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1.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 6687626, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35340212

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Elevated serum uric acid (SUA) is associated with an increased risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, whether this association is causal is undetermined. Methods: Each participant from the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort study based on 27,009 retirees was interviewed face-to-face following a clinical examination. Covariance, logistic regression analysis, and instrumental variables were used to assess associations between SUA and (severity of) NAFLD and the causal link. Results: Among 8,429 subjects free of NAFLD at baseline, 2,007 participants developed NAFLD after 5 years of follow-up. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for NAFLD for individuals in the fourth quartile of SUA level versus those in the first was 1.71 (95% CI: 1.45-2.01, P for trend <0.001) and was more dramatic in women or normal-weight persons. Furthermore, SUA was materially associated with greater mean markers of hepatic necroinflammation and greater probabilities of fibrosis. In genetic analyses, both single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs11722228 to SLC2A9 and rs2231142 to ABCG2) were pronouncedly associated with increased SUA concentrations, ranging from 0.19 to 0.22 mg/dl. No significant associations were observed between SNPs and potential confounders. No association was observed between the SUA-increasing allele and NAFLD, with an OR of 0.98 (95% CI: 0.90-1.08) per genetic score. This was not significantly different (P = 0.25) from what was expected (1.03, 95% CI: 1.03-1.03). Conclusions: SUA was positively associated with NAFLD incidence especially in female and normal-weight individuals and the suspected progression risk of newly developed NAFLD. However, the Mendelian randomization analyses lend no causal evidence, suggesting high SUA as a marker and not a cause of NAFLD.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Ácido Úrico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose , Humanos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco
2.
J Neurotrauma ; 39(1-2): 86-92, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626946

RESUMO

This case-control study using baseline data from the population cohort Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study® compared lifetime history of concussion between children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We hypothesized that children with ADHD would have a greater lifetime history of concussion than children without ADHD. Children were recruited from schools across the United States, sampled to provide strong generalizability to the US population. The current sample included 10,585 children (age: mean = 9.9; standard deviation = 0.6; range 9-10 years; 48.9% girls; 64.6% White), including 1085 with ADHD and 9500 without ADHD. The prevalence of prior concussion among children with ADHD was 7.2% (95% CI: 6.6-7.8%) compared with 3.2% (3.1-3.3%) among children without ADHD, meaning current ADHD status was associated with twice the odds of experiencing a prior concussion [χ2 = 44.54; p < 0.001; odds ratio = 2.34 (1.81-3.03)]. No significant differences were observed in proportion of boys and girls with ADHD who had a prior concussion history. The number of current ADHD symptoms were not meaningfully associated with prior concussion history. Lower socioeconomic status was associated with lower rates of reported concussion, but not differentially in association with ADHD. ADHD is associated with twice the lifetime prevalence of prior concussion before age 11 among children from the general U.S. population. Boys and girls with ADHD did not differ in proportions with prior concussion and concussion history was not related to the number of ADHD symptoms reported by parents.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Concussão Encefálica , Adolescente , Atletas/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Concussão Encefálica/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Schizophr Res ; 241: 24-35, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35074529

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Maternal schizophrenia is linked to complications in offspring near the time of birth. Whether there is also a higher future risk of the child having a complex chronic condition (CCC) - a pediatric condition affecting any bodily system expected to last at least 12 months that is severe enough to require specialty care and/or a period of hospitalization - is not known. METHODS: In this population-based health administrative data cohort study (Ontario, Canada, 1995-2018), the risk for CCC was compared in 5066 children of women with schizophrenia (the exposed) vs. 2,939,320 unexposed children. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) were generated for occurrence of any CCC, by CCC category, and stratified by child sex, and child prematurity. RESULTS: CCC was more frequent in the exposed (7.7 per 1000 person-years [268 children]) than unexposed (4.2 per 100 person-years [124,452 children]) - an aHR of 1.25 (95% CI 1.10-1.41). aHRs were notably higher in 5 of 9 CCC categories: neuromuscular (1.73, 1.28-2.33), cardiovascular (1.94, 1.64-2.29), respiratory (1.83, 1.32-2.54), hematology/immunodeficiency (2.24, 1.24-4.05) and other congenital or genetic defect (1.59, 1.16-2.17). The aHR for CCC was more pronounced among boys (1.32, 1.13-1.55) than girls (1.16, 0.96-1.40), and of similar magnitude in term (1.22, 1.05-1.42) and preterm infants (1.18, 0.95-1.46). CONCLUSIONS: The risk for a CCC appears to be higher in children born to women with schizophrenia. This finding introduces opportunities for targeted preconception counselling, optimization of maternal risk factors, and intervention to support a vulnerable parent population who will experience unique challenges caring for a child with CCCs.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Criança , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Ontário , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia
4.
Early Hum Dev ; 165: 105541, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35065415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outcomes for infants who survive mild-moderate hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) into adolescence is relatively uncharted. AIMS: We examined neuropsychological and behavioral outcomes in adolescents with mild and moderate HIE, using both parent and self - informants, and including healthy peers and nearest age siblings as controls. PARTICIPANTS: 23 adolescents with a history of mild-moderate HIE (M age = 14.45 years, SD = 1.03; 14 boys and 9 girls) were recruited from an original cohort of 53. A group of their nearest - age siblings (n = 13), and healthy peers (n = 14) were recruited as controls. OUTCOME MEASURES: A number of neuropsychological sub-tests, taken from the WISC-V.UK, Children's Memory Scale, NEPSY, WIAT-III.UK, Rey Complex Figure Copy Test and British Picture Vocabulary Scale were administered. Behavioral adjustment was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the competence subscales of the Child Behavior Checklist. RESULTS: No differences in neuropsychological and behavioral outcomes were observed between mild and moderate HIE cohorts. Together they had significantly lower scores on tests of attention/executive functioning, verbal reasoning and sensory-motor ability compared to healthy peers, with moderate to large effect sizes. Remedial provision at school was greater in the HIE group. Parents reported elevated levels of peer problems in the HIE group compared to both siblings and healthy peers. Reduced competencies were also observed. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence that both mild and moderate survivors of HIE experience neuropsychological, school and peer relationship problems in adolescence.


Assuntos
Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Escalas de Wechsler
5.
Bone Joint J ; 104-B(8): 980-986, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909371

RESUMO

AIMS: We assessed the value of the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) in the prediction of adverse outcome after hip fracture. METHODS: Of 1,577 consecutive patients aged > 65 years with a fragility hip fracture admitted to one institution, for whom there were complete data, 1,255 (72%) were studied. Clinicians assigned CFS scores on admission. Audit personnel routinely prospectively completed the Standardised Audit of Hip Fracture in Europe form, including the following outcomes: 30-day survival; in-hospital complications; length of acute hospital stay; and new institutionalization. The relationship between the CFS scores and outcomes was examined graphically and the visual interpretations were tested statistically. The predictive values of the CFS and Nottingham Hip Fracture Score (NHFS) to predict 30-day mortality were compared using receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (AUC) analysis. RESULTS: Significant non-linear associations between CFS and outcomes were observed. Risk of death within 30 days rose linearly for CFS 1 to 5, but plateaued for CFS > 5. The incidence of complications and length of stay rose linearly for CFS 1 to 4, but plateaued for CFS > 4. In contrast, the risk of new institutionalization rose linearly for CFS 1 to 8. The AUCs for 30-day mortality for the CFS and NHFS were very similar: CFS AUC 0.63 (95% CI 0.57 to 0.69) and NHFS AUC 0.63 (95% CI 0.57 to 0.69). CONCLUSION: Use of the CFS may provide useful information on outcomes for fitter patients presenting with hip fracture, but completion of the CFS by the admitting orthopaedic team does not appear successful in distinguishing between higher CFS categories, which define patients with frailty. This makes a strong case for the role of the orthogeriatrician in the early assessment of these patients. Further work is needed to understand why patients assessed as being of mild, moderate, and severe frailty do not result in different outcomes. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2022;104-B(8):980-986.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Fadiga Crônica , Fragilidade , Fraturas do Quadril , Estudos de Coortes , Fragilidade/complicações , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fraturas do Quadril/complicações , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Humanos , Institucionalização , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Bone Joint J ; 104-B(8): 987-996, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909377

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to describe the demographic details of patients who sustain a femoral periprosthetic fracture (PPF), the epidemiology of PPFs, PPF characteristics, and the predictors of PPF types in the UK population. METHODS: This is a multicentre retrospective cohort study including adult patients presenting to hospital with a new PPF between 1 January 2018 and 31 December 2018. Data collected included: patient characteristics, comorbidities, anticoagulant use, social circumstances, level of mobility, fracture characteristics, Unified Classification System (UCS) type, and details of the original implant. Descriptive analysis by fracture location was performed, and predictors of PPF type were assessed using mixed-effects logistic regression models. RESULTS: In total, 720 femoral PPFs from 27 NHS sites were included. PPF patients were typically elderly (mean 79.9 years (SD 10.6)), female (n = 455; 63.2%), had at least one comorbidity (n = 670; 93.1%), and were reliant on walking aids or bed-/chair-bound prior to admission (n = 419; 61.7%). The study population included 539 (74.9%) hip PPFs, 151 (21.0%) knee PPFs, and 30 (4.2%) dividing type PPFs. For hip (n = 407; 75.5%) and knee (n = 88; 58.3%) arthroplasty UCS B type fractures were most common. Overall, 556 (86.2%) were treated in the presenting hospital and 89 (13.8%) required transfer for treatment. Female sex was the only significant predictor of fracture type (A/B1/C type versus B2/B3) for femoral hip PPFs (odds ratio 0.61 (95% confidence interval 0.41 to 0.91); p = 0.014). Sex, residence type, primary versus revision implant PPF, implant fixation, and time between arthroplasty and PPF were not found to predict fracture type for hip PPFs. CONCLUSION: This multicentre analysis describes patient and injury factors for patients presenting with femoral PPFs to centres across the UK. These patients are generally elderly and frail, comparable to those sustaining a hip fracture. These data can be useful in planning future services and clinical trials. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2022;104-B(8):987-996 .


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Fraturas do Fêmur , Fraturas Periprotéticas , Adulto , Idoso , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Fraturas do Fêmur/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Fêmur/etiologia , Fraturas do Fêmur/cirurgia , Humanos , Fraturas Periprotéticas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Periprotéticas/etiologia , Fraturas Periprotéticas/cirurgia , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Bone Joint J ; 104-B(8): 997-1008, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909379

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to describe the management and associated outcomes of patients sustaining a femoral hip periprosthetic fracture (PPF) in the UK population. METHODS: This was a multicentre retrospective cohort study including adult patients who presented to 27 NHS hospitals with 539 new PPFs between 1 January 2018 and 31 December 2018. Data collected included: management strategy (operative and nonoperative), length of stay, discharge destination, and details of post-treatment outcomes (reoperation, readmission, and 30-day and 12-month mortality). Descriptive analysis by fracture type was performed, and predictors of PPF management and outcomes were assessed using mixed-effects logistic regression. RESULTS: In all, 417 fractures (77%) were managed operatively and 122 (23%) conservatively. The median time to surgery was four days (interquartile range (IQR) 2 to 7). Of those undergoing surgery, 246 (59%) underwent revision and/or fixation and 169 (41%) fixation alone. The surgical strategy used differed by Unified Classification System for PPF type, with the highest rate of revision in B2/B3 fractures (both 77%, 176/228 and 24/31, respectively) and the highest rate of fixation alone in B1- (55/78; 71%) and C-type (49/65; 75%) fractures. Cemented stem fixation (odds ratio (OR) 2.66 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.42 to 4.99); p = 0.002) and B2/B3 fracture type (OR 7.56 (95% CI 4.14 to 13.78); p < 0.001) were predictors of operative management. The median length of stay was 15 days (IQR 9 to 23), 12-month reoperation rate was 5.6% (n = 30), and 30-day readmission rate was 8.4% (n = 45). The 30-day and 12-month mortality rates were 5.2% (n = 28) and 21.0% (n = 113). Nonoperative treatment, older age, male sex, admission from residential or nursing care, and sustaining the PPF around a revision prosthesis were significant predictors of an increased 12-month mortality. CONCLUSION: Femoral hip PPFs have mortality, reoperation, and readmission rates comparable with hip fracture patients. However, they have a longer wait for surgery, and surgical treatment is more complex. There is a need to create a national framework for data collection for this heterogeneous group of patients in order to understand the outcomes of different approaches to treatment. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2022;104-B(8):997-1008 .


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Fraturas do Fêmur , Prótese de Quadril , Fraturas Periprotéticas , Adulto , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Fraturas do Fêmur/cirurgia , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Prótese de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Fraturas Periprotéticas/cirurgia , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 926183, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909526

RESUMO

Background: Few studies have described the relationship between the type of infertility and live birth in patients treated with intrauterine insemination (IUI). We focused on this issue and attempted to explore it. Methods: This retrospective study enrolled 2,256 infertile patients who underwent their first IUI cycle and were subsequently diagnosed with a clinical pregnancy at Ji'an Women and Child Health Care Hospital between 2007 and 2018. Inductees were divided into primary infertility (1,680 patients) and secondary infertility groups (876 patients). Following 1:1 propensity score matching to obtain balanced data, the COX proportional hazards model, landmark analysis, and subgroup analysis were used to assess the association between infertility types and live birth rates. Subsequently, a sensitivity analysis was employed to evaluate the potential effect of unmeasured confounding on outcomes. Results: Of the 1,486 patients who were identified as a matched cohort, 743 were in the primary infertility group and the remaining patients were in another group. A total of 1,143 patients had live births during 431,009 person-days of follow-up (average 290.0 days). Throughout the follow-up period, patients with secondary infertility demonstrated more live births than patients with primary infertility (hazard ratio [HR], 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 1.30; P = .007). More details were observed in the landmark analysis. Live birth rates were similar in both groups within 316 days of follow-up (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.62 to 1.14; P = .269), whereas the opposite was found between 316 days of follow-up and delivery day (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.34; P = .004). This was also obtained in a subgroup analysis of patients younger than 35 years old and patients treated with natural cycles (NCs) and IUIs. Conclusion: Among the infertile patients who underwent a single natural or stimulated cycle followed by IUI and had later pregnancies, full-term young secondary infertility mothers (<35 years of age) had a greater chance of having viable babies than the primary infertility ones. The latter may get more benefits when undergoing ovarian stimulation and IUI rather than NC-IUI.


Assuntos
Infertilidade , Nascido Vivo , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade/terapia , Inseminação Artificial/métodos , Nascido Vivo/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 892702, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909534

RESUMO

Aims: This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of once-weekly glucagon-like peptide receptor agonists (OW GLP-1RAs) and to assess the clinical benefits of switching from one GLP-1RA to another (switchers) in a routine clinical setting. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective, real-world cohort study, based on electronic medical records utilized in one Italian diabetes clinic. Estimated mean changes in HbA1c and body weight after 6 and 12 months from the first prescription of a long-acting GLP1-RA were evaluated using longitudinal linear mixed models for repeated measures. The effectiveness of the three long-acting GLP1-RAs was compared separately in the GLP1-RA naive and switchers cohorts, after propensity score adjustment. Results: Initiating a long-acting GLP1-RA was associated with statistically significant improvements in HbA1c (-1%) and body weight (-2.6 kg) after 6 months, and benefits were maintained after 12 months. In GLP1-RA naive cohort, semaglutide showed the largest effect on HbA1c (-1.55%; 95%CI, -1.77;-1.34) and body weight (-3.76 kg; 95%CI, -5.05;-2.47) at 6 months, maintained at 12 months (-1.55%; 95%CI, -1.82;-1.28 and -6.29 kg; 95%CI, -7.94;-4.63). In the switchers' cohort, statistically significant reductions at 6 months in HbA1c and body weight were documented with semaglutide and dulaglutide only, with semaglutide associated with the most marked reduction (-0.84%; 95%CI, -1.03;-0.65 and -3.43 kg; 95%, -4.67;-2.19). Dropout rates were 9.2%, 28.5%, and 41.7% in semaglutide, dulaglutide, and exenatide groups, respectively. Conclusions: The effectiveness and tolerability of the OW GLP-1RAs in the real world were documented. Semaglutide was associated with the highest response without impact on safety. Clinical improvements were obtained even in switchers, especially in those switching to semaglutide.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Peso Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Esquema de Medicação , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 907973, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909552

RESUMO

Background: It has been proved that triglyceride glucose-body mass index (TyG-BMI) is a readily available and clinically significant indicator of insulin resistance (IR). Nevertheless, the association between TyG-BMI and incident Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains uncertain. This study aimed to study the relationship between TyG-BMI and T2DM and explore the predictive characteristics of TyG-BMI. Methods: Our study was conducted as a longitudinal cohort study. 8,430 men and 7,034 women were enrolled and analyzed. They were both non-diabetic subjects with normal glycemic levels. Follow-up lasted for 13 years, from 1994 to 2016. To make the number of TyG-BMI in each group similar, the subjects were divided into four groups with 3866 subjects in each group. Results: During the 13-year follow-up period, 373 subjects were diagnosed with incident T2DM. Our multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that TyG-BMI was an independent predictor of incident T2DM. In addition, our research identified four specific groups, young people (18-44 years old), women, the non-hypertensive population and non-drinkers were at significantly higher risk of developing TyG-BMI-related diabetes (P-interaction< 0.05). The best threshold TyG-BMI for predicting incident T2DM was 197.2987 (area under the curve 0.7738). Conclusions: Our longitudinal cohort study demonstrated the positive correlation between baseline TyG-BMI and risk of incident T2DM in Japanese with normal glycemic levels, and this risk was significantly higher in the young people, women, the non-hypertensive population and non-drinkers.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adolescente , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Feminino , Glucose , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Int J Popul Data Sci ; 7(1): 1717, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909578

RESUMO

Introduction: Early alcohol use has significant association with poor health outcomes. Individual risk factors around early alcohol use have been identified, but a holistic, data-driven investigation into health and household environmental factors on early alcohol use is yet to be undertaken. Objectives: This study aims to investigate the relationship between preceding health events, household exposures and early alcohol use during adolescence using a two-stage data-driven approach. Methods: In stage one, a study population (N = 1,072) were derived from the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) Wales (born between 2000-2002). MCS data were first linked with electronic-health records. Factors associated with early (<=eleven years old) alcohol use were identified using feature selection and stepwise logistic regression. In stage two, analogous risk factors from MCS were recreated for whole population (N = 59,231) of children (born between 1998-2002 in the Welsh Demographic Service Dataset) using routine data to predict the alcohol-related health events in hospital or GP records. Results: Significant risk factors from stage two included poor maternal mental (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.31) and physical health (aOR = 1.25), living with someone with alcohol-related problem (aOR = 2.16), single-adult household (aOR = 1.45), ever in deprivation (aOR = 1.66), child's high hyperactivity (aOR = 3.57), and conduct disorder (aOR = 3.26). Children with health events, whose health needs are supported (e.g., are taken to the doctor), are at lower risk of early alcohol use. Conclusion: Health events of the family members and the child can act as modifiable exposures and may therefore inform the development of prevention initiatives. Families with known alcohol problems, living in deprivation, experiencing child behavioural problems and those who are not taken to the doctor are at higher risk of early drinking behaviour and should be prioritised for early years support and interventions to target problem drinking in young people.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool , Alcoolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Fatores de Risco
12.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 22(1): 243, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35915438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 15-item Quality of Recovery-15 (QoR-15) scale is strongly recommended as a standard patient-reported outcome measure assessing the quality of recovery after surgery and anesthesia in the postoperative period. This study aimed to validate the Dutch translation of the questionnaire (QoR-15NL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: An observational, prospective, single-centre cohort study was conducted. Patients who underwent surgery under general anesthesia completed the QoR-15NL (preoperatively (t1) and twice postoperatively (t2 and t3)) and a visual analogue scale (VAS) for general recovery at t2. A psychometric evaluation was performed to assess the QoR-15NL's validity, reliability, responsiveness, reproducibility and feasibility. RESULTS: Two hundred and eleven patients agreed to participate (recruitment rate 94%), and 165 patients were included (completion rate 78%). The QoR-15NL score correlated with the VAS for general recovery (rs = 0.59). Construct validity was further demonstrated by confirmation of expected negative associations between the QoR-15NL and duration of surgery (rs = -0.25), duration of Post Anesthesia Care Unit stay (rs = -0.31), and duration of hospital stay (rs = -0.27). The QoR-15NL score decreased significantly according to the extent of surgery. Cronbach's alpha was 0.87, split-half reliability was 0.8, and the test-retest intra-class coefficient was 0.93. No significant floor- or ceiling effect was observed. CONCLUSION: The QoR-15NL scale is a valid, easy-to-use, and reliable outcome assessment tool with high responsiveness for patient-reported quality of recovery after surgery and general anesthesia in the Dutch-speaking population. The QoR-15NL's measurement properties are comparable to the original questionnaire and other translated versions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not applicable.


Assuntos
Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Anestesia Geral , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271298, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35917337

RESUMO

Socioeconomic conditions across the life course may contribute to differences in multimorbidity and polypharmacy in old age. However, whether the risk of multimorbidity changes during ageing and whether life-course socioeconomic conditions are associated with polypharmacy remain unclear. We investigated whether disadvantaged childhood socioeconomic conditions (CSCs) predict increased odds of multimorbidity and polypharmacy in older adults, whether CSCs remain associated when adjusting for adulthood socioeconomic conditions (ACSs), and whether CSCs and ACSs are associated cumulatively over the life course. We used data for 31,432 participants (multimorbidity cohort, mean [SD] age 66·2[9] years), and 21,794 participants (polypharmacy cohort, mean age 69·0[8.9] years) from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (age range 50-96 years). We used mixed-effects logistic regression to assess the associations of CSCs, ASCs, and a life-course socioeconomic conditions score (0-8; 8, most advantaged) with multimorbidity (≥2 chronic conditions) and polypharmacy (≥5 drugs taken daily). We found an association between CSCs and multimorbidity (reference: most disadvantaged; disadvantaged: odds ratio (OR) = 0·79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·70-0·90; middle: OR = 0·60; 95%CI 0·53-0·68; advantaged: OR = 0·52, 95%CI 0·45-0·60, most advantaged: OR = 0·40, 95%CI 0·34-0·48) but not polypharmacy. This multimorbidity association was attenuated but remained significant after adjusting for ASCs. The life-course socioeconomic conditions score was associated with multimorbidity and polypharmacy. We did not find an association between CSCs, life-course socioeconomic conditions, and change in odds of multimorbidity and polypharmacy with ageing. Exposure to disadvantaged socioeconomic conditions in childhood or over the entire life-course could predict multimorbidity in older age.


Assuntos
Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Multimorbidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
Genet Res (Camb) ; 2022: 1473260, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35919034

RESUMO

Background: Both Lowe syndrome and Dent-2 disease are caused by variants in the OCRL gene. However, the reason why patients with similar OCRL gene mutations presented with different phenotypes remains uncertain. Methods: Children with hemizygous pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in OCRL were compiled from published and unpublished consecutive cases from China. Furthermore, a Chi-square test was employed to analyze the correlation of the location and types of mutations on the phenotype of children with Lowe syndrome or Dent-2 disease. Results: Among the total 83 patients, 70.8% (34/48) cases of Lowe syndrome presented with truncating mutations, while only 31.4% (11/35) cases of Dent-2 disease presented with truncating mutation (Χ2 = 12.662; P < 0.001). Meanwhile, the majority of mutations in Dent-2 disease are located in Exon 2-12 (21/35, 60.0%), while the majority of mutations in Lowe syndrome are located in Exon 13-23 (39/48, 81.3%; Χ2 = 14.922; P < 0.001). Conclusions: Truncating mutations of the OCRL gene were more common in patients with Lowe syndrome than in Dent-2 disease, while mutation is more likely located at exon 2-12 in Dent-2 disease than that in Lowe syndrome. The type and location of mutation are important indicators for the phenotypes in patients with OCRL mutation. This is a large cohort study analyzing the genotype-phenotype correlation in patients with Lowe syndrome and Dent-2 disease in China. Our data may improve the interpretation of new OCRL variants and genetic counseling. Furthermore, a large international study would be necessary to illustrate the genotype-phenotype correlation in patients with OCRL mutations.


Assuntos
Síndrome Oculocerebrorrenal , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Mutação , Síndrome Oculocerebrorrenal/genética , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/genética
15.
Iran J Med Sci ; 47(4): 291-299, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35919074

RESUMO

In December 2019, the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) outbreak emerged in Wuhan, China. The World Health Organization officially declared it a pandemic on March 11, 2020. Reports indicated that the associated mortality of the infection is quite higher in the elderly, individuals with specific comorbidities (such as diabetes mellitus), and generally the ones with a compromised immune system. A cohort study in Wuhan, China, reported a dysregulated immune response in 452 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. As a result of this suppressed immune response, an increase in neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, T lymphopenia, and a decrease in CD4+ T cells were all common laboratory findings, especially in severe cases. On the other hand, there is substantial evidence of T cell exhaustion in critically ill patients. Accordingly, the immune system seems to play an important role in the prognosis and pathogenesis of the disease. Therefore, this study aims to review the evidence on the immune response dysregulation in COVID-19 infection and the potential role of immunoregulatory treatments such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, interferons, and CD200 inhibitors in altering disease prognosis, especially in critically ill patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Int J Med Sci ; 19(7): 1103-1109, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35919811

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the influence of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for the development of dry eye disease (DED) in subjects with prostate cancer via the use of national health insurance research database (NHIRD) of Taiwan. A retrospective cohort study was conducted and patients were selected as prostate cancer with ADT according to diagnostic and procedure codes. Each participant in that group was then matched to one patient with prostate cancer but without ADT and two subject s without prostate cancer and ADT. And a total of 1791, 1791 and 3582 participants were enrolled in each group. The primary outcome was set as the DED development according to the diagnostic codes. Cox proportional hazard regression was applied to calculate the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of ADT and other parameters for DED development. There were 228, 126 and 95 new events of DED developed in the control group, the prostate cancer without ADT group and the prostate cancer with ADT group. The rate of DED in the prostate cancer with ADT group (aHR: 0.980, 95% CI: 0.771-1.246, P= 0.8696) and Prostate cancer without ADT group (aHR: 1.064, 95% CI: 0.855-1.325, P= 0.5766) were not significantly different compared to the control group. In addition, the patients aged 70-79 years old demonstrated a significantly higher incidence of developing DED compared to those aged 50-59 years old (aHR: 1.885, 95% CI: 1.188-2.989, P= 0.0071). In conclusion, the use of ADT did not alter the incidence of subsequent DED.


Assuntos
Síndromes do Olho Seco , Neoplasias da Próstata , Idoso , Antagonistas de Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Androgênios , Estudos de Coortes , Síndromes do Olho Seco/induzido quimicamente , Síndromes do Olho Seco/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Int J Med Sci ; 19(7): 1163-1172, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35919822

RESUMO

Background: Migraine is deemed a neurovascular disorder and there is growing evidence on the increased risk of cardiovascular disease, especially ischemic stroke, in patients with migraine. However the risk of peripheral artery disease (PAD) and stroke in migraineurs and the association between migraineurs with or without aura is still under debate. Our study aimed to identify the risk of PAD and stroke in migraineurs with or without aura. Methods: This was a population-based cohort study utilizing Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID2010). Patients with coding of migraine from 2002 to 2011 were enrolled and those with established cardiovascular disease defined as myocardial infarction, stroke, PAD, venous thromboembolism, atrial fibrillation and heart failure diagnosis before the index date were excluded. Participants were categorized into migraine group, migraine without aura group, and migraine with aura group respectively. The subjects in the three groups were propensity score-matched randomly to their counterparts without migraine. The study outcome was PAD and stroke. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the hazard ratios with 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between migraine and the incident events of disease, after controlling for related variables. Results: The migraine, migraine without aura, and migraine with aura group included 5,173 patients, 942 patients and 479 patients respectively after propensity score-matching. The migraine group had an increased risk of PAD [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 1.93; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.45-2.57; p < 0.001] and stroke (aHR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.35-1.77; p < 0.001) compared to their non-migraine controls. Both the groups of migraine without aura and with aura had an increased risk of stroke (aHR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.11-2.00; p = 0.008; aHR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.10-2.43; p = 0.016). With regards to the outcome of PAD, the group of migraine with aura had a trend of an increased risk but did not reach statistical significance (aHR: 1.95, 95% CI: 0.86-4.40; p = 0.108). Conclusion: Migraineurs without established cardiovascular disease had a significantly increased risk of PAD and stroke, and the risk of stroke persists in migraineurs with or without aura, with an increased trend of PAD in migraineurs with aura. Our study result should remind clinical physicians of the risk of PAD in the future among migraineurs even without established cardiovascular disease currently, and screening for PAD and stroke may be needed in caring patients with migraine.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Enxaqueca com Aura , Enxaqueca sem Aura , Infarto do Miocárdio , Doença Arterial Periférica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Estudos de Coortes , Epilepsia/complicações , Humanos , Enxaqueca com Aura/complicações , Enxaqueca com Aura/epidemiologia , Enxaqueca sem Aura/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/complicações , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
18.
Longit Life Course Stud ; 13(3): 432-453, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35920645

RESUMO

Understanding of how socio-economic disadvantage experienced over the life course relates to mental health outcomes in young adulthood has been limited by a lack of long-term, prospective studies. Here we address this limitation by drawing on data from a large Australian population cohort study that has followed the development of more than 2,000 Australians (and their families) from infancy to young adulthood since 1983. Associations were examined between prospective assessments of socio-economic position (SEP) from 4-8 months to 27-28 years and mental health problems (depression, anxiety, stress) and competence (civic engagement, emotional maturity, secure intimate relationship) at 27-28 years. The odds of being socio-economically disadvantaged in young adulthood were elevated eight- to tenfold in those who had experienced disadvantage in the family of origin, compared with those who had not (OR 8.1, 95% CI 4.5-14.5 to 10.1, 95% CI 5.2-19.5). Only concurrent SEP was associated with young adult mental health problems, and this effect was limited to anxiety symptoms (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.9). In contrast, SEP had more pervasive impacts on young adult competence, particularly in the civic domain where effects were evident even from early infancy (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.26-0.81). Findings suggest that one potentially important mechanism through which disadvantage compromises mental health is through limiting the development and consolidation of key psychosocial competencies needed for health and well-being in adulthood.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(8): e2225345, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921108

RESUMO

Importance: Though adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET) has proven efficacy in treating hormone receptor-positive (HR-positive) breast cancer, patient adherence to AET and continuation of treatment as recommended by guidelines remain suboptimal, especially for low-income patients. Objective: To quantify timelines for initiating AET and assess their association with short- and long-term adherence and continuation of AET in low-income women with breast cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based retrospective cohort study included women younger than 65 years diagnosed with first primary HR-positive breast cancer between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2013, followed up for 5 years after the first use of AET through December 2018, and identified from the linked Missouri Cancer Registry and Medicaid claims data set. Exposures: Time to initiation (TTI) as days from the date of last treatment (surgery, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy) to the first date of AET prescription fill. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were adherence to AET as medication possession ratio of 80% or greater and continuation of AET as no gap in medication supply for at least 90 days. Odds ratios (ORs) of adherence and continuation over 1 to 5 years were estimated using logistic regression adjusted for demographic, clinical, and neighborhood variables. Analyses were performed between September 1, 2020, and May 31, 2022. Results: Among 1711 patients, median TTI was 53 (IQR, 26-117) days. A total of 1029 patients (60.1%) were aged 50 to 64 years old, 1270 (74.2%) were non-Hispanic White, and 1133 (66.2%) were unmarried. In the first year after initiation, 1317 (77.0%) were adherent and 1015 (59.3%) continued AET. Over the full 5 years, 376 (22.0%) were adherent and 409 (23.9%) continued AET. Longer TTI was significantly associated with poorer adherence at every year, with an OR of 0.97 (95% CI, 0.95-0.99) for 1-year adherence and an OR of 0.94 (95% CI, 0.90-0.97) for 5-year adherence per 1-month increase in TTI. Longer TTI was also associated with lower odds of short-term, but not long-term, continuation (OR, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.95-0.99] for 1-year continuation and 0.98 [95% CI, 0.96-0.99] for 2-year continuation). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, longer time to AET initiation was associated with lower odds of short-term and long-term adherence to AET in Medicaid-insured patients with breast cancer. Therefore, early interventions targeting treatment initiation timelines may positively impact adherence throughout the course of treatment and, therefore, outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , beta-Aminoetil Isotioureia/uso terapêutico
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(8): e2225098, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921110

RESUMO

Importance: Detection of prion proteins in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assays has transformed the diagnostic approach to sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), facilitating earlier and more complete recognition of affected patients. It is unclear how expanded recognition of affected patients may affect the diagnostic and prognostic relevance of clinical features and diagnostic tests historically associated with CJD. Objective: To evaluate clinical features and diagnostic testing in patients presenting with CJD and determine the associations of these features with prognosis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study incorporated data from electronic medical records of patients with CJD treated at Mayo Clinic Enterprise tertiary care centers in Rochester, Minnesota; Jacksonville, Florida; and Scottsdale, Arizona. Participants included patients with definite or probable CJD assessed from 2014 to 2021. Data were analyzed October 2021 to January 2022. Exposures: Dominant presentation, clinical features, and diagnostic tests associated with CJD. Main Outcomes and Measures: The outcomes of interest were the sensitivity and prognostic value of clinical features and accessible diagnostic tests at presentation with possible CJD. Results: A total of 115 patients were identified, including 40 patients (35%) with definite CJD. Mean (SD) age at symptom onset was 64.8 (9.4) years, and 68 patients were women (59%). The sensitivity of clinical markers (myoclonus) and tests historically considered in patients with suspected CJD was poor (eg, stereotyped electroencephalography anomalies: 17 of 105 patients [16%]; elevated CSF protein 14-3-3 levels: 54 of 90 patients [60%]). By comparison, biomarkers with good diagnostic sensitivity at presentation included RT-QuIC (66 of 71 patients [93%]), CSF total tau (T-tau) level greater than 1149 pg/mL (81 of 92 patients [88%]), and characteristic signal anomalies on magnetic resonance imaging (88 of 115 patients [77%]). Multivariable linear regression confirmed shorter survival in patients with myoclonus (difference, -125.9 [95% CI, -236.3 to -15.5] days; P = .03), visual or cerebellar signs (difference, -180.2 [95% CI, -282.2 to -78.2] days; P < .001), elevated CSF protein 14-3-3 levels (difference, -193 [95% CI, -304.9 to -82.9] days; P < .001), and elevated T-tau level (difference for every 1000 pg/mL elevation, -9.1 [95% CI, -17.7 to -1.0] days; P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that CSF RT-QuIC, elevated CSF T-tau level, and stereotyped magnetic resonance imaging anomalies were associated with the diagnosis of CJD, while other clinical findings (eg, myoclonus), stereotyped electroencephalography anomalies, and CSF protein 14-3-3 levels offered less diagnostic value. Visual or cerebellar features, myoclonus, and CSF 14-3-3 and T-tau levels may be associated with disease duration, justifying continued inclusion in the evaluation of patients suspected to have CJD.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Creutzfeldt-Jakob , Mioclonia , Proteínas 14-3-3/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Estudos de Coortes , Síndrome de Creutzfeldt-Jakob/diagnóstico , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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