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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 77, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gloriosa superba L. (Colchicaceae) is a high-value medicinal plant indigenous to Africa and Southeast Asia. Its therapeutic benefits are well-established in traditional medicines including Ayurveda. It is well known for its natural bioactive compound colchicine which exhibits a wide range of pharmacological activities i.e. rheumatism, gout and was also introduced into clinical practices. The increasing demand as well as its illegal harvesting has brought this valuable plant under threatened category. METHODS: The present investigation describes a microwave assisted extraction (MAE) strategy coupled with a densitometric-high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) methodology for the analysis of colchicine from 32 different populations of G. superba. A Box-Behnken statistical design (3 level factor) has been employed to optimize MAE, in which power of microwave, time of irradiation, aqueous ethanol and pH were used as independent variables whereas colchicine was used as the dependent variables. Chromatography was carried out on Silica gel 60 F254 TLC plates with toluene: methanol, 85:15 (v/v) being used as solvent system. Densitometric measurement was performed at λ=254 nm following post-derivatization (10% methanolic sulphuric acid). RESULTS: Optimal conditions for extraction to obtain the maximum colchicine yield was found to be 7.51 mg g- 1 which was very close to be predicted response 7.48 mg g- 1 by maintaining microwave power (460 W), irradiation time (6.4 min), aqueous ethanol-30, pH -3. Colchicine content ranged between 2.12-7.58 mg g- 1 among 32 G. superba populations in which only three chemotypes viz. GS- 1, GS- 3, and GS- 2 collected from West Bengal and Sikkim, respectively exhibited maximum yield of colchicine. CONCLUSION: Therefore, this newly developed optimized MAE coupled with HPTLC densitometry methodology not only quantifies colchicine in order to identify elite chemotypes of G. superba, but it also encourages in selecting high yielding populations of the plants for industrial use and economic boost for the farmers. This validated, simple and reproducible HPTLC protocol is being used for the first time to estimate colchicine from natural populations of G. superba obtained from 32 different geographical regions of India.


Assuntos
Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Colchicaceae/química , Colchicina/biossíntese , Micro-Ondas , Colchicina/análise , Colchicina/química , Geografia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Índia , Padrões de Referência , Solventes/química
2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 267: 113498, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091496

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hyperplasia, Tumors and cancers are various forms of proliferative disorders affecting humans. Surgery is the main treatment approach while other options are also associated with adverse effects. There is therefore a need for the development of better alternative therapy that is cost effective and readily available with little or no adverse effect. Some bioactive agents in medicinal plants exhibit their anti-proliferative potential by induction of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPT) opening. Gloriosa superba, a medicinal plant, is folklorically used in the treatment of tumors and cancers. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study therefore aimed at investigating the effect of ethanol leaf extract of Gloriosa superba (EEGS) on mPT and monosodium glutamate-induced proliferative disorder in some specific tissues using rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Isolated rat liver mitochondria were exposed to different concentrations (10, 30, 50, 70 and 90 µg/ml) of EEGS. The mPT pore opening, cytochrome c release, mitochondrial ATPase activity and lipid peroxidation were assessed spectrophotometrically. Caspases 9 and 3 activities were carried out using ELISA technique. Histological assessment of the liver, prostate and uterus of normal and monosodium glutamate (MSG)-treated rats were carried out. RESULTS: The results showed significant induction of mPT pore opening, release of cytochrome c, enhancement of mitochondrial ATPase activity, inhibition of lipid peroxidation and activation of caspases 9 and 3 activities by EEGS. The histological assessment revealed the presence of MSG-induced hepato-cellular damage, benign prostate hyperplasia and uterine hyperplasia which were ameliorated by EEGS co-administration. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that EEGS contains putative agents that can induce apoptosis via induction of mPT pore opening and as well protect against MSG-induced hepato-cellular damage and proliferative disorder in prostate and uterus.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Colchicaceae , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Próstata/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Prostáticas/prevenção & controle , Doenças Uterinas/prevenção & controle , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Colchicaceae/química , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Hiperplasia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Próstata/metabolismo , Próstata/patologia , Doenças Prostáticas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Prostáticas/metabolismo , Doenças Prostáticas/patologia , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais , Glutamato de Sódio , Doenças Uterinas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Uterinas/metabolismo , Doenças Uterinas/patologia , Útero/metabolismo , Útero/patologia
3.
ChemMedChem ; 16(4): 621-623, 2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166069

RESUMO

Colchicine is among the oldest plant natural products (NPs) still used for treating a broad spectrum of human diseases including gout and other articular inflammation disorders. This molecule is synthesized by several herbaceous species related to the Liliaceae family, but in very low quantities in whole plants. As for many pharmaceutical compounds from plants, the production of colchicine still depends on the natural resource from which it is extracted. From the past decade, metabolic engineering has progressively become a credible alternative for the cost-effective large-scale production of several valuable NPs. In the same vein, Nett and colleagues recently reported an unprecedented advance in the field for colchicine. By using a combination of transcriptomics, metabolomics and pathway reconstitution, Sattely's group deciphered a near-complete biosynthetic pathway to colchicine without prior knowledge of biosynthetic genes. Besides constituting a benchmark for the elucidation of natural product biosynthetic pathways, it opens unprecedented perspectives regarding metabolic engineering of colchicine biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , Colchicina/biossíntese , Produtos Biológicos/química , Vias Biossintéticas , Colchicaceae/química , Colchicaceae/metabolismo , Colchicina/química , Engenharia Metabólica , Conformação Molecular
4.
J Genet ; 992020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168792

RESUMO

Gloriosa superba is an economical source of pharmaceutical colchicine, which is a mitotic poison used to treat gout, cancer and inflammatory diseases. It is important to study the genetic variations in this plant, but the progress is impeded due to limited number of molecular markers. In this study, we developed the expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers from the transcriptome sequence of the leaf samples of three different ecotypes of G. superba. De novo assembly was performed on these sequencing data to generate a total of 65,579 unigenes and 38,200 coding sequences (CDSs). These CDSs were annotated using NCBI Nr protein database, gene ontology terms and KEGG pathways. Differential gene expression was studied to yield differences in these ecotypes at the molecular level. Finally, a total of 14,672 potential EST-SSRs were identified from these unigenes, among which the dinucleotide (5754, 39.22%) and trinucleotide (5421, 36.95%) repeats were most abundant types followed by mononucleotides (3213, 21.83%). The most frequent motifs were CT/GA (1392, 9.48%), AG/TC (1219, 8.31%), and GA/CT (1146, 7.82%) among the dinucleotide repeats and CCG/ CGG (1487, 10.13%), AGG/CCT (1421, 9.68%), AGC/CTG (697, 4.75%) and AAG/CTT (621, 4.23%) among the trinucleotide repeats. Polymorphism study using a random set of 20 newly developed EST-SSRs revealed polymorphic information content value ranging from 0 to 0.5926 with an average of 0.4021. The large-scale ESTs developed in the current study will be useful as a genomic resource for further investigation of the genetic variations in this species.


Assuntos
Colchicaceae/genética , Etiquetas de Sequências Expressas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Marcadores Genéticos , Repetições de Microssatélites , Transcriptoma , Colchicaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala
5.
Fitoterapia ; 146: 104706, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829012

RESUMO

Thirteen compounds were isolated from the methanolic extract of the leaves of Androcymbium palaestinum Baker (Colchicaceae). Of these, three were new, two were new natural products, and eight were known. The new isolated compounds were (+)-1-demethylandrocine (5), (-)-andropalaestine (8), and (+)-2-demethyl-ß-lumicolchicone (10), while the new natural products were (+)-O-methylkreysigine-N-oxide (3) and (+)-O,O-dimethylautumnaline (9). Moreover, two known compounds are reported for the first time from this species, specifically (-)-colchicine (11) and (-)-3-demethyldemecolcine (13). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated using a series of spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques, principally HRESIMS, 1D-NMR (1H and 13C NMR) and 2D-NMR (COSY, edited-HSQC, and HMBC). ECD spectroscopy was used for assigning the absolute configurations of compounds 3, 5, and 10. The cytotoxic activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated using the MDA-MB-435 (melanoma), MDA-MB-231 (breast), and OVCAR3 (ovary) cancer cell lines. Compound 11 was the most potent against all tested cell lines, with IC50 values of 12, 95 and 23 nM, respectively.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Colchicaceae/química , Isoquinolinas/farmacologia , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Isoquinolinas/isolamento & purificação , Jordânia , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química
6.
Nature ; 584(7819): 148-153, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699417

RESUMO

Few complete pathways have been established for the biosynthesis of medicinal compounds from plants. Accordingly, many plant-derived therapeutics are isolated directly from medicinal plants or plant cell culture1. A lead example is colchicine, a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatment for inflammatory disorders that is sourced from Colchicum and Gloriosa species2-5. Here we use a combination of transcriptomics, metabolic logic and pathway reconstitution to elucidate a near-complete biosynthetic pathway to colchicine without prior knowledge of biosynthetic genes, a sequenced genome or genetic tools in the native host. We uncovered eight genes from Gloriosa superba for the biosynthesis of N-formyldemecolcine, a colchicine precursor that contains the characteristic tropolone ring and pharmacophore of colchicine6. Notably, we identified a non-canonical cytochrome P450 that catalyses the remarkable ring expansion reaction that is required to produce the distinct carbon scaffold of colchicine. We further used the newly identified genes to engineer a biosynthetic pathway (comprising 16 enzymes in total) to N-formyldemecolcine in Nicotiana benthamiana starting from the amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine. This study establishes a metabolic route to tropolone-containing colchicine alkaloids and provides insights into the unique chemistry that plants use to generate complex, bioactive metabolites from simple amino acids.


Assuntos
Vias Biossintéticas , Colchicina/biossíntese , Engenharia Metabólica , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Colchicaceae/enzimologia , Colchicaceae/genética , Colchicaceae/metabolismo , Colchicina/química , Colchicina/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Metabolômica , Fenilalanina/metabolismo , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Tirosina/metabolismo
7.
J Nat Prod ; 83(5): 1440-1452, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372642

RESUMO

As part of a continuing research program aiming to identify chemical probes to interrogate Parkinson's disease (PD), we have investigated the Australian plants Gloriosa superba and Alangium villosum. The chemical investigations of G. superba resulted in the isolation of four new alkaloids, ß-lumicolchicosides A-C (1-3) and γ-lumicolchicoside A (4), together with four lumicolchicine derivatives (5-8) and six colchicine analogues (9-14) as known structures. The chemical investigations of A. villosum resulted in the isolation of four new benzoquinolizidine N-oxides, tubulosine Nß5-oxide (15), isotubulosine Nα5-oxide (16), 9-demethyltubulosine Nß5-oxide (17), and 9-demethylisotubulosine Nα5-oxide (18), together with five known benzoquinolizidine alkaloids (19-23). The chemical structures of the new compounds (1-4 and 15-18) were characterized unambiguously by extensive analysis of their NMR and MS data. Unbiased multidimensional profiling was used to investigate the phenotypic profiles of all of the metabolites. The results show that the lead probes have different effects on cellular organelles that are implicated in PD in patient-derived cells.


Assuntos
Alangiaceae/química , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Antiparkinsonianos/química , Antiparkinsonianos/farmacologia , Colchicaceae/química , Austrália , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas , Estrutura Molecular , Organelas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta/química
8.
Ann Bot ; 125(7): 1137-1149, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Complex modifications of angiosperm flowers often function for precise pollen placement on pollinators and to promote cross-pollination. We explore the functional significance of the unusually elaborate morphology of Gloriosa superba flowers, which are divided into one hermaphrodite meranthium and five male meranthia (functional pollination units of a single flower). METHODS: We used controlled pollination experiments, floral measurements, pollen load analyses and visitor observations in four populations of G. superba in South Africa to determine the breeding system, mechanism of pollination and role of flower in the promotion of cross-pollination. KEY RESULTS: We established that G. superba is self-compatible, but reliant on pollinators for seed production. Butterflies, in particular the pierid Eronia cleodora, were the primary pollinators (>90 % of visitors). Butterflies brush against the anthers and stigma during nectar feeding and pollen is carried on their ventral wing surfaces. Butterfly scales were positively correlated with the number of pollen grains on stigmas. We demonstrate that the styles were orientated towards clearings in the vegetation and we confirm that the highest proportion of initial visits was to hermaphrodite meranthia pointing towards clearings. CONCLUSIONS: The flower morphology of G. superba results in effective pollen transfer on the wings of butterfly visitors. The style-bearing hermaphrodite meranthium of the flowers orientates towards open spaces in the vegetation, thus increasing the probability that butterflies land first on the hermaphrodite meranthium. This novel aspect of flower orientation is interpreted as a mechanism that promotes cross-pollination.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Colchicaceae , Animais , Flores , Polinização , Reprodução , África do Sul
9.
New Phytol ; 228(5): 1662-1673, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460187

RESUMO

It has been suggested that flowers of some angiosperms mimic vertebrate faeces (dung) in order to exploit insect pollinators that utilize faeces as a source of food and/or oviposition sites. We investigated a potential case of mimicry in Wurmbea elatior (Colchicaceae), a lily that exhibits a faecal odour and pattern of dark spots on the corolla. We found that W. elatior is pollinated by a broad assemblage of coprophagous flies and is dependent on pollinator visits for seed production. The flowers emit volatiles that are characteristic of vertebrate faeces, and three of these compounds - skatole, indole, and an unidentified compound - elicited electrophysiological antennal responses from flies. Artificial flowers laced with indole and skatole or skatole alone attracted the same assemblage of flies as was recorded on flowers of W. elatior. Spotted artificial flowers attracted twice as many flies as did those lacking spots. Experimental addition of indole and skatole to flowers of Wurmbea kraussii, a congener with unscented flowers pollinated by hoverflies, induced a shift to an insect visitor assemblage dominated by coprophagous flies. This study clarifies the roles of volatile emissions (particularly skatole) and visual signals in floral dung mimicry.


Assuntos
Mimetismo Biológico , Colchicaceae , Magnoliopsida , Animais , Fezes , Feminino , Flores , Polinização
10.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 249: 112387, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756449

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Gloriosa superba L. (Colchicaceae) is used in the treatment of gout and rheumatism as a traditional medicine dates back to 1810. It has also been used as ethnobotanical and folklore medicine to induce abortion/vaginal poison. AIM OF STUDY: The present study was carried out to identify the chemical variation existing in the major alkaloid metabolite (colchicine) in a threatened species, Gloriosa superba L. and is correlated with invitro antigout activity. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The samples (tuber) were collected from their natural locations in Gangetic plain of India. HPLC-PDA quantification of colchicine was done on C18 column at 245 nm and invitro antigout activity was analyzed by inhibition of protein denaturation, DPPH and Hydroxyl radical scavenging assay. RESULTS: The colchicine content within the 29 samples ranges from 0.021 to 0.665% and the maximum contents was in NBG-10 from Kanth (U.P). Such high colchicine (0.665%) containing natural population of G. superba is reported for the first time in Indian population. Four chemotypes viz. NBG-10, NBG-120, NBG-126 and NBG-88 were selected on the basis of colchicine content for invitro antigout activity. NBG-10 was separated from rest of the population exhibiting the most promising activity with high colchicine content. CONCLUSION: The outcomes will be helpful in the identification of elite chemotype for herbal product development and quality check of metabolites in raw material. The study will also support the site-specific commercial cultivation to meet out the industrial demand as well as income generation to farmers.


Assuntos
Colchicaceae/química , Colchicina/isolamento & purificação , Supressores da Gota/isolamento & purificação , Gota/tratamento farmacológico , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Colchicina/farmacologia , Supressores da Gota/farmacologia , Técnicas In Vitro , Índia , Tubérculos
11.
Molecules ; 24(15)2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366123

RESUMO

Colchicine was extracted from Gloriosa superba seeds using the Super Critical Fluid (CO2) Extraction (SCFE) technology. The seeds were purified upto 99.82% using column chromatography. Colchicine affinity was further investigated for anticancer activity in six human cancer cell lines, i.e., A549, MCF-7, MDA-MB231, PANC-1, HCT116, and SiHa. Purified colchicine showed the least cell cytotoxicity and antiproliferation and caused no G2/M arrest at clinically acceptable concentrations. Mitotic arrest was observed in only A549 and MDA-MB231 cell lines at 60nM concentration. Our finding indicated the possible use of colchicine at a clinically acceptable dose and provided insight into the science behind microtubule destabilization. However, more studies need to be conducted beforethese findings could be established.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico/métodos , Colchicaceae/química , Colchicina/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Moduladores de Tubulina/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida , Colchicina/isolamento & purificação , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Moduladores de Tubulina/isolamento & purificação
12.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 57(11): 1080-1086, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888889

RESUMO

Introduction: Gloriosa superba is a flowering plant that contains colchicine. Deliberate self-poisoning with this plant in Sri Lanka is common and potentially fatal. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology, toxicokinetics and selected biomarkers in these patients. Materials and methods: The study consisted of three parts; epidemiologic and outcome data (n = 297), concentrations and toxicokinetics (n = 72), evaluation of urinary and serum biomarkers (n = 45). Plasma colchicine levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). We also measured serum biomarkers: creatinine (sCr), cystatin C (sCysC) and creatine kinase (CK), and urinary biomarkers: creatinine, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM - 1), clusterin, albumin, beta-2-microglobulin (ß2M), cystatin C, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), osteopontin (OPN) and trefoil factor 3 (TFF3). Results: The case fatality was 10% (29/297), and death was much more common in older patients. Median concentrations of colchicine were higher in those over 65 [median 4.7 ng/mL (IQR: 1.7-6.6) vs. 1.2 (IQR: 0.2-2.7) for those <35]. Admission colchicine concentrations were highly correlated with a fatal outcome [median 7.8 ng/ml (IQR: 5.8-18.7) vs 1.2 (0-2.3) in survivors]. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) for uncorrected admission colchicine level was highly predictive of a fatal outcome, and this improved even further with two methods we developed to correct for the expected change with time. The best method had an AUC-ROC of 0.98 (95%CI 0.94-1.00) in predicting death, with 100% sensitivity and 96% specificity at the best cut-point. Discussion: Fatal outcomes and high concentrations were both much more common in the elderly following poisoning with Gloriosa superba. Our findings are consistent with kinetic data after medicinal colchicine ingestion. Conclusions: Gloriosa superba self-poisoning causes significant mortality. High concentration of colchicine is highly predictive of a fatal outcome. Ingestion of Gloriosa superba caused only mild acute kidney injury (AKI) and rhabdomyolysis.


Assuntos
Colchicaceae , Colchicina/sangue , Intoxicação por Plantas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores Farmacológicos/sangue , Biomarcadores Farmacológicos/urina , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/sangue , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/urina , Colchicina/farmacocinética , Colchicina/envenenamento , Creatinina/sangue , Creatinina/urina , Feminino , Receptor Celular 1 do Vírus da Hepatite A/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Intoxicação por Plantas/mortalidade , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Toxicocinética , Adulto Jovem
13.
Crit Rev Biotechnol ; 38(1): 83-92, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28399663

RESUMO

The plant-based colchicine potentially affects major diseases such as cardiovascular events, cancers and gout. Gloriosa superba seeds are a conventional pharmaceutical source of colchicine. The demand for pharmaceutical-grade colchicine has increased due to the shortage of feasible upstream manufacturing, encompassing all stages in the processes of biosynthesis and biomanufacturing before the raw material is ready for purification. Consequently, developing sustainable upstream industrial colchicine biofactories is imperative, especially in curtailing drug costs. A new upstream bioprocess has been established, using specialized biorhizomes with comprehensive specific-enzymes that catalyze the construction of biogenic functionalized intermediates that are converted into colchicine. This review emphasizes a novel biorhizome approach for biomanufacturing pharmaceutical-grade natural colchicine, a biosynthetic pathway elucidation and its challenges to synthetic biotechnology.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Colchicaceae/metabolismo , Colchicina/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica , Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , Rizoma
14.
Am J Med Sci ; 354(4): 423-429, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29078848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colon cancer is a major health problem worldwide. Available treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy, radiation and anticancer drugs are limited due to stage of cancer, side effects and altered biodistribution. The use of peptides extracted from natural products has appeared as a potential therapy. Gloriosa superba is known to contain colchicine and other alkaloids with anticancer activity. However, these peptides contained within the extracts have not been studied. This study, therefore, focuses on an investigation of anti-colon cancer activity from a partially purified protein hydrolysate of G superba rhizome. METHODS: Dried G superba rhizome was extracted using 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate and digested with pepsin. The protein hydrolysates with molecular weight lesser than 3kDa were collected and subjected for cell viability assay. Then, the partial purification of the protein hydrolysate was performed using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Fractions containing anticancer peptides were investigated, and their effects on apoptosis and protein expression using apoptosis test and Western blot, respectively. RESULTS: Partially purified peptides of G superba rhizome demonstrated anticolon activity in SW620 cells by inducing apoptosis through upregulation of p53 and downregulation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). CONCLUSIONS: Consequently, G superba peptides showed high potential for further purification and development of anticolon therapeutics.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Colchicaceae/química , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Rizoma/química , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/biossíntese , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Chlorocebus aethiops , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Humanos , Peptídeos/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Células Vero
15.
J Nat Prod ; 80(4): 1187-1191, 2017 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28211687

RESUMO

Four new colchicinoids were isolated from the seeds of Gloriosa superba together with the known compounds colchicoside (4) and 3-de-O-methylcolchicine-3-O-ß-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-3-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside (6), by means of conventional column chromatography and LC-DAD-SPE-NMR. The new compounds were identified as N-deacetyl-N-formyl-3-de-O-methylcolchicine-3-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside (1), 3-de-O-methylcolchicine-3-O-ß-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-3-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside (2), N-deacetyl-N-formyl-3-de-O-methylcolchicine-3-O-ß-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-3-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside (3), and 3-de-O-methylcolchicine-3-O-ß-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-3-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside (5). The structure elucidation was performed by means of NMR (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC), HRESIMS/MS, and GCMS data analysis.


Assuntos
Colchicaceae/química , Colchicina/análogos & derivados , Colchicina/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Liliaceae/química , Saponinas/isolamento & purificação , Sementes/química , Colchicina/química , Glicosídeos/química , Índia , Estrutura Molecular , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Saponinas/química
16.
Microb Pathog ; 101: 1-11, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27765621

RESUMO

The green fabrication of metal nanoparticles using botanical extracts is gaining increasing research attention in nanotechnology, since it does not require high energy inputs or the production of highly toxic chemical byproducts. Here, silver (Ag), gold (Au) and their bimetallic (Ag/Au) nanoparticles (NPs) were green synthesized using the Gloriosa superba aqueous leaf extract. Metal NPs were studied by spectroscopic (UV-visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, XRD and EDX) and microscopic (AFM and TEM) analysis. AFM and TEM showed that Ag and Au NPs had triangular and spherical morphologies, with an average size of 20 nm. Bimetallic Ag/Au NPs showed spherical shapes with an average size of 10 nm. Ag and Ag/Au bimetallic NPs showed high antibacterial and antibiofilm activities towards Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Overall, the proposed synthesis route of Ag, Au and Ag/Au bimetallic NPs can be exploited by the pharmaceutical industry to develop drugs effective in the fight against microbic infections.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Colchicaceae/química , Ouro/metabolismo , Química Verde/métodos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Prata/metabolismo , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade a Antimicrobianos por Disco-Difusão , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Análise Espectral
17.
Immunol Invest ; 45(7): 603-18, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27603689

RESUMO

Glorisa superba (GS) is a medicinal plant that has been traditionally used in the treatment of joint pain and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The present study was carried out to investigate the antiarthritic activity of Glorisa superba hydroalcoholic extract (GSHE) in an adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) rat model. Arthritis was induced by sub-plantar administration of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) and GSHE (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg/day) was administered orally for 21 consecutive days. Joint diameter was measured on Days 0, 3, 7, 14, and 21. GSHE dose dependently attenuates the increased joint diameter and serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α level following induction of arthritis by adjuvant. This attenuation was well substantiated with reduced mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, and NF-κB. Additionally, GSHE inhibited phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathway as there was decreased protein expression of MAPK (p-p38/p38 and p-ERK/ERK p-JNK/JNK ratio). Moreover, GSHE in a dose-dependent fashion normalized the redox status of ankle joint (GSH, malonaldialdehyde [MDA], and NO levels and superoxide dismutase [SOD] and catalase [CAT] activities) and displayed decreased inflammatory cell infiltration in histopathological findings. Taken together, these findings indicate that GSHE protects against AIA by modulating MAPK.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Colchicaceae/imunologia , Articulações/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Articulações/patologia , Articulações/fisiologia , MAP Quinase Quinase 4/metabolismo , Masculino , Modelos Animais , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fosforilação Oxidativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
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