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1.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 158: 114175, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36587556

RESUMO

Gout is a metabolic disease affected by monosodium urate (MSU) deposition, which is directly related to hyperuricemia. Recent reports on the prevalence and incidence of gout have been widely circulated worldwide. Currently, the anti-gout drugs in clinical practice are mainly small-molecule synthetic drugs, and the effectiveness and safety are limited. Reducing uric acid and inhibiting inflammation are the focused areas of drug research and development on gout. Rutin, a natural flavonoid, has been reported to alleviate inflammation in various diseases. However, whether rutin exerts protective effects on gout remains to be elucidated. This study used quails without urate oxidase as experimental animals to induce endogenous gout models through a high purine diet. We confirmed that quail in the model group developed gout symptoms at 30 days of the experiment. And the targets of uric acid metabolism, oxidative stress level, and NLRP3 inflammasome were dysregulated in quails. Rutin treatment improves gout and reduces inflammatory expression in quail. We further confirmed that rutin treatment reduced XOD activity and uric acid levels in quail. And rutin inhibited ROS production, restored oxidative stress balance, inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and exerted anti-inflammatory effects. We extracted and identified the fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) for the first time. The results showed that rutin could reduce ROS production and NLRP3 inflammasome activation of FLS after uric acid stimulation. In conclusion, our findings underscore that rutin may be a gout protective agent by reducing XOD activity, inhibiting ROS production and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Meanwhile, this study also provides an available animal model for the research drugs of gout.


Assuntos
Gota , Inflamassomos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Rutina , Animais , Gota/tratamento farmacológico , Gota/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Rutina/farmacologia , Ácido Úrico/farmacologia , Codorniz
2.
Poult Sci ; 102(1): 102311, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36495620

RESUMO

The domestic turkey is a native breed in danger of extinction due to the introduction of new breeds specializing in meat production and yield. Turkeys have lost some prominence in urban areas, and only certain breeds of turkeys are preserved in rural areas. Wild and domestic turkeys are different; rural or indigenous turkeys, with black plumage, were domesticated from Mexican turkeys and have been reproduced throughout Latin America. Some of them were taken to Europe in the 16th century and later arrived in North America, where they crossed with another wild species, from which the bronze turkey emerged: the ancestor of all commercial turkeys. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the genetic diversity in 10 populations of domestic turkeys worldwide by using breeds from Europe: Spain and Italy; America: Mexico, United States and Brazil; and the Near East: Iran and Egypt. A total of 522 blood samples of both sexes were collected from domestic turkey populations. Thirty-four microsatellites were used to obtain genetic parameters, and genetic diversity was evaluated. All microsatellites used were polymorphic, and a total of 427 alleles were detected across the 34 markers investigated. In this study, a mean number of 13.44 alleles was found. The four most diverse breeds were from the Andalusia, Mexico, United States, and wild populations, which had the highest mean heterozygosity expected (0.619, 0.612, 0.650, and 0.773) and heterozygosity observed (0.422, 0.521, 0.429, and 0.627), respectively. The MNT348 marker deviated from the HWE in all populations. Our study has shown that the populations close to the species origin are more diverse than those resulting from posterior expansions. Mexican birds were the most diverse, followed by the Spanish populations because Spain imported a large number of turkeys coming from America. Such information can be complementary to other genotypic data required to validate the evolutionary relationships among turkey populations.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Perus , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Perus/genética , Galinhas/genética , Genótipo , Repetições de Microssatélites , Codorniz/genética
3.
J Therm Biol ; 111: 103427, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36585091

RESUMO

It is essential to understand and manage environmental factors for good quail production and welfare. One of the most important environmental stressors that hinder quail productivity is heat stress. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of spraying Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) eggs with betaine after exposure to short-term high temperature during early embryogenesis on pre and post-hatch performance of quail. A total of 750 eggs were equally divided into two groups. Eggs in the first group were incubated at normal incubation temperature (37.5 °C/NIT), while those in the second group were incubated at high incubation temperature (39.0 °C/HIT) for 3 h daily from day 4-6 of incubation. Eggs in both groups were subjected to five treatments, NC (negative control), PC sprayed distilled water (positive control), while B0.5, B1, and B2 treatments were sprayed with distilled water supplemented with 500, 1000, and 2000 mg betaine/L, respectively. The chick weight at hatch, slaughter weight, and first egg weight was significantly impaired by the HIT treatment. The HIT group revealed a significant increase in cloacal temperature, H/L ratio, liver enzymes, triglyceride, and cholesterol and a significant decrease in hatchability, T3 hormone, and blood protein levels than the NIT group. Regarding betaine effects, the embryonic mortality rates, hatchability, hatched chick weight, and oviduct percentage in groups treated with 1000 or 2000 mg betaine/L were significantly improved compared with the control. Also, spraying betaine at 1000 or 2000 mg/L significantly increased blood protein and triiodothyronine (T3) hormone levels and significantly decrease liver enzyme levels and total feed consumption compared with the untreated group. The right/total ventricle ratio (RV/TV) of quail in HIT group was significantly increased, while betaine treatment significantly decreased this ratio. Considering these results, it is strongly suggested that spraying of betaine on eggs at 2000 mg/L optimizes Japanese quail performance.


Assuntos
Betaína , Coturnix , Animais , Betaína/farmacologia , Codorniz , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Água , Ovos
4.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 55(1): 5, 2022 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36509919

RESUMO

Minimizing bird mortality in the commercial quail breeding industry is important from an economic and welfare perspective. Genetic and non-genetic factors can influence on the cumulative survival of the birds (CS). Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate non-genetic factors on CSs (cumulative survival of the birds from hatch to 5 (CS1), 10 (CS2), 15 (CS3), 20 (CS4), 25 (CS5), 30 (CS6), 35 (CS7), 40 (CS8), and 45 (CS9) days of age), and estimation of the genetic parameters for CSs in crossbred population of quail. Data set included 1794 records from crossbred chicks hatched from 70 sires and 72 dams. The fixed effects were analyzed using an animal model by ASReml software, and all traits were analyzed using Bayesian method via Gibbs sampling by fitting of 6 threshold animal models including the direct genetic effect, the maternal permanent environmental effect, and the maternal genetic effect. The best fitted model for each trait was selected based on the deviance information criteria. Hatch number, the month of hatch, and combination of chickens showed a significant effect on CSs, but the sex of chickens does not have a significant effect on CSs. However, females have higher survival than males (except for CS1). With the best model, the highest and lowest direct heritability was estimated for CS5 (0.386) and CS3 (0.250), respectively. The maternal genetic effect was significant for CS1, CS2, CS3, and CS4 traits, but the maternal permanent environmental effect was significant only for CS1. The range of maternal heritability for CS1 to CS4 traits was estimated from 0.064 to 0.111, and ratio of the permanent environmental variance to phenotypic variance for CS1 was 0.021. The result showed that increasing of the birds' survival could be performed by correcting non-genetic factors and genetic selection for CSs considering the maternal genetic effects in younger ages. HIGHLIGHTS: • In the commercial quail breeding industry, the bird mortality is important from an economic and welfare perspective. • Improving quail survival can be achieved by controlling the genetic and non-genetic factors affecting on survival, so knowledge of these factors is necessary. • The combination of crossbred chickens had a significant effect on cumulative survival traits. • The Cumulative survival traits in the crossbred population had relatively high genetic diversity, so genetic selection for these traits could be effective.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Codorniz , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Codorniz/genética , Galinhas/genética , Fenótipo , Herança Materna , Peso Corporal/genética , Modelos Genéticos
5.
PeerJ ; 10: e14337, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36573239

RESUMO

Background: Understanding how Japanese quails respond to arginine intake has been an objective that previous studies have not fulfilled. The main responses to be quantified include the arginine requirement for maintenance (mg/kg0.67) and egg mass production (mg/g). Quantifying maintenance and production relationships are essential steps for predicting animal response. The current study aimed to describe how quails respond to arginine intake and determine arginine requirements for maintenance and egg production in Japanese quails. Methods: The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design, with seven treatments and seven replicates with individual birds as experimental units. The arginine levels were: 2.43, 3.64, 4.85, 6.07, 9.07, 12.13, and 14.56 g/kg. The experiment lasted for eight weeks. The variables analyzed were daily arginine intake, daily arginine deposition in eggs, and body weight. The data were analyzed using a mixed model, with the experimental unit being the random effect and the experimental levels of arginine as a fixed effect. When the effect of arginine levels was detected (P ≤ 0.05), saturation kinetics and an exponential model with four parameters (monomolecular) were adopted. ANOVA results indicated that dietary arginine levels significantly affected (P < 0.01) the analyzed variables. The formulation strategy of the experimental diets allowed amplitude in the dietary arginine levels, and according to bird responses, arginine was the limiting nutrient. Results: The arginine requirement for body weight maintenance (BW0.67) was estimated to be 90 mg/kg BW0.67 by the monomolecular function. The requirement for egg mass (EM) production was estimated to be 25 mg/g per egg. A factorial model was parameterized as follows: daily arginine intake mg/bird = 90 × BW0.67 + 25 × EM ± 12 mg. The model was applied to data obtained from literature, and the resultant error was within the expected limit of 12 mg. The recommended daily arginine intake for the daily production of 11 g of egg and 180 g of BW was determined to be 304 mg/bird. The current study provides procedures that researchers can easily adopt.


Assuntos
Coturnix , Codorniz , Animais , Coturnix/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Ovos , Arginina
6.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1074867, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36569836

RESUMO

Background: Gout is a progressive metabolic disease closely related to hyperuricemia and urate deposition, with an increasing prevalence and incidence across the globe. Recent studies have shown that the pathological process of gout includes two stages: asymptomatic hyperuricemia and MSU crystal deposition. However, the immune response during the development of hyperuricemia to gouty arthritis is not fully elucidated. Methods: Thus, an overnutrition-induced whole-course gout model was established to clarify the immune response and pathological changes in the development from hyperuricemia to gouty arthritis. The quails without urate oxidase were used as experimental animals. And we confirmed that uric acid metabolic targets were changed when quails were in the asymptomatic hyperuricemia stage. Results: When the quail showed gout symptoms, the NLRP3 inflammasome was activated, and the expressions of IL-1ß, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-18 were significantly increased. The relationship between the uric acid metabolism target and the NLRP3 inflammasome may be the critical immune response between hyperuricemia and gouty arthritis. Our data showed that, in the process of gout disease, the expression of xanthine oxidase (XOD) has been increasing, which increases the level of uric acid, disrupts the balance of oxidative stress, generates a large amount of ROS, activates the NLRP3 inflammasome, and release IL-1ß. Treatment with the XOD inhibitor can reduce uric acid, restore the body's degree of peroxidative damage and antioxidant capacity, and inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome and IL-1ß. In vitro, we extracted and identified primary fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) from quail for the first time. Stimulating FLS with uric acid also caused ROS release and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. However, treatment with an XOD inhibitor prevented all these responses in FLS. Conclusion: Our results indicate that the immune response between the uric acid metabolism target XOD and NLRP3 inflammasomes plays a crucial role in developing hyperuricemia to gouty arthritis, and inhibition of both XOD and NLRP3 inflammasomes may be an effective treatment for avoiding the development of asymptomatic hyperuricemia to MSU crystal deposition. Meanwhile, this study also provides an advantageous animal model for pathological mechanisms and research and development drugs for gout.


Assuntos
Artrite Gotosa , Gota , Hiperuricemia , Animais , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Hiperuricemia/complicações , Ácido Úrico/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Artrite Gotosa/tratamento farmacológico , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Codorniz/metabolismo , Gota/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Imunidade
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 21743, 2022 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36526693

RESUMO

In 2019, outbreaks of hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome (HSS) were observed in six commercial layer chicken flocks, belonging to three different Polish farms, and characterized by increased mortality, hemorrhagic hepatitis with attached blood clots on the liver surface, and splenomegaly. Diseased flocks were initially investigated for the presence of avian hepatitis E virus (aHEV) - the etiological agent of HSS - by conventional reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, which revealed aHEV sequences clustering separately from all known aHEV genotypes. Additionally, an aHEV genome was identified for the first time in common pheasants, from a flock in France, using Next Generation Sequencing. This genome clustered together with the Polish aHEVs here investigated. Complete genome aHEV sequences from the HSS outbreaks confirmed the divergent cluster, with a shared nucleotide sequence identity of 79.6-83.2% with other aHEVs, which we propose to comprise a novel aHEV genotype - genotype 7. Histology and immunohistochemistry investigations in the liver and spleen established an association between aHEV and the observed lesions in the affected birds, consolidating the knowledge on the pathogenesis of aHEV, which is still largely unknown. Thus, the present investigation extends the natural host range and genotypes of aHEV and strengthens knowledge on the pathogenesis of HSS.


Assuntos
Hepatite Viral Animal , Hepevirus , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Infecções por Vírus de RNA , Animais , Hepevirus/genética , Galinhas , Esplenomegalia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Genótipo , Codorniz , Filogenia
8.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(12)2022 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36548739

RESUMO

Aflatoxins (AFs) are the most detrimental mycotoxin, potentially hazardous to animals and humans. AFs in food threaten the health of consumers and cause liver cancer. Therefore, a safe, efficient, and friendly approach is attributed to the control of aflatoxicosis. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the impacts of Chlorella vulgaris (CLV) on hepatic aflatoxicosis, aflatoxin residues, and meat quality in quails. Quails were allocated into a control group; the CLV group received CLV (1 g/kg diet); the AF group received an AF-contaminated diet (50 ppb); and the AF+CLV group received both treatments. The results revealed that AF decreased the growth performance and caused a hepatic injury, exhibited as an increase in liver enzymes and disrupted lipid metabolism. In addition, AF induced oxidative stress, exhibited by a dramatic increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) level and decreases in glutathione (GSH) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Significant up-regulation in the inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6) mRNA expression was also documented. Moreover, aflatoxin residues were detected in the liver and meat with an elevation of fat% alongside a decrease in meat protein%. On the other hand, CLV supplementation ameliorated AF-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory condition in addition to improving the nutritional value of meat and significantly reducing AF residues. CLV mitigated AF-induced hepatic damage, decreased growth performance, and lowered meat quality via its antioxidant and nutritional constituents.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas , Chlorella vulgaris , Animais , Humanos , Chlorella vulgaris/metabolismo , Aflatoxinas/toxicidade , Aflatoxinas/metabolismo , Codorniz/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Glutationa/metabolismo
9.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277411, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36409667

RESUMO

A field isolate (Reo/SDWF /Pheasant/17608/20) of avian orthoreovirus (ARV), isolated from a flock of game-pheasants in Weifang, Shandong Province, was genetically characterized being a field variant or novel strain in our recent research studies in conducting whole genome sequencing by using Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technique on Illumina MiSeq platform. Among a total of 870,197 35-151-mer sequencing reads, 297,711 reads (34.21%) were identified as ARV sequences. The de novo assembly of the ARV reads resulted in generation of 10 ARV-related contigs with the average sequencing coverage from 1390× to 1977× according to 10 ARV genome segments. The complete genomes of this pheasant-origin ARV (Reo/SDWF /Pheasant/17608/20) were 23,495 bp in length and consist of 10 dsRNA segments ranged from 1192 bp (S4) to 3958 bp (L1) encoding 12 viral proteins. Sequence comparison between the SDWF17608 and classic ARV reference strains revealed that 58.1-100% nucleotide (nt) identities and 51.4-100% amino acid (aa) identities were in genome segment coding genes. The 10 RNA segments had conversed termini at 5' (5'-GCUUUU) and 3' (UCAUC-3') side, which were identical to the most published ARV strains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this pheasant ARV field variant was closely related with chicken ARV strains in 7 genome segment genes, but it possessed significant sequence divergence in M1, M3 and S2 segments. These findings suggested that this pheasant-origin field variant was a divergent ARV strain and was likely originated from reassortments between different chicken ARV strains.


Assuntos
Orthoreovirus , Animais , Filogenia , Genoma Viral , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Galinhas , Codorniz
10.
Exp Parasitol ; 243: 108422, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36372092

RESUMO

The poultry red mite (PRM) is a detrimental blood-feeding ectoparasite infesting poultry and sylvatic birds. A traditional rearing system of PRMs was usually established by using chickens as the host. However, the system with chickens had some defects, such as high feed consumption, large amount of feces, high cost, and intensive labor. In present study, we used quails as the host to rear mites, and compared the reproductive efficiency of this new system with that of the chicken system. The results showed that the number of mites increased 96-fold and the number of eggs increased 50-fold after four weeks in the quail system, which were significantly higher than those in the system with chickens. The survival rates of mites in both systems were higher than 95%, and the value in the quail system at the fourth week was significantly better than that of the chicken system. The statistical results of feed consumption, live weight, and daily excrement of chickens and quails showed that the quail system was more stable with less feed consumption and less waste excretion than the chicken system. Comparing the number of eggs laid by each female mite, hatching rates and molting rates in both systems, we can conclude that the breeding system, in which quails replaced chickens as hosts, had no effect on the fecundity of D. gallinae. In conclusion, the new system established using quails as the host, is a highly efficient alternative for largely rearing of mites under laboratory conditions.


Assuntos
Infestações por Ácaros , Ácaros , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Feminino , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Galinhas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Coturnix , Codorniz
11.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 96: 104012, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36372389

RESUMO

As a plasticizer, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) has been listed as a potential endocrine disruptor by The World Health Organization. The toxicity of DEHP has been widely studied, but its toxicity on the digestive tract of birds has not been clarified. Female quail were treated by gavage with DEHP (250, 500, 750 mg/kg), with the blank and vehicle control groups reserved. The result showed that DEHP raised the damage severity grade, and decreased the ratio of villus length to crypt depth. The content and activity of cytochrome P450 system (CYP450s) were increased by DEHP. DEHP interfered with the transcription of nuclear xenobiotic receptors (NXRs), CYP isoforms, and the nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway. This study revealed DEHP could cause the imbalance in CYP450s mediated by NXRs, and then promote Nrf2 mediated antioxidant defense. This study provided new evidence about the mechanisms of DEHP-induced toxic effects on digestive tract.


Assuntos
Coturnix , Dietilexilftalato , Animais , Feminino , Coturnix/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Codorniz/metabolismo , Dietilexilftalato/toxicidade , Xenobióticos , Jejuno/metabolismo , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo
12.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(6): 397, 2022 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418520

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of cardanol in the diet of quails on productive performance, egg quality, reproductive performance, and progeny performance. A total of three hundred European quail breeders of 32 weeks of age, with average body weights of 305.98 g, were housed in laying cages in groups (4 females and 1 male), following a distribution in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 6 replications of 10 quails, being the experimental unit constituted by the set of two cages. The treatments consisted of diets with 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00% of cardanol. There was reduction in the performance of the quail with the inclusion of 1.00% of cardanol in the diet when compared to the control treatment, while egg weight and egg mass were lower in the treatments with 0.75 and 1.00% of cardanol, respectively. It was observed that there was decrease in the specific gravity, and increase in color and TBARS value of the yolk in all treatments with cardanol. The inclusion of 0.50% of cardanol decreased the percentage of albumen, and increased the percentage of yolk, while the shell thickness decreased with 0.75%. The weight of the incubated eggs and the chick weight at hatching were lower in the treatments with 0.75 and 1.00% of cardanol. In the evaluation of the progeny performance, it was found that the weight at 7 days of age of chicks from breeders fed the diet containing 1.00% of cardanol was decreased when compared to the chicks from breeders fed the control diet. It was concluded that the inclusion of cardanol did not present benefits to the quail breeders.


Assuntos
Óvulo , Codorniz , Masculino , Animais , Feminino , Carne , Fenóis , Galinhas
13.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277236, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36342931

RESUMO

The decline in the population of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) in northwestern Germany since 2007 raises questions about the underlying causes. We therefore studied the growth and immune status of ring-necked pheasant chicks dependent on different feed composition. Here, 490 ring-necked pheasant chicks were raised in five groups up to nine weeks. While control groups C1 and C2 received sufficient crude protein (28%) and energy (12.5 MJ/Kg feed) according to current standards, group C2 was treated with cyclosporine eight hours prior to phythemagglutination (PHA) testing, serving as a positive immune suppressed control. Group V1 was fed with reduced protein (20%) but optimal energy content (12.5 MJ/Kg feed), group V2 was fed with sufficient protein (28%) and reduced energy content (10 MJ/kg feed) whereas group V3 was fed reduced crude protein (20%) and reduced energy content (10MJ/kg feed). On all chicks, health status was checked each week, and 20 birds of each group were weighed randomly per week. PHA-testing was performed on 12 birds of each group to study the in vivo non-specific activation of lymphocytes at week 2, 4, 6, 7, 8 and 9. In addition, hemolysis-hemagglutination-assay (HHA) was performed on each of the PHA-tested chicks, which were subsequently euthanized and dissected. Histopathologic examinations of 5 birds that were randomly chosen were performed. The PHA-test results demonstrate significant differences between control (C1, C2) and experimental groups (V1-V3) in several developmental stages. According to the HHA results, weekly testing detected a significant increase of titres per week in all groups without significant differences. Here, only hemagglutination and no lysis of samples was observed. It seems appropriate to conclude that during their first weeks of life, protein content is of higher importance in ring-necked pheasant chicks than energy intake. In particular T-cell response is significantly reduced, which indicate a weaker immune system resulting in a higher risk for clinical diseases. Therefore, we assume that protein i.e. insect availability is a highly important co-factor in the free-ranging population dynamics, and is linked to declines of the northwestern German population.


Assuntos
Galliformes , Codorniz , Animais , Galinhas , Alimentos , Testes de Hemaglutinação , Sistema Imunitário
14.
Poult Sci ; 101(12): 102227, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334429

RESUMO

Photoperiod is an important environmental factor that influence seasonal reproduction behavior in bird and GnIH can play a function in this process through the reproductive axis, and some studies suggest that GnIH may have a direct role at the gonadal level. To investigate the expression of GnIH and its effects on follicle development and steroidogenesis in quail ovaries under different photoperiods, 72 healthy laying quails of 8-wk-old were randomly divided into long day (LD) group [16 light (L): 8 dark (D)] (n = 36) and short day (SD) group (8L:16D) (n = 36). Samples were collected from each group on d1, d11, d22, and d36 of the experiment. The result showed that short day treatment upregulated the level of GnIH in the gonads (P < 0.05), decreased the expression level of CYP19A1,3ß-HSD, StAR, LHR, and FSHR and increased the expression level of AMH, AMHR2, GDF9, and BMP15 to inhibit follicle development and ovulation, thus affecting the egg production performance of quails. In vitro culture of quail granulosa cells and treatment with different concentrations of GnIH (0, 1, 10, and 100 ng/mL) for 24 h. Result showed that GnIH inhibited the levels of FSHR, LHR, and steroid synthesis pathways in granulosa cells, upregulated the levels of AMHR2, GDF9, and BMP15. The results suggest that the inhibition of follicle development and reduced egg production in quail by short day treatment is due to GnIH acting at the gonadal level, and GnIH affected the steroid synthesis by inhibiting gonadotropin receptors.


Assuntos
Hormônios Hipotalâmicos , Fotoperíodo , Feminino , Animais , Codorniz/metabolismo , Ovário/metabolismo , Hormônios Hipotalâmicos/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo
15.
Microsc Res Tech ; 85(12): 3932-3944, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36223520

RESUMO

The current study investigated epithelial modification of embryonic quail esophagus using gross examination, light microscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. By semithin sections, the pre-gastric modified region had unfolded mucosa, formed epithelial flabs and pockets, and had reduced muscularis mucosae, thin muscular layer, less glandular tissue, and outer esophageal groove. Conversely, the normal esophageal mucosa was folded, had abundant glandular tissue and prominent muscularis mucosae, with two muscular layers; the outer and the inner. The modified epithelium resembled stratified squamous type that had a high affinity for PAS, methylene blue, and PAP stains. Ultra-structural features of the modified esophageal epithelium resembled stratified squamous epithelium and contained hypertrophic Keratinocytes; dark and light. Hypertrophic keratinocytes had RER organized, few ribosomes, and developed loose bundle of cytokeratin compared with squamous keratinocytes. Hypertrophic Keratinocytes synthesize two types of granules; peripherally located small electron-dense granules and large electron-lucent granules. Hypertrophic keratinocytes had peroxisomes that were identified by the crystalline core of the urate oxidase. In conclusion, epithelia modification may have secretory function. Further studies should be carried out to explain the exact function of this type of modified epithelium.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Codorniz , Animais , Elétrons , Esôfago/ultraestrutura , Epitélio/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(20)2022 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36298055

RESUMO

Freshness is one of the most important parameters for assessing the quality of avian eggs. Available techniques to estimate the degradation of albumen and enlargement of the air cell are either destructive or not suitable for high-throughput applications. The aim of this research was to introduce a new approach to evaluate the air cell of quail eggs for freshness assessment as a fast, noninvasive, and nondestructive method. A new methodology was proposed by using a thermal microcamera and deep learning object detection algorithms. To evaluate the new method, we stored 174 quail eggs and collected thermal images 30, 50, and 60 days after the labeled expiration date. These data, 522 in total, were expanded to 3610 by image augmentation techniques and then split into training and validation samples to produce models of the deep learning algorithms, referred to as "You Only Look Once" version 4 and 5 (YOLOv4 and YOLOv5) and EfficientDet. We tested the models in a new dataset composed of 60 eggs that were kept for 15 days after the labeled expiration label date. The validation of our methodology was performed by measuring the air cell area highlighted in the thermal images at the pixel level; thus, we compared the difference in the weight of eggs between the first day of storage and after 10 days under accelerated aging conditions. The statistical significance showed that the two variables (air cell and weight) were negatively correlated (R2 = 0.676). The deep learning models could predict freshness with F1 scores of 0.69, 0.89, and 0.86 for the YOLOv4, YOLOv5, and EfficientDet models, respectively. The new methodology for freshness assessment demonstrated that the best model reclassified 48.33% of our testing dataset. Therefore, those expired eggs could have their expiration date extended for another 2 weeks from the original label date.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Codorniz , Animais , Ovos , Albuminas
17.
Poult Sci ; 101(11): 102166, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183594

RESUMO

This work aimed to assess how Portulaca oleracea extract (POE) affected Japanese quail's growth, carcass features, blood parameters, digestibility coefficients, and microbiological aspects. A total of two hundred twenty-five 7-days-old Japanese quails were allotted into 5 experimental groups. Birds were divided as follows: group 1) received only the base diet (control), while groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 received the basal feed supplied with 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 mL POE/kg diet, respectively. The findings cleared those quails' fed diets supplemented with POE had significantly (P > 0.01) higher body weight (BW) and body weight growth (BWG) than the control group. The treatment with POE significantly affected digestive enzymes (amylase and lipase) and digestion coefficients for ether extract (EE). The treated groups had decreased serum urea and malonaldehyde (MDA) and increased Immunoglobulin G (IgG), Immunoglobulin M (IgM), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glutathione (GSH), and catalase (CAT) concentrations than the control. All bacterial counts in dietary cecal samples declined with increasing POE levels. In conclusion, POE supplementation improved quails' performance and nutrient digestibility. Moreover, POE did not harm birds' liver and kidney functions. In addition, this extract promoted the immunity and antioxidant status and minimized the harmful microbial load in quails' intestines, the total bacterial count was decreased by 90% in diet samples supplemented with purslane addition level (4 mL/g), while decreased by 74% in cecal samples supplemented with purslane addition level (4 mL/g) and Salmonella don't appear in all addition levels. However, lactic acid bacteria increased by 70%, indicating beneficial of POE in reducing the pathogenic microorganisms.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Portulaca , Animais , Coturnix , Codorniz , Ração Animal/análise , Antioxidantes , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Nutrientes , Peso Corporal , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
18.
Chemosphere ; 308(Pt 1): 136275, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36058374

RESUMO

As one of the most used phthalates, Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a widespread environmental contaminant. Extremely persistent plastic can enter the food chain of animals through the aquatic environment, affect metabolic pathways and cause damage to the digestive system. But the molecular mechanism of its toxic effects on the duodenum in birds has not been elucidated. To investigate the toxicity of phthalates in the duodenum, quails were gavaged with 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg doses of DEHP for 45 days, and water and oil control groups were retained. This study revealed that subchronic exposure to DEHP could lead to duodenal barrier defect in quail. The damage to duodenum was reflected in a reduction in V/C and tight junction proteins. Moreover, DEHP also led to a breakdown of antimicrobial defenses through the flora derangement, which acted as a biological barrier. The massive presence of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) led to the activation of TLR4 receptors. In addition, DEHP activated oxidative stress, which synergized the inflammatory response induced by the TLR4-NFκB pathway, and further promoted duodenum damage. This study provides a base for the further effect of phthalates on the microbiota-barrier-immune interaction.


Assuntos
Dietilexilftalato , Microbiota , Animais , Dietilexilftalato/toxicidade , Duodeno , Lipopolissacarídeos , Ácidos Ftálicos , Plásticos , Codorniz , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Água
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15901, 2022 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36151454

RESUMO

Small cursorial birds display remarkable walking skills and can negotiate complex and unstructured terrains with ease. The neuromechanical control strategies necessary to adapt to these challenging terrains are still not well understood. Here, we analyzed the 2D- and 3D pelvic and leg kinematic strategies employed by the common quail to negotiate visible steps (upwards and downwards) of about 10%, and 50% of their leg length. We used biplanar fluoroscopy to accurately describe joint positions in three dimensions and performed semi-automatic landmark localization using deep learning. Quails negotiated the vertical obstacles without major problems and rapidly regained steady-state locomotion. When coping with step upwards, the quail mostly adapted the trailing limb to permit the leading leg to step on the elevated substrate similarly as it did during level locomotion. When negotiated steps downwards, both legs showed significant adaptations. For those small and moderate step heights that did not induce aerial running, the quail kept the kinematic pattern of the distal joints largely unchanged during uneven locomotion, and most changes occurred in proximal joints. The hip regulated leg length, while the distal joints maintained the spring-damped limb patterns. However, to negotiate the largest visible steps, more dramatic kinematic alterations were observed. There all joints contributed to leg lengthening/shortening in the trailing leg, and both the trailing and leading legs stepped more vertically and less abducted. In addition, locomotion speed was decreased. We hypothesize a shift from a dynamic walking program to more goal-directed motions that might be focused on maximizing safety.


Assuntos
Codorniz , Corrida , Adaptação Psicológica , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Marcha , Locomoção , Caminhada
20.
Poult Sci ; 101(10): 102096, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055028

RESUMO

A series of experiments was designed and conducted to determine the apparent and standardized ileal phosphorus digestibility (i.e., AIDP and SIDP, respectively) of some grains and protein meals in Japanese quail at different age classes during the growing period from the hatch to 35 d of age. Experimental diets included a PFD, to measure basal endogenous P losses (EPL), corn, wheat, soybean meal (SBM), and corn gluten meal (CGM), so as to be each ingredient the sole source of P, were developed and fed to five experimental groups with 5 replicates of 30 chicks each. Titanium dioxide as an indigestible marker was added to the diets at the rate of 5 g/kg of diet. The EPL in birds fed on PFD was estimated at 201 mg/kg dry matter intake (DMI) and quail chicks fed on PFD exhibited the lowest performance compared to chicks received dietary P regardless of P sources (P = 0.001). The estimated coefficients of AIPD (P = 0.001) | SIDP (P = 0.004) for CGM, corn, SBM, and wheat were 49.2 | 51.9%, 38.8 | 44.9%, 41.4 | 45.9%, and 33.2 | 40.1%, respectively. The mean differences between AIPD and SIPD coefficients with each ingredients including CGM (P = 0.245), corn (P = 0.169), and SBM (P = 0.169) were not statistically significant, while the comparison of those estimations for wheat (P = 0.022) showed significant differences. The present work showed that the use of direct method could successfully estimate the coefficients of P digestibility in growing quail for both the cereals and protein meals that were studied. The high relative contribution of endogenous P in young quail fed on wheat during the first 2 wk posthatch makes it inevitable to correct AIDP for EPL and evoke the implementation of SIDP coefficients in the feed formulation matrix.


Assuntos
Fósforo na Dieta , Soja , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , Coturnix/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/fisiologia , Glutens/metabolismo , Refeições , Fósforo/metabolismo , Fósforo na Dieta/metabolismo , Propilaminas , Codorniz/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo
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