondary effluent was used as the influent of the E-CW with a wastewater treatment capacity of 140 L d-1. The total nitrogen (TN) and the total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiency of the E-CW with coconut fiber treating WWTP effluent were 69.4% and 93.3%, respectively, which were 54.3% and 88.2% higher than those of CW with coconut fiber and no electrolysis. The removal efficiency of TN was 39.9% higher than that of E-CW with gravel. The current intensity had significant effect on nitrogen removal efficiency and the release of carbon sources from coconut fiber. When current intensity increased from 0.25 A to 1.00 A, the TN removal efficiency and nitrate removal rate increased by 21.1% and 0.21 mg L-1 h-1, respectively, and the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) released from coconut fiber increased by 57.7 mg L-1. The 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing results indicated that the main functional nitrogen-removing microbes were Hydrogenophaga, Thauera, Rhodanobacteraceae_norank, Xanthobacteraceae_norank, etc. Multiple paths including autotrophic denitrification with hydrogen and Fe2+ as electron donors and heterotrophic denitrification were achieved in the system. Meanwhile, the main functional lignocellulose degradation microbes were enriched in the system, including Cytophaga_xylanolytica_group, and Caldilineaceae. Because electrolysis created a favorable environment for them to release carbon sources from coconut fiber. This study provided a new perspective for advanced nutrients removal of WWTP effluent in CWs.


Assuntos
Desnitrificação , Áreas Alagadas , Carbono , Cocos , Eletrólise , Nitrogênio , Fósforo , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias
8.
Molecules ; 27(10)2022 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35630725

RESUMO

The number of food frauds in coconut-based products is increasing due to higher consumer demands for these products. Rising health consciousness, public awareness and increased concerns about food safety and quality have made authorities and various other certifying agencies focus more on the authentication of coconut products. As the conventional techniques for determining the quality attributes of coconut are destructive and time-consuming, non-destructive testing methods which are accurate, rapid, and easy to perform with no detrimental sampling methods are currently gaining importance. Spectroscopic methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), infrared (IR)spectroscopy, mid-infrared (MIR)spectroscopy, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Raman spectroscopy (RS) are gaining in importance for determining the oxidative stability of coconut oil, the adulteration of oils, and the detection of harmful additives, pathogens, and toxins in coconut products and are also employed in deducing the interactions in food constituents, and microbial contaminations. The objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive analysis on the various spectroscopic techniques along with different chemometric approaches for the successful authentication and quality determination of coconut products. The manuscript was prepared by analyzing and compiling the articles that were collected from various databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus and ScienceDirect. The spectroscopic techniques in combination with chemometrics were shown to be successful in the authentication of coconut products. RS and NMR spectroscopy techniques proved their utility and accuracy in assessing the changes in coconut oil's chemical and viscosity profile. FTIR spectroscopy was successfully utilized to analyze the oxidation levels and determine the authenticity of coconut oils. An FT-NIR-based analysis of various coconut samples confirmed the acceptable levels of accuracy in prediction. These non-destructive methods of spectroscopy offer a broad spectrum of applications in food processing industries to detect adulterants. Moreover, the combined chemometrics and spectroscopy detection method is a versatile and accurate measurement for adulterant identification.


Assuntos
Cocos , Análise Espectral Raman , Óleo de Coco , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos
9.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(3): 182, 2022 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524886

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the histological characteristics in the digestive and renal systems of lambs fed diets containing coconut by-product (CB). A total of 35 male lambs with an initial weight of 16.9 ± 2.93 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with five levels of CB in the diet (0; 4.8; 9.6; 14.4 and 19.2% in total dry matter). Samples of the liver, kidney, rumen, and intestine were histomorphometrically evaluated, and the data were submitted to regression analysis, at a 5% error probability. The inclusion of CB linearly decreased the dry matter intake and caused a quadratic effect for the height of ruminal papillae, absorption area, epithelium thickness, as well as for average daily gain. The inclusion of CB linearly increased the mucous layer and reduced the submucosal layer, as well as promoted a decrease in goblet cells in the small intestine. The inclusion of CB did not influence hepatic glycogen; additionally, the histopathological examination did not reveal liver damage or congestion, vacuolization, and necrosis of the renal tissue. Therefore, our results indicate that CB can be included in lambs diet up to the level of 7.2% without causing changes in the histomorphometry characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract and changes in liver and kidney tissue that compromise animal performance.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Cocos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Feminino , Masculino , Rúmen , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico
10.
Water Sci Technol ; 85(8): 2295-2317, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35486456

RESUMO

The current study explores the effectiveness of coconut husk for crystal violet dye sequestration employing a batch experimental setup. Characterization of adsorbent was carried out via FTIR, and SEM techniques and results confirmed the involvement of -OMe, -COC- and hydroxyl functional groups in dye uptake, and the rough, porous nature of adsorbent and after adsorption dye molecules colonized these holes resulting in dye exclusion. Effects of various adsorption parameters such as pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, initial dye concentration, and temperature of solution were studied. Crystal violet adsorption on coconut husk was highly pH-dependent, with maximum removal occurring at basic pH. Maximum removal of dye, i.e., 81%, takes place at optimized conditions. Kinetic data was analyzed by pseudo-first, pseudo-second order and an intra-particle diffusion model. Results showed that the pseudo-second order kinetic model best described adsorption of crystal violet onto coconut husk. Langmuir, Freundlich, and D-R adsorption isotherms were also used to test their appropriateness to experimental data and the Freundlich isotherm fits best to data. Thermodynamic parameters showed that the current process was spontaneous, endothermic in nature with continuous decrease in entropy. Established practice is 79% applicable to tap water and in acidic medium nearly 80% of adsorbent was recovered, confirming the effectiveness and appropriateness of coconut husk for crystal violet dye exclusion from wastewater.


Assuntos
Violeta Genciana , Purificação da Água , Adsorção , Cocos , Violeta Genciana/química , Águas Residuárias , Purificação da Água/métodos
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6108, 2022 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35414700

RESUMO

Coconut husks and shells are underutilised agricultural feedstocks in the bio-based industry. These biomass wastes have a higher lignin content than other woody biomass and have excellent potential as raw materials for the production of lignin-based materials. This work demonstrates the performance of a low-cost protic ionic liquid, N,N,N-dimethylbutylammonium hydrogen sulfate ([DMBA][HSO4]), for ionoSolv pretreatment of coconut husk and shell at 150 °C for 45-90 min and 170 °C for 15-60 min. Optimum pretreatment conditions were observed at 170 °C and 45 min for both feedstocks. At these conditions, [DMBA][HSO4] was able to remove almost 77 wt% of the lignin from the husk; leaving a cellulosic rich pulp behind, which released 82 % of the theoretical maximum glucose after enzymatic saccharification. The pretreated shell, by comparison, achieved 82 wt% lignin removal and 89 % glucose yield and these higher values could be attributed to the highly porous structure of coconut shell cell walls. The cleavage of the ß-O-4 aryl ether linkages of lignin followed by extensive C-C condensation in the lignin at longer pretreatment times was shown by HSQC NMR analysis. This extensive condensation was evidenced by molecular weights > 10,000 g/mol exhibited by lignin precipitated after pretreatment at high temperature and long times. The high degree of lignin removal and high glucose release from both feedstocks demonstrate that [DMBA][HSO4] is an excellent ionic liquid for fractionation of very lignin-rich biomass.


Assuntos
Líquidos Iônicos , Lignina , Biomassa , Cocos , Glucose , Hidrólise , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Lignina/química
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 403, 2022 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35468758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunocompromised people (ICP) and elderly individuals (older than 80 years) are at increased risk for severe coronavirus infections. To protect against serious infection with SARS-CoV-2, ICP are taking precautions that may include a reduction of social contacts and participation in activities which they normally enjoy. Furthermore, for these people, there is an uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of the vaccination. The COVID-19 Contact (CoCo) Immune study strives to characterize the immune response to COVID-19 vaccination in immunocompromised, elderly people, and patients with hematological or oncological diseases. The study uses blood-based screenings to monitor the humoral and cellular immune response in these groups after vaccination. Questionnaires and qualitative interviews are used to describe the level of social participation. METHODS: The CoCo Immune Study is a mixed methods prospective, longitudinal, observational study at two large university hospitals in Northern Germany. Starting in March 2021, it monitors anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune responses and collects information on social participation in more than 600 participants, at least 18 years old. Inclusion criteria and subcohorts: Participants with (1) regularly intake of immunosuppressive medication (ICP-cohort) or (2) age ≥ 80 years (80 + -cohort). Additionally, patients with current or former (3) myeloid, (4) lymphatic disease or (5) solid tumor under checkpoint inhibition (3-5: HO-cohort). EXCLUSION CRITERIA: (1) refusal to give informed consent, (2) contraindication to blood testing, (3) inability to declare consent. Participants complete a questionnaire at four different time points: prior to full vaccination, and 1, 6 and 12 months after completed vaccination. In addition, participants draw blood samples themselves or through a local health care provider and send them with their questionnaires per post at the respective time points after vaccination. Patients of the HO cohort dispense additional blood samples at week 3 to 12 and at month 6 to 9 after 2nd vaccination to gain additional knowledge in B and T cell responses. Selected participants are invited to qualitative interviews about social participation. DISCUSSION: This observational study is designed to gain insight into the immune response of people with weakened immune systems and to find out how social participation is affected after COVID-19 vaccination. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered with German Clinical Trial Registry (registration number: DRKS00023972) on 30th December 2020.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Hematológicas , Neoplasias , Adolescente , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Cocos , Humanos , Imunidade , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 370: 109669, 2022 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35397415

RESUMO

Many outbreaks involving Salmonella enterica in dehydrated coconut have been reported. Little is known about the survival of S. enterica in dehydrated coconut flakes at common retail or domestic storage conditions. This study evaluated the behavior of a S. enterica cocktail (S. Enteritidis PT4, S. Typhimurium PT4, S. Bredeney, S. Muenster and S. Agona) in conventionally and osmotically dehydrated coconut flakes under four storage regimes: 25 °C for 120 days, 25 °C for 30 days then 7 °C for 90 days, 7 °C for 30 days then 25 °C for 90 days, and 7 °C for 120 days. S. enterica membrane integrity (using with propidium iodide and bis-1,3-dibutylbarbutyric acid) and metabolic activity (using 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride) were assessed by flow cytometry analysis after dehydration and storage at 7 °C or 25 °C for 120 days. Lower S. enterica inactivation rates (kmax 0.02 to 0.04 1/days) were observed in conventionally dehydrated coconut flakes compared to osmotically dehydrated coconut flakes (kmax 0.16 to 0.20 1/days). Changes in storage temperature did not affect the behavior of S. enterica in conventionally or osmotically dehydrated coconut flakes. Results show that S. enterica inactivation in conventionally dehydrated coconut flakes could be described by log-linear with tail models. S. enterica inactivation in osmotically dehydrated coconut flakes could be described by log-linear with shoulder and tail models. Subpopulations of S. enterica cells with damaged membranes and without metabolic activity were larger in conventionally (32.1% and 90.9%, respectively) than osmotically dehydrated coconut (18.5% and 82.2%, respectively) flakes at the beginning of the storage. Subpopulations of S. enterica cells with damaged membrane decreased by 9.4-14.4%, while cells with membrane potential and intact membrane increased by 23.7 and 24.2% in conventionally dehydrated coconut flakes after 120 days of storage at 7 °C or 25 °C, respectively. Subpopulations of S. enterica with damaged membranes did not change significantly in osmotically dehydrated coconut flakes. Our findings suggest that S. enterica populations decline during storage occurs due in part to membrane integrity losses. These data can contribute to the development of risk management strategies for S. enterica in dehydrated coconut flakes.


Assuntos
Salmonella enterica , Cocos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Cinética , Salmonella enteritidis , Temperatura
14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 209(Pt A): 1486-1497, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35469949

RESUMO

Cellulose acetate (CA), one of the most important cellulose derivatives, is used in various applications especially in membranes, films, fibers, filters, and polymers. Because of the tough and flexible character and resistance to acids of CA, bacterial cellulose acetate (BCA) has been used as reinforcement for high performance separator purposes. In this study, BCA was synthesized through the heterogeneous acetylation in acetic solution with H2SO4 as catalyst by solution plasma process (SPP) of bacterial cellulose (BC) extracted form nata de coco waste. The SPP was considered as mild, simple, and fast method for many kinds of synthesis. The solution plasma time was studied to obtain considerably high DS values (in this work, DS = 1.95). The high DS values are an important feature when considering an environmental factor, good liquid transport and excellent absorption. Furthermore, the BCA incorporated with poly ether block amide by electrospinning method is successfully fabricated as nanofibrous membranes. The proposed PEBAX/BCA nanofibrous membranes display superior sufficient porosity (74.7%), exceptional liquid electrolyte uptake (364.6%), sufficient thermal dimensional stability at 150 °C, great electrochemical stability (discharge capacity at 0.2C = 102.14 mAh g-1), and high ionic conductivity (9.12 × 10-3 S/cm). Furthermore, the PEBAX/BCA nanofibrous membranes can be used as high-performance separators enhancing its safety for Li-ion battery applications.


Assuntos
Amidas , Cocos , Bactérias , Celulose/análogos & derivados , Íons , Lítio
15.
Food Chem ; 388: 133031, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35483287

RESUMO

The present study aimed to assess the effects of heat treatment (70-90 °C) and pH (pH 3-11) on the physicochemical, structural, and emulsifying properties of coconut globulins (CG). The results revealed that the emulsifying property was improved with increasing temperature due to the denaturation degree of CG. CG had a better emulsifying property at pH 3 but showed the worst emulsifying property at pH 5 due to its lowest solubility, surface hydrophobicity, and absolute value of zeta potential. The best emulsifying stability was detected at pH 11 with 90 °C heating. SDS-PAGE indicated that the formation of aggregates cross-linked by covalent bonds was the main reason for the better emulsion stability at pH 3 and pH 11 with 90 °C heating. The secondary structure showed that CG had more α-helix and ß-turn contents as well as fewer ß-sheet contents at pH 3 and pH 11 with 90 °C heating.


Assuntos
Cocos , Globulinas , Emulsificantes/química , Emulsões/química , Globulinas/química , Temperatura Alta , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
16.
Zootaxa ; 5115(2): 221-257, 2022 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35391371

RESUMO

The Australian Orchesellidae includes only 11 nominal species in four genera: Australotomurus Stach, 1947, Alloscopus Brner, 1906, Heteromurus Wankel, 1860, and Falcomurus Mandal, 2018. Here we describe Dicranocentrus dolosus sp. nov. from Cocos and Keeling Islands, the first species of the genus to be recorded from Australia. The new species is similar to D.inermodentes (Uchida, 1944) and D.indicus Bonet, 1930, but differs from both by the combination of the ventral head, mesothoracic and dental chaetotaxy. We also revisit Australotomurus based on previous studies to better interpret the dorsal macrochaetotaxy of the genus, and provide a synthetic map of chaetae to guide future studies on scaleless Orchesellidae. Finally, we present updated diagnoses to all genera and species of Australian Orchesellidae, as well as an identification key to all species.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Animais , Austrália , Cocos
17.
Chemosphere ; 301: 134590, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35427661

RESUMO

A better understanding of different retention mechanisms of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) by biochars during the remediation of contaminated sites is critically needed. In this study, different spectroscopic techniques including synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF), X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), and near-edge XAFS spectroscopy (NEXAFS), were used to investigate the spatial distributions and retention mechanisms of lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) on phytolith-rich coconut-fiber biochar (CFB), and ammonia, nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide modified CFB (MCFB) (i.e., ACFB, NCFB and HCFB). The µ-XRF analyses indicated that sorption sites on ACFB and NCFB were more efficient compared to those on CFB and HCFB to bind Pb/Cu. XAFS analyses revealed that the percentage of Pb species as Pb(C2H3O2)2 increased from 22.2% (Pb-loaded CFBs) to 47.4% and 41.9% on Pb-loaded NCFBs and HCFBs, while the percentage of Cu(OH)2 and Cu(C2H3O2)2 increased from 5.8% to 32.8% (Cu-loaded CFBs) to 41.5% and 43.4% (Cu-loaded NCFBs), and 27.1% and 35.1% (Cu-loaded HCFBs), respectively. Due to their similar atomic structures of Pb/Cu, Pb(C2H3O2)2/Pb-loaded montmorillonite and Cu(C2H3O2)2/Cu(OH)2 were identified as the predominant Pb/Cu species observed in Pb- and Cu-loaded MCFBs. The NEXAFS analyses of carbon confirmed that increasing amounts of carboxylic groups were formed on HCFB and NCFB by oxidizing carbon-containing functional groups, which could provide additional active binding sites for Pb/Cu retention. Results from the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses of nitrogen showed that azido-groups of ACFB played major roles in Pb/Cu retention, while amide-groups and pyridine-groups of NCFB primarily participated in Pb/Cu retention. Overall, density functional theory calculations suggested that silicate and the synergistic effect of hydroxyl and carboxylic-groups on MCFBs were highly efficient in Pb retention, while azido-groups and/or carboxylic-groups played major roles in Cu retention. These results provide novel insights into the PTE retention mechanisms of MCFBs.


Assuntos
Cobre , Poluentes do Solo , Carbono , Carvão Vegetal/química , Cocos/química , Cobre/química , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Chumbo , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica , Poluentes do Solo/análise
18.
Nutrients ; 14(6)2022 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35334818

RESUMO

Different fatty acid proportions produce potential inflammatory and metabolic changes in organisms. However, the evidence for how each fatty acid mediates the metabolic pathway, and its lipid stability remains controversial. To resolve this controversy, the present study investigated the metabolic effects of cold-pressed linseed (LG), coconut (CG), and baru (BG) oils in comparison to those of soybean oil (SG) in mice, in terms of their oil characterization and stability. The quality analysis showed less oxidative behavior among PUFA-rich oils (SO, BO, and LO, with induction periods lower than 2 h compared to 39.8 h for CG), besides the high contents of tocopherols and carotenoids in SG and LG. In the experimental study, CG presented higher triglyceride (257.93 ± 72.30) and VLDL-cholesterol levels (51.59 ± 14.46, p < 0.05), while LG reduced LDL levels (59.29 ± 7.56, p < 0.05) when compared to SG (183.14 ± 22.06, 36.63 ± 4.41 and 131.63 ± 29.0, respectively). For visceral fats, the adiposity index was lower for BG (7.32 ± 3.13) and CG (9.58 ± 1.02, p < 0.05) in relation to SG (12.53 ± 2.80), and for leukocyte recruitment, CG presented lower polymorphonuclear (PMN) (p < 0.0001) and mononuclear (MN) (p < 0.05) cell infiltration, demonstrating anti-inflammatory potential. In NMR-based metabolomics, although CG presented higher values for the glucose, lactate, and LDL/VLDL ratio, this group also evidenced high levels of choline, a lipotropic metabolite. Our study emphasized the controversies of saturated fatty acids, which impair serum lipids, while alfa-linolenic acid presented cardioprotective effects. However, coconut oil also has a positive immunomodulatory pathway and was found to reduce visceral bodyfat in mice. Therefore, for future applications, we suggest a combination of lauric and al-fa-linolenic acid sources, which are present in coconut and linseed oil, respectively. This combination could be less obesogenic and inflammatory and exert cardioprotective action.


Assuntos
Linho , Óleo de Semente do Linho , Animais , Óleo de Coco , Cocos , Leucócitos , Metabolômica , Camundongos
19.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e252555, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35293540

RESUMO

The study was designed to investigate the effect of Coconut Oil on the levels of some liver and hematological parameters in carbon tetrachloride intoxicated rabbits. Also the antioxidant capacity of Coconut Oil for various concentrations was assessed on the basis of percent scavenging of (DPPH) free radical. Experimental animals were divided into five groups, eight rabbits in each group. These were: group A (Normal control), group B (Toxic control), group C (Standard control), group D (Treated with Coconut Oil 50 mL/kg body weight after CCl4 intoxication), group E (Treated with Coconut Oil 200 mL/kg body weight after CCl4 intoxication). The effects observed were compared with a standard hepatoprotective drug silymarine (50 mL/kg body weight). The Coconut Oil (200 mL/kg body weight) significantly (P<0.05) reduced the elevated serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) when compared to a toxic control rabbits. The results of extract treated rabbits were similar to silymarine administered rabbits group. Treatment with Coconut Oil root and silymarine caused no significant changes in RBC, Platelets, (Hb), (MCH) concentration and (HCT) values. However, significant (P<0.05) increase was observed in the total WBC count. The present study suggested that Coconut Oil can be used as an herbal alternative (need further exploration i.e to detect its bioactive compound and its efficacy) for hepatoprotective activity.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Cocos , Animais , Tetracloreto de Carbono/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Óleo de Coco , Coelhos
20.
Meat Sci ; 188: 108799, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35303656

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate the structural and physicochemical properties of ultrasound-treated ginger starch-based edible films incorporated with coconut shell liquid smoke (CSLS), and determine the inhibitory effect of the films against Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef during the storage at 4 °C. Ultrasound-treated CSLS-ginger starch films presented a better mechanical, barrier, thermal, and antibacterial properties. The antibacterial effect of CSLS against E. coli, S. aureus, E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis, and B. cereus increased significantly with ultrasound treatment. The CSLS-films showed antibacterial activity against E. coli O157:H7 without negatively affecting the sensory attributes of ground beef. The films containing 15% CSLS reduced E. coli O157:H7 populations by 1.33 log cfu/g in ground beef during the 12-day-storage. The CSLS-starch films effectively inhibited lipid oxidation in the ground beef samples during the refrigerated storage. These results indicated that ultrasound-treated CSLS-ginger starch film has the application potential as a novel antimicrobial active packaging for proteinous foods.


Assuntos
Filmes Comestíveis , Escherichia coli O157 , Gengibre , Produtos da Carne , Animais , Bovinos , Cocos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Fumaça , Staphylococcus aureus , Amido
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