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1.
Appl Nurs Res ; 62: 151508, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34815004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ANA Code of Ethics for Nurses, regularly revised since 1896, may not provide guidance in an era of pandemic and sociopolitical unrest. PURPOSE: This study explored whether the Code of Ethics comprehensively address current nursing challenges. METHODS: 23 nurses participated in six Zoom focus groups to discuss whether provisions were applicable to their current practice. An iterative approach was used to review transcripts independently and then merge findings to identify ethical themes. FINDINGS: Provisions 4, 6, and 8 were most relevant. None of the provisions addressed the guilt secondary to isolating patients from support systems and not being "on the front lines" of COVID care. DISCUSSION: The co-occurring crises of COVID-19 and social unrest created an ethical crisis for many nurses. The Code of Ethics provided a useful guide for framing discussion and formulating strategies for change, but did not eliminate distress during a time of novel challenges.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ética em Enfermagem , Códigos de Ética , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
2.
AMA J Ethics ; 23(9): E702-704, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710030

RESUMO

Many US patients will have an implantable device during their lives. The AMA Code of Medical Ethics offers guidance for weighing need for patient-subjects' safety against health care sector demand for innovation.


Assuntos
American Medical Association , Códigos de Ética , Ética Médica , Humanos , Estados Unidos
4.
Rev. Psicol., Divers. Saúde ; 10(3): 469-483, 20210903.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349274

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: O presente artigo pretendeu construir reflexões sobre ética a partir do código de ética da Psicologia e uma ética fenomenológico-existencial, inspirada na Fenomenologia de Martin Heidegger, e em seus estudos sobre Ontologia. MÉTODO: O artigo insere-se na modalidade de pesquisa qualitativa, teórica, de natureza original, exploratória e descritiva, cujo método de investigação resgata na fenomenologia hermenêutica heideggeriana uma leitura compreensiva da ética a partir dos estudos de textos canónicos referentes ao tema da ética e dos códigos deontológicos que regulamentam e apoiam profissões, por exemplo, o código de ética da Psicologia. Possibilidades metodológicas de leitura compreensiva, assentes no método fenomenológico, ressaltam que o círculo hermenêutico heideggeriano não admite que condições prévias para descrição e compreensão dos fenômenos sejam claras e inalteráveis. Assim, as possibilidades metodológicas articulam conjuntamente componentes do círculo hermenêutico: posição prévia, visão prévia e concepção prévia no sentido de aproximar-se da provisoriedade do fenômeno da ética. DISCUSSÃO: Os objetivos deste estudo são demonstráveis no problema investigado: como são possíveis reflexões sobre a ética na Psicologia desde diálogos entre código de ética em Psicologia e uma ética fenomenológico-existencial? Assim, admitimos ética distinta de moral e problematizamos o modo usual como ética é resumida, na Psicologia, ao Código de ética, ampliando nossas reflexões quanto aos modos de sermos éticos, bem como, privilegiando aproximações ao fenômeno da ética. CONSIDERAÇÕES FINAIS: Este trabalho aponta outros modos de refletir sobre a ética e contribui para a aproximação compreensiva da ética como tema a ser priorizado nas práticas da Psicologia, inclusive, aproximarmo-nos da ética do cotidiano das relações humanas.


OBJECTIVE: This article intended to build reflections on ethics from the Psychology code of ethics and Existential Phenomenological ethics, inspired by Martin Heidegger's Phenomenology and in his studies on Ontology. METHOD: The article inserts in the qualitative, theoretical, original, exploratory, and descriptive research modality, whose research method rescue in Heidegger's hermeneutic phenomenology a comprehensive reading of ethics from the studies of canonical texts on the theme of ethics and the deontological codes that regulate and support professions, for example, the code of ethics of Psychology. Methodological possibilities for comprehensive reading settled on the phenomenological method emphasize that the Heideggerian hermeneutic circle does not admit that prior conditions for describing and understanding phenomena are clear and unalterable. So, the methodological possibilities seek articulate components of the hermeneutic circle: previous position, previous vision, and previous conception in the sense of approaching the provisionality of the phenomenon of ethics. DISCUSSION: The objectives of this study are demonstrable of the investigated problem: how are possible reflections on ethics in Psychology from dialogues since a code of ethics in Psychology and existential-phenomenological ethics? So, we admit ethics distinct from morals and problematize the usual way in which ethics is summarized, in Psychology, by the Code of Ethics, expanding our reflections on the ways of being ethical and privileging approximations to the phenomenon of ethics. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: This work points out other ways of reflecting on ethics and contributes to a comprehensive approach to ethical issues to be prioritized in Psychology practices, including approaching the ethics of everyday human relations.


Assuntos
Códigos de Ética , Psicologia , Ética
5.
BMC Med Ethics ; 22(1): 97, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the ethical situations which physiotherapists encounter internationally. This lack of knowledge impedes the ability of the profession to prepare and support physiotherapists in all world regions in their ethical practice. The purpose of the study was to answer the following research questions: What types of ethical issues are experienced by physiotherapists internationally? How frequently are ethical issues experienced by physiotherapists internationally? Can the frequency and type of ethical issue experienced by physiotherapists be predicted by sociodemographic, educational or vocational variables? METHODS: An observational study was conducted in English using an online survey from October 2018 to May 2019. Participants were 1212 physiotherapists and physiotherapy students located internationally which represented less than 1% of estimated number of physiotherapists worldwide at that time. The survey questionnaire contained 13 items requesting demographic detail and knowledge of ethical codes and decision-making, and 46 items asking what frequency participants experienced specific ethical issues in four categories: (A) Physiotherapist and patient interaction (19 items), (B) Physiotherapist and other health professionals including other physiotherapists (10 items), (C) Physiotherapists and the system (5 items) and (D) Professional and economic ethical situations (12 items). RESULTS: The two most frequently experienced ethical issues were 'Scarce resources and time affecting quality of physiotherapy treatment' and 'Physiotherapy not accessible to all people in society who need it'. These items were experienced, on average, more often than monthly. Interprofessional practice also presented frequent ethical issues for participants. Ethical issues related to the context of 'Physiotherapists and the system' were most frequently experienced for all world regions. Working longer years in physiotherapy and learning about ethics in basic physiotherapy education was associated with participants reporting lower frequencies of ethical issues across all contexts. CONCLUSION: This study provides the first global profile of ethical issues experienced by physiotherapists. Societal and cultural systems are key influences on physiotherapists' ethical practice. Physiotherapists globally need support from their work organisations, academic institutions and professional associations, and robust ethical training, to assist them to be active moral agents in their practice.


Assuntos
Fisioterapeutas , Códigos de Ética , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Indian J Med Ethics ; VI(1): 1-12, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080993

RESUMO

The world currently faces an unprecedented pandemic outbreak of coronavirus disease (Covid-19). The novel nature of the virus and very high infection rates have not only increased the urgency to find a vaccine or cure but have also led to drastic changes in the mode of conduct of research. Thus, the Indian Council of Medical Research has developed the "National Guidelines for Ethics Committees Reviewing Biomedical & Health Research during Covid-19 Pandemic" for guidance during the review of research. Here, we attempt to analyse the strengths and limitations of these guidelines to assess if the unique ethical challenges faced during research in the current situation are adequately identified and addressed and if foundational values and principles of research ethics have been taken into account in these guidelines.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/ética , Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Códigos de Ética , Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa/normas , Política de Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Ética em Pesquisa , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 12(1): 13-19, jun. 2021. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1254761

RESUMO

Objetivo: Analisar, em comparação com suas versões anteriores, as inovações apresentadas no novo Código de Ética dos Profissionais de Enfermagem. Métodos: Pesquisa documental desenvolvida a partir da apreciação crítica das cinco resoluções do Conselho Federal de Enfermagem que aprovaram as distintas versões do Código de Ética, reconhecendo que vivemos em uma sociedade na qual as informações são geradas e compartilhadas com tamanha fugacidade, o que nos remete a necessidade de um conhecimento atualizado, aliado a consequente premência de adequações da legislação. Resultados: o novo Código de Ética dos Profissionais de Enfermagem passou corresponde a quinta reformulação, sendo publicado com a Resolução Cofen nº 564/2017 e traz mudanças na sua estrutura e redação, com inclusão de novas legislações. Conclusão: as mudanças na última edição revelam um documento atualizado e inovador incorporando os mais recentes e atualizados dispositivos constitucionais vigentes a nível nacional e internacional, além de resultar de um processo de discussões em conferências estaduais o que culminou na I Conferência Nacional de Ética em Enfermagem. (AU)


Objective: To analyze, in comparison with its previous versions, the innovations presented in the new Code of Ethics for Nursing Professionals. Methods: Documentary research developed from the critical appraisal of the five resolutions of the Federal Nursing Council that approved the different versions of the Code of Ethics, recognizing that we live in a society in which information is generated and shared with such fleetingness, which brings us back the need for up-to-date knowledge, combined with the consequent urgency to adapt the legislation. Results: The new Code of Ethics for Nursing Professionals passed corresponds to the fifth re-formulation, being published with Cofen Resolution nº 564/2017 and brings changes in its structure and wording, with the inclusion of new legislation. Conclusion: The changes in the last edition reveal an updated and innovative document incorporating the most recent and updated constitutional provisions in force at national and international level, in addition to resulting from a process of discussions at state conferences which culminated in the 1st National Conference on Ethics in Nursing. (AU)


Objetivo: analizar, en comparación con sus versiones anteriores, las innovaciones presentadas en el nuevo Código de Ética para Profesionales de Enfermería. Métodos: Investigación documental desarrollada a partir de la evaluación crítica de las cinco resoluciones del Consejo Federal de Enfermería que aprobó las diferentes versiones del Código de Ética, reconociendo que vivimos en una sociedad en la que la información se genera y comparte con tanta fugacidad, lo que nos trae de vuelta La necesidad de un conocimiento actualizado, combinado con la consecuente urgencia de adaptar la legislación. Resultados: El nuevo Código de Ética para Profesionales de Enfermería aprobado corresponde à la quinta reformulación, que se publica con la Resolución Cofen nº 564/2017 y trae cambios en su estructura y redacción, con la inclusión de nueva legislación. Conclusión: los cambios en la última edición revelan un documento actualizado e innovador que incorpora-las las disposiciones constitucionales más recientes y actualizadas vigentes a nivel nacional e internacional, además de ser el resultado de un proceso de debates en las conferencias estatales que culminó en la 1ª Conferencia Nacional de Ética en Enfermería. (AU)


Assuntos
Códigos de Ética , Ética Profissional , Legislação de Enfermagem , Profissionais de Enfermagem
8.
AMA J Ethics ; 23(5): E402-404, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038348

RESUMO

The AMA Code of Medical Ethics offers guidance on HIV screening that respects patient autonomy and protects public health in Opinion 8.1, "Routine Universal Screening for HIV." This article examines the relationship between this opinion and the Ending the HIV Epidemic: A Plan for America initiative and discusses the Code's guidance on the role that physicians can play in diagnosing and treating patients with HIV and mitigating the stigma surrounding the disease.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Infecções por HIV , American Medical Association , Códigos de Ética , Ética Médica , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estados Unidos
9.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 52, 2021 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Authors of various backgrounds are preoccupied with the meaning of environmental ethics, which refers to specific values, norms, attitudes, and practices with respect to all beings and elements of nature. Many international organizations have adopted important documents proclaiming the ethical obligation to protect the environment in all professional activities. At the national level, professional associations should include and develop this obligation in their codes of conduct. This study aimed to analyze and compare elements of environmental protection included in codes of conduct for pharmacists, to find ways to integrate environmental ethics into their activities. METHODS: Seven codes of conduct for pharmacists were analyzed using the comparative method and methods of legal interpretation. Based on acknowledged values and principles of environmental ethics, a framework model for developing environmental protection in pharmacists' activities was created via an iterative process of reflection and discussion. RESULTS: Explicit provisions for environmental ethics were found in codes in force in three countries and in a Romanian project. These provisions refer, in general, to an ethical duty of environmental protection in pharmacists' activities. Regarding the other codes, the study could only interpret stipulations of public health ethics to deduce an ethical environmental obligation. Considering the need for developing such provisions, an ethical framework was proposed as a model for professional associations of pharmacists. CONCLUSIONS: The studied codes demonstrate a preoccupation of the professional associations with environmental protection in pharmacists' activities, with different degrees of interest in developing environmental ethics. To this end, the codes of conduct for pharmacists should include environmental values, principles, and ethics guidelines. Those guidelines should indicate the ethical attitude in relation to the environment for each activity. Further research is needed to stimulate, shape, and develop an environmental ethical behavior in pharmacists' practice.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Farmacêuticos/ética , Austrália , Códigos de Ética , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Papel Profissional , Estados Unidos
10.
11.
CMAJ Open ; 9(2): E358-E363, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Under the Canadian Criminal Code, medical assistance in dying (MAiD) requires that patients give informed consent and that their ability to consent is assessed by 2 clinicians. In this study, we intended to understand how Canadian clinicians assessed capacity in people requesting MAiD. METHODS: This qualitative study used interviews conducted between August 2019 and February 2020, by phone, video and email, to explore how clinicians assessed capacity in people requesting MAiD, what challenges they had encountered and what tools they used. The participants were recruited from provider mailing listserves of the Canadian Association of MAiD Assessors and Providers and Aide médicale à mourir. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The research team met to review transcripts and explore themes as they emerged in an iterative manner. We used abductive reasoning for thematic analysis and coding, and continued to discuss until we reached consensus. RESULTS: The 20 participants worked in 5 of 10 provinces across Canada, represented different specialties and had experience assessing a total of 2410 patients requesting MAiD. The main theme was that, for most assessments, the participants used the conversation about how the patient had come to choose MAiD to get the information they needed. When the participants used formal capacity assessment tools, this was mostly for meticulous documentation, and they rarely asked for psychiatric consults. The participants described how they approached assessing cases of nonverbal patients and other challenging cases, using techniques such as ensuring a quiet environment and adequate hearing aids, and using questions requiring only "yes" or "no" as an answer. INTERPRETATION: The participants were comfortable doing MAiD assessments and used their clinical judgment and experience to assess capacity in ways similar to other clinical practices. The findings of this study suggest that experienced MAiD assessors do not routinely require formal capacity assessments or tools to assess capacity in patients requesting MAiD.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Eutanásia Ativa Voluntária , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/normas , Competência Mental , Prática Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle Social Formal/métodos , Suicídio Assistido , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Canadá , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/ética , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Códigos de Ética , Eutanásia Ativa Voluntária/ética , Eutanásia Ativa Voluntária/legislação & jurisprudência , Eutanásia Ativa Voluntária/psicologia , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Médicos , Padrões de Prática Médica/ética , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Direito a Morrer/ética , Direito a Morrer/legislação & jurisprudência , Suicídio Assistido/ética , Suicídio Assistido/legislação & jurisprudência , Suicídio Assistido/psicologia
12.
Hastings Cent Rep ; 51(2): 6-9, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840102

RESUMO

The Covid-19 pandemic has revealed myriad social, economic, and health inequities that disproportionately burden populations that have been made medically or socially vulnerable. Inspired by state and local governments that declared racism a public health crisis or emergency, the Anti-Racism in Public Health Act of 2020 reflects a shifting paradigm in which racism is considered a social determinant of health. Indeed, health inequities fundamentally rooted in structural racism have been exacerbated by the Covid-19 pandemic, which calls for the integration of antiracist praxis to promote ethical public health research processes. This commentary describes ways in which antiracist praxis-which emphasizes empowerment of traditionally marginalized populations-offers strategies to explicitly address power imbalance, stigmatization, and other consequences of structural racism in public health research.


Assuntos
COVID-19/etnologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Saúde Pública , Racismo , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Códigos de Ética , Humanos , Saúde Pública/ética , Saúde Pública/métodos , Saúde Pública/normas , Racismo/prevenção & controle , Racismo/tendências , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/ética , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/normas , Discriminação Social/prevenção & controle , Marginalização Social , Estados Unidos
13.
Aust Health Rev ; 45(4): 398-406, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844959

RESUMO

Objective Health practitioners' Codes of Conduct and Codes of Ethics articulate practice standards across multiple domains, including the domain of cultural safety. As key tools driving individual practice and systems reform, Codes are integral to improving health outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. It is, therefore, critical that their contents specify meaningful cultural safety standards as the norm for institutional and individual practice. This research assessed all Codes for cultural safety specific content. Methods Following the release of the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency's (Ahpra) Health and Cultural Safety strategy 2020-25, the 16 Ahpra registered health practitioner Board Codes of Conduct and professional Codes of Ethics were analysed by comparing content to Ahpra's new cultural safety objectives. Two Codes of Conduct, Nursing and Midwifery, met these objectives. The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Practitioners Code partially met these objectives. Results Most Codes of Conduct (14 of 16) conflated Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples with culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities undermining the sovereignty of Australia's First Peoples. Eleven professions had a Code of Ethics, including the Physiotherapy Code of Conduct, which outlined the values and ethical principles of practice commonly associated with a Code of Ethics. Of the 11 professions with a Code of Ethics, two (Pharmacy and Psychology) articulated specific ethical responsibilities to First Peoples. Physiotherapy separately outlined cultural safety obligations through their reconciliation action plan (RAP), meeting all Ahpra cultural safety objectives. The remaining eight advocated respect of culture generally rather than respect for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultures specifically. Conclusions The review identified multiple areas to improve the codes for cultural safety content for registered health professions, providing a roadmap for action to strengthen individual and systems practice while setting a clear regulatory standard to ensure culturally safe practice becomes the new norm. It recommends the systematic updating of all professional health practitioner Board Codes of Conduct and professional Codes of Ethics based on the objectives outlined in Ahpra's Cultural Safety Strategy. What is known about the topic? Systemic racism and culturally unsafe work environments contribute to poor health outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. They also contribute to the under-representation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in the health workforce, denying the system, and the people who use and work in it, much needed Indigenous knowledge. Creating a culturally safe healthcare system requires all health practitioners to reflect on their own cultural background, to gain appreciation of the positive and negative impacts of individually held cultural assumptions on the delivery of healthcare services. Competence in cultural safety as a required standard of practice is therefore essential if broad, sustainable and systemic cultural change across the health professions and ultimately across Australia's healthcare system is to be achieved. Given that Codes of Conduct and Codes of Ethics are integral in setting the practical and moral standards of the professions, their contents with respect to cultural competence are of great importance. What does this paper add? A review of this type has not been undertaken previously. Following the establishment of the Ahpra Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Strategy Group, release of Ahpra's 2018 Statement of intent, and the 2019 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health and Cultural Safety strategic plan and Reconciliation Action Plan, we analysed the content of each of the 16 registered health professions Codes of Conduct and Code of Ethics looking for content and guidance in accordance with the new national cultural safety definition. Several opportunities to improve the Codes of Conduct and Codes of Ethics were identified to realise the vision set out in the statement of intent including through the application of the National Law. This analysis provides a baseline for future improvements and confirms that although some current health practitioner Codes of Conduct and Codes of Ethics have begun the journey of recognising the importance of cultural safety in ensuring good health outcomes for Australia's Indigenous peoples, there is broad scope for change. What are the implications for practitioners? The gaps identified in this analysis provide a roadmap for improvement and inclusion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health and cultural safety as a required standard in Codes of Conduct and Codes of Ethics for all registered health practitioners. Although it is recognised that Codes alone may not change hearts and minds, codifying the clinical competency of cultural safety provides a portal, and a requirement, for each individual practitioner to engage meaningfully and take responsibility to improve practice individually and organisationally.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde do Indígena , Racismo , Austrália , Códigos de Ética , Competência Cultural , Humanos
15.
Rev. cuba. med ; 60(1): e1604,
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156552

RESUMO

La autoría en la publicación científica constituye el medio principal de reconocimiento de los logros académicos en la actualidad.1 La lista de publicaciones es uno de los criterios principales que influyen en la carrera académica del científico. El conocido dilema "publica o perece", es un ejemplo que deja claro el incentivo por la necesidad de publicar tanto como sea posible, preferiblemente en revistas de alto impacto; de lo contrario, puede perderse oportunidades en la carrera científica, fondos para investigaciones u otros reconocimientos.2 Esto ha conducido a faltas de ética y malas prácticas en la autoría de los artículos, lo cual atenta contra la transparencia, calidad y credibilidad no solo del producto científico, también del propio investigador que incurre en tales faltas. Existen dos tipos principales de malas prácticas en la autoría de una publicación científica: el autor honorario y el autor fantasma. El autor honorario es la desviación más prevalente de los estándares de autoría responsable. Es el autor que se incluye, cuando no ha contribuido para nada o se ha quedado al margen de la investigación. Por otro lado, el autor fantasma es la persona que contribuye sustancialmente en la realización de una investigación, pero no es mencionado en la lista de autores en la publicación.1 Luiten y otros3 refiere tres subtipos de autores honorarios, como son la autoría de regalo, la cual incluye en la lista de coautores a cierta persona por gratitud o en espera de que su acción sea recompensada de igual manera, o sea, incluyéndolo en otras publicaciones. La otra modalidad es autor invitado, un reconocido investigador se incluye como coautor esperando aumentar aparentemente la calidad del artículo. Por último, se encuentra el autor coercitivo, la cual se considera la desviación más severa en las malas prácticas de autoría, donde el superior en el grupo de investigación o jefe, exige su inclusión o la de algún otro autor en el trabajo realizado por jóvenes investigadores del equipo. Es muy frecuente esta modalidad en escenarios académicos. Estas faltas no siempre ocurren a conciencia, pues la ignorancia o el desconocimiento de los criterios de autoría es un hecho que ocurre en considerable frecuencia. La ausencia de referencias explícitas sobre las guías de autoría en las políticas de las revistas puede contribuir a que estas malas prácticas se posterguen. En las actuales circunstancias, la mayoría de las revistas de alto impacto y las revistas cubanas siguen las pautas de contribución de autoría establecidas por el Comité Internacional de Editores de Revistas Médicas (ICMJE, por sus siglas en inglés). Estas recomendaciones aparentemente simples de definición de autor se basan en cuatro aspectos: 1) realizado aportes sustanciales a la idea o diseño del estudio, la recogida de datos o el análisis e interpretación de ellos; 2) participado en la redacción o en la revisión crítica de su contenido intelectual; 3) aprobado la versión final del manuscrito para su publicación y 4) de acuerdo con asumir la responsabilidad por todos los aspectos del trabajo.4 Sin embargo, existen controversias vinculadas al segundo criterio en el contexto de investigaciones multidisciplinarias que requieren la participación de diferentes expertos, de manera que no todos deberían involucrarse directamente en el proceso de redacción o revisión crítica del manuscrito.5 Recientemente, se ha empleado la taxonomía CRediT en las revistas científicas del sistema nacional de salud para definir los roles de los contribuyentes en la producción académica y científica. De esta forma, los autores obtienen su reconocimiento individual mediante la distribución de los roles en las siguientes tipologías: conceptualización, curación de datos, análisis formal, adquisición de fondos, administración de proyectos, investigación, metodología, recursos, software, supervisión, validación, visualización, redacción del borrador original y por último, la redacción que incluye revisión y edición.6 Con esta metodología se logra una estandarización para la mención de dichos roles en las revistas de la red SciELO.6 Actualmente, esta taxonomía se ha adoptado por una considerable cantidad de editores internacionales, lo cual aporta prácticos beneficios en un ambiente investigativos cada vez más amplio. En sentido general, el aporte más significativo de la taxonomía CRediT es la presencia de un verdadero reconocimiento y visibilidad de la contribución de autoría en aspectos más específicos de un proceso investigativo.6 La comunidad científica necesita guías de autorías balanceadas y realistas que puedan prevenir las malas prácticas y facilitar la responsabilidad ética y la colaboración efectiva entre los científicos y sus grupos de trabajo. Por otra parte, las revistas deben esclarecer adecuadamente los criterios de autoría y exigir la declaración de las contribuciones de los autores en los manuscritos enviados. Otras alternativas que deben fomentarse son la impartición de cursos y/o incluir en el currículum de los estudiantes en pregrado y los jóvenes investigadores, temáticas sobre la ética en la publicación científica, pues muchas de las faltas que se cometen se deben al desconocimiento de las prácticas correctas en el ámbito investigativo(AU)


Assuntos
Códigos de Ética , Publicações Científicas e Técnicas , Autoria e Coautoria na Publicação Científica
17.
CRISPR J ; 4(1): 19-24, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571044

RESUMO

Gene drives hold promise for use in controlling insect vectors of diseases, agricultural pests, and for conservation of ecosystems against invasive species. At the same time, this technology comes with potential risks that include unknown downstream effects on entire ecosystems as well as the accidental or nefarious spread of organisms that carry the gene drive machinery. A code of ethics can be a useful tool for all parties involved in the development and regulation of gene drives and can be used to help ensure that a balanced analysis of risks, benefits, and values is taken into consideration in the interest of society and humanity. We have developed a code of ethics for gene drive research with the hope that this code will encourage the development of an international framework that includes ethical guidance of gene drive research and is incorporated into scientific practice by gaining broad agreement and adherence.


Assuntos
Códigos de Ética , Tecnologia de Impulso Genético , Ecossistema , Edição de Genes , Humanos , Espécies Introduzidas , Princípios Morais , Saúde Pública
18.
AMA J Ethics ; 23(1): E46-48, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554847

RESUMO

Two concerns about information from unethical experimentation are its legitimacy and trustworthiness. This article explores guidance about information use from the AMA Code of Medical Ethics.


Assuntos
Holocausto , American Medical Association , Códigos de Ética , Atenção à Saúde , Ética Médica , Humanos , Estados Unidos
19.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244958, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449931

RESUMO

This study explores whether an oath to honesty can reduce both shirking and lying among crowd-sourced internet workers. Using a classic coin-flip experiment, we first confirm that a substantial majority of Mechanical Turk workers both shirk and lie when reporting the number of heads flipped. We then demonstrate that lying can be reduced by first asking each worker to swear voluntarily on his or her honor to tell the truth in subsequent economic decisions. Even in this online, purely anonymous environment, the oath significantly reduced the percent of subjects telling "big" lies (by roughly 27%), but did not affect shirking. We also explore whether a truth-telling oath can be used as a screening device if implemented after decisions have been made. Conditional on flipping response, MTurk shirkers and workers who lied were significantly less likely to agree to an ex-post honesty oath. Our results suggest oaths may help elicit more truthful behavior, even in online crowd-sourced environments.


Assuntos
Códigos de Ética , Crowdsourcing , Revelação da Verdade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Crowdsourcing/economia , Crowdsourcing/métodos , Decepção , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 28(3): 650-652, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404593

RESUMO

There is little debate about the importance of ethics in health care, and clearly defined rules, regulations, and oaths help ensure patients' trust in the care they receive. However, standards are not as well established for the data professions within health care, even though the responsibility to treat patients in an ethical way extends to the data collected about them. Increasingly, data scientists, analysts, and engineers are becoming fiduciarily responsible for patient safety, treatment, and outcomes, and will require training and tools to meet this responsibility. We developed a data ethics checklist that enables users to consider the possible ethical issues that arise from the development and use of data products. The combination of ethics training for data professionals, a data ethics checklist as part of project management, and a data ethics committee holds potential for providing a framework to initiate dialogues about data ethics and can serve as an ethical touchstone for rapid use within typical analytic workflows, and we recommend the use of this or equivalent tools in deploying new data products in hospitals.


Assuntos
Códigos de Ética , Ciência de Dados/ética , Hospitais Pediátricos/ética , Lista de Checagem , Ética Clínica , Ética Profissional , Sistemas de Informação Hospitalar/ética , Washington
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