Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 381
Filtrar
1.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 872841, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35601103

RESUMO

The Trachypithecus leucocephalus (white-headed langur) is a highly endangered, karst-endemic primate species, inhabiting the karst limestone forest in Guangxi, Southwest China. How white-headed langurs adapted to karst limestone and special dietary remains unclear. It is the first time to study the correlation between the gut microbiome of primates and special dietary, and environment in Guangxi. In the study, 150 fecal samples are collected from nine primates in Guangxi, China. Metagenomic sequencing is used to analyze and compare the gut microbiome composition and diversity between white-headed langurs and other primates. Our results indicate that white-headed langurs has a higher diversity of microbiome than other primates, and the key microbiome are phylum Firmicutes, class Clostridia, family Lachnospiraceae, and genera Clostridiates and Ruminococcus, which are related to the digestion and degradation of cellulose. Ten genera are significantly more abundant in white-headed langurs and François' langur than in other primates, most of which are high-temperature microbiome. Functional analysis reveals that energy synthesis-related pathways and sugar metabolism-related pathways are less abundant in white-headed langurs and François' langur than in other primates. This phenomenon could be an adaptation mechanism of leaf-eating primates to low-energy diet. The gut microbiome of white-headed langurs is related to diet and karst limestone environment. This study could serve as a reference to design conservation breeding, manage conservation units, and determine conservation priorities.


Assuntos
Colobinae , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Carbonato de Cálcio , China , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Metagenoma
2.
Primates ; 63(3): 271-282, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35362914

RESUMO

The olive colobus (Procolobus verus) is the smallest extant colobine. Based on the axiom that folivory is associated with larger body mass, the olive colobus is expected to be less folivorous than its sister taxon Piliocolobus badius, but previous studies show that the opposite is true. Here we test the hypothesis that masticatory and ingestive effort in the olive colobus is greater due to allometric factors related to bite force scaling and throughput of ingested foods. We analyzed oral processing data collected on olive colobus in the Taï Forest, Ivory Coast, between May 2016 and May 2018. We compare these with previously published data on P. badius and Colobus polykomos from Taï. In terms of overall feeding effort, olive colobus invest more effort (i.e., chewing cycles) than the larger colobines. When contrasts are restricted to commonly consumed foods, this greater energetic investment is not consistently observed. Ingestion of young leaves is associated with a reduced number of masticatory cycles in all three colobine species. A slightly elevated average effort in the olive colobus during young leaf feeding suggests this food source is more challenging in smaller monkeys, but mature leaf processing effort is generally the same among Taï colobines. Thus, for olive colobus, leaf ductility may be more problematic than leaf toughness in terms of masticatory effort. While there may be an allometric cost to being a small colobine, food selectivity is an important mitigating factor.


Assuntos
Colobinae , Comportamento Alimentar , Animais , Colobus , Preferências Alimentares
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4780, 2022 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35314735

RESUMO

Maternal caretaking and transport of dead infants are widespread among nonhuman primates, having been reported in numerous species of monkeys and apes. By contrast, accounts of such behaviors toward dead juveniles are scarce. Here, we describe responses by the mother and other group members to the death of a juvenile in a wild, multi-level group of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana). Following the juvenile's fatal accident, his mother transported and cared for the corpse for four days. Immature monkeys belonging to the same one-male unit, and some individuals from other social units also showed interest in and tended the corpse. Comparisons of this case with those involving the deaths of infants and an adult female in the same population highlight possible effects of physiological, psychological and emotional factors in primate thanatological responses, and provide an additional perspective on the origin and evolution of compassionate acts.


Assuntos
Colobinae , Presbytini , Animais , Cadáver , China , Colobinae/fisiologia , Empatia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Materno , Mães , Comportamento Social
4.
J Hum Evol ; 163: 103123, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999336

RESUMO

Two similarly-sized colobine species living sympatrically in the Ivory Coast's Taï Forest that differ in both diet and oral processing behavior provide an opportunity to explore the strength of associations between feeding behavior and dental wear patterns. Here we test the hypothesis that vigorous processing of tough, hard Pentaclethra macrophylla pods by Colobus polykomos manifests in greater anterior tooth wear relative to that observed in Piliocolobus badius, which does not exploit this resource. We assessed levels of anterior tooth wear in a sample of 160 upper incisors and 131 lower incisors from 18 adult Colobus polykomos and 62 adult Piliocolobus badius naturally deceased individuals from Taï National Park. We operationalized tooth wear by dividing the area of exposed dentin by total occlusal crown area. To assess relative degrees of incisor wear, we regressed incisor wear against molar wear (sample = 105 upper molars, 135 lower molars) for the pooled Colobus polykomos and Piliocolobus badius wear data and compared the number of individuals from each species that fell above and below the pooled regression curve for each model using Chi-square tests of independence and odds ratios. Under our hypothesis, we would expect more Colobus polykomos points above the pooled regression curve than Piliocolobus badius, indicating higher incisor wear relative to molar wear in Colobus polykomos. Nine of sixteen interspecific comparisons demonstrated this predicted pattern; however, none of the Chi-square tests or odds ratios were significant, indicating no difference between Colobus polykomos and Piliocolobusbadius incisor wear relative to molar wear. The absence of significant differences in incisor wear relative to molar wear highlights the challenge of identifying idiosyncratic feeding behavior in fossil taxa and the necessity for continued exploration of the relationship between diet and macrowear.


Assuntos
Colobinae , Colobus , Animais , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos
5.
Integr Zool ; 17(1): 168-180, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751507

RESUMO

Multilevel society is one of the most complex social systems in natural ecosystems and is a typical feature among some primates. Given the potential connection between social behavior and gut microbiome composition, the multilevel social system could affect the primate gut microbiome. Here, based on long-term observation (e.g. social unit dynamics, transfer, and behavior), we investigated this potential integrating 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and behavior data in Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti), which possess a multilevel social group based on one male units (OMUs, each unit with several breeding females and their offspring) and all-male unit (AMU, several bachelor males residing together). We found that the mean unweighted Unifrac distance between adult males from different OMUs was significantly lower than that between adult females from different OMUs (paired Wilcoxon test, P = 0.007). There was no significant difference in the mean unweighted Unifrac distance between females within the same OMU or between females from different OMUs. These findings indicated the potential connection between the defense and invasion of social units and the gut microbiome community in wild Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys. We speculated that the resident males of OMUs displaying a significantly higher similarity in the gut microbial community than that of adult females in separate OMUs might be associated with the sexual differences in their interactions and from previously having cohabitated together in the AMU. Therefore, this study suggested that multilevel societies might have an effect on the gut microbial community in this wild nonhuman primate species.


Assuntos
Colobinae , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , China , Ecossistema , Feminino , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Comportamento Social
6.
J Genet ; 1002021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787114

RESUMO

The phylogenetic position of the capped and golden langur (CG) lineage has been ambiguous owing to the discordance between phylogenies from multiple molecular markers. Previous molecular studies have hypothesised that this discordance likely arises from either a hybridization event that took place between the Indian genus Semnopithecus and the Southeast Asian genus Trachypithecus or from incomplete lineage sorting (ILS). Distinguishing between hybridization and ILS is challenging and these processes can lead to serious difficulties in inferring phylogenies. In this study, we used genetic markers (nine nuclear and eight mitochondrial) in conjunction with coalescent based species tree approach and a test for hybridization using posterior predictive checking to better understand the evolutionary origin of the CG lineage. Both the concatenated nuclear as well as the mitochondrial dataset recovered congruent relationships where CG lineage was sister to Trachypithecus. However, nuclear species tree estimated using different multispecies coalescent methods suggested an opposite result, i.e. CG lineage was sister to Semnopithecus. Hybridization analysis strongly indicates gene flow between Semnopithecus and Trachypithecus that likely gave rise to the hybrid CG lineage. Further, the CG lineage is morphologically intermediate between Semnopithecus and Trachypithecus with respect to skull and body measurements. In light of the above evidences, we argue that the CG lineage needs to be elevated to a new genus of its own. Taxonomic and conservation implications of these results are also discussed.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Colobinae/genética , Animais , Colobinae/classificação , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Especiação Genética , Hibridização Genética , Masculino , Filogenia
7.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 259(12): 1466-1470, 2021 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757936

RESUMO

CASE DESCRIPTION: A 3-year-old 5-kg sexually intact female silvery langur housed in a single-species group at a zoological institution was presented because of acute trauma to the left forelimb. CLINICAL FINDINGS: Radiography of the left forelimb revealed a type II Monteggia fracture (proximal ulnar fracture with cranial displacement and caudal luxation of the radial head). During surgery, disruption of the annular ligament and rupture of the lateral collateral ligament were noted. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME: The langur underwent open reduction and internal fixation of the ulnar fracture and placement of a radioulnar positional screw, a prosthetic lateral collateral ligament, and a temporary hinged type 1A external skeletal fixator. The langur was returned to group housing, underwent behavioral training, and was periodically anesthetized for physical therapy sessions to improve range of motion of the left elbow joint. The external skeletal fixator was removed 4 weeks after surgery, and the radioulnar positional screw was removed 6 weeks after surgery. Three months after surgery, the range of motion of the langur's left elbow joint was considered normal, and the animal returned to normal activity. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: For the captive silvery langur of the present report, surgical stabilization and postoperative management of a type II Monteggia fracture of the left forelimb were successful with recovery of elbow joint function. These techniques may be applied to other captive nonhuman primates, including those that brachiate or are members of social species that must be housed with conspecifics in the postoperative period to maintain group dynamics.


Assuntos
Articulação do Cotovelo , Luxações Articulares , Fratura de Monteggia , Presbytini , Animais , Colobinae , Articulação do Cotovelo/lesões , Articulação do Cotovelo/cirurgia , Feminino , Luxações Articulares/cirurgia , Luxações Articulares/veterinária , Fratura de Monteggia/cirurgia , Fratura de Monteggia/veterinária , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21569, 2021 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732823

RESUMO

The mammalian gastrointestinal tract harbours a highly complex ecosystem composed of a variety of micro- (bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoans) and macro-organisms (helminths). Although most microbiota research focuses on the variation of single gut components, the crosstalk between components is still poorly characterized, especially in hosts living under natural conditions. We investigated the gut micro-biodiversity (bacteria, fungi and helminths) of 158 individuals of two wild non-human primates, the Udzungwa red colobus (Procolobus gordonorum) and the yellow baboon (Papio cynocephalus). These species have contrasting diets and lifestyles, but live sympatrically in both human-impacted and pristine forests in the Udzungwa Mountains of Tanzania. Using non-invasive faecal pellets, helminths were identified using standard microscopy while bacteria and fungi were characterized by sequencing the V1-V3 variable region of the 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and the ITS1-ITS2 fragment for fungi. Our results show that both diversity and composition of bacteria and fungi are associated with variation in helminth presence. Although interactions differed by habitat type, in both primates we found that Strongyloides was negatively associated and Trichuris was positively associated with bacterial and fungal richness. To our knowledge, this is one of the few studies demonstrating an interaction between helminth and gut microbiota communities in wild non-human primates.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Helmintos/fisiologia , Animais , Biodiversidade , Colobinae , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , DNA Intergênico , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Meio Ambiente , Fezes , Feminino , Florestas , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Geografia , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
J Med Primatol ; 50(6): 323-331, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Golden snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) is an endangered primate species, whose molecular material for conservation purposes has not yet been maintained. Although small-molecule compounds (SMCs) have been reported to improve induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), their efficiency in the interspecies-transferred nucleus is still unknown. METHODS: We thus used the fibroblasts from the golden snub-nosed monkey treated with SMC as donor cells, injected into the enucleated oocytes of goats, to test such efficiency. Gene expression profiles in the cell-constructed embryos with and without SMCs were compared by qPCR. RESULTS: The results show that cell morphology undergoes remarkable changes (volume is smaller than normal cells, and many black spots in the cytoplasm were found); pluripotent genes (Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog) significantly increased with SMC treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that SMCs alter the properties of donor cells and promote the expression of pluripotent genes in hybrid embryos.


Assuntos
Colobinae , Presbytini , Animais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Fibroblastos
10.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256548, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543310

RESUMO

Colobine monkeys are known for the anatomical complexity of their stomachs, making them distinct within the primate order. Amongst foregut fermenters, they appear peculiar because of the occurrence of two different stomach types, having either three ('tripartite') or four ('quadripartite', adding the praesaccus) chambers. The functional differences between tri and quadripartite stomachs largely remain to be explained. In this study, we aim to compare the apparent digestibility (aD) in tripartite and quadripartite colobines. Hence, we measured the aD in two colobine species, Nasalis larvatus (quadripartite) and Trachypithecus cristatus (tripartite), in two zoos. We also included existing colobine literature data on the aD and analysed whether the aD of fibre components is different between the stomach types to test the hypothesis of whether quadripartite colobines show higher aD of fibre components than tripartite colobines did. Our captive N. larvatus specimen had a more distinctively varying nutrient intake across seasons with a larger seasonal variation in aD than that of a pair of T. cristatus, which mostly consumed commercial foods with a lower proportion of browse and less seasonal variation. We observed higher aD of dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) in the N. larvatus specimen, suggesting a higher gut capacity of N. larvatus provided by the additional praesaccus forestomach chamber. Based on the analysis of literature data for aD, we also found that quadripartite species achieved higher fibre digestibility at similar dietary fibre levels compared with tripartite species, supporting the hypothesis that the additional gut capacity offered by the praesaccus facilitates a longer retention and hence more thorough microbial fermentation of plant fibre.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Colobinae/fisiologia , Dieta , Presbytini/fisiologia , Animais , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Fermentação/fisiologia , Humanos , Estômago/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal Superior
11.
Folia Primatol (Basel) ; 92(4): 191-202, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535600

RESUMO

Multilevel societies, consisting of multiple one-male multi-female units, are relatively rare among primates, but are more widespread in the odd-nosed colobines than other taxa. Multilevel societies are found particularly in snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus)and have been debated in studies of proboscis monkeys (Proboscis). While it has been suggested that douc langurs (Pygathrix) may also form multilevel societies, the limited data available make the details of their social organization unclear. We aimed to establish a more comprehensive picture of the social organization of red-shanked doucs (Pygathrix nemaeus) and to address the question of whether this species forms multilevel societies, specifically collections of multiple distinct one-male units hereafter termed "bands." We collected 259 h of behavioral data at Son Tra Nature Reserve in Vietnam from February 2010 to May 2011. The mean band size was approximately 18 individuals. Bands were comprised of approximately 2.7 units, and each unit contained approximately 6.5 individuals. Units had an average sex ratio of 1.0:1.6. We observed fission and fusion behaviors which were not correlated with phenological or weather measures. Activity budget data showed that fission and fusion behaviors between units were positively correlated with activity. Both vocalizations and vigilance increased when units engaged in fission. Based on this evidence, P. nemaeus at Son Tra Nature Reserve appear to engage in daily fission-fusion activity which does not vary between seasons. Additionally, our data suggest that these primates may form multilevel societies made up of distinct units. However, future data including proximity pattern analyses are necessary for confirmation.


Assuntos
Colobinae , Presbytini , Animais , China , Feminino , Masculino , Núcleo Familiar , Estações do Ano , Vietnã
12.
Primates ; 62(6): 1019-1029, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486090

RESUMO

Tourists are attracted to the Bukit Melawati Kuala Selangor (BMKS) of Peninsular Malaysia, a small hill park, for both its status as a historical site and the free-ranging silvered langurs (Trachypithecus cristatus) that come for provisioning. We assessed the population trends and group sizes of T. cristatus over 10 years in the BMKS and examined their ranging patterns. Comparisons of observed populations between 2005 (190 individuals) and 2017 (193 individuals) revealed the stable demography and group sizes of the six T. cristatus groups in the BMKS. Based on a total of 185 location points of the six groups in 2017, their mean ranging area was 3.6 ha with a range of 0.86-6.93 ha with extensive spatial overlap. We also found a significant positive relationship between the six groups' ranges and group sizes in 2017. Additionally, qualitative ecological comparisons with a previous study on T. cristatus in 1965 (before provisioning) suggest that the artificial food supply in the study area could modify the population dynamics and socioecology of T. cristatus. The modifications might alter their range size and territoriality in the BMKS. Overall, we found that provisioning had negative effects on the ecology of T. cristatus in the BMKS. Therefore, modifying management policies, such as banning feeding and implementing educational programs, may contribute to their proper conservation.


Assuntos
Colobinae , Animais , Malásia , Dinâmica Populacional
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15817, 2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349189

RESUMO

An increasing number of studies have found that the implementation of feeding sites for wildlife-related tourism can affect animal health, behaviour and reproduction. Feeding sites can favour high densities, home range overlap, greater sedentary behaviour and increased interspecific contacts, all of which might promote parasite transmission. In the Yunnan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti), human interventions via provisioning monkeys at specific feeding sites have led to the sub-structuring of a group into genetically differentiated sub-groups. The fed subgroup is located near human hamlets and interacts with domesticated animals. Using high-throughput sequencing, we investigated Entamoeba species diversity in a local host assemblage strongly influenced by provisioning for wildlife-related tourism. We identified 13 Entamoeba species or lineages in faeces of Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys, humans and domesticated animals (including pigs, cattle, and domestic chicken). In Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys, Entamoeba prevalence and OTU richness were higher in the fed than in the wild subgroup. Entamoeba polecki was found in monkeys, pigs and humans, suggesting that this parasite might circulates between the wild and domestic components of this local social-ecological system. The highest proportion of faeces positive for Entamoeba in monkeys geographically coincided with the presence of livestock and humans. These elements suggest that feeding sites might indirectly play a role on parasite transmission in the Yunnan snub-nosed monkey. The implementation of such sites should carefully consider the risk of creating hotspots of disease transmission, which should be prevented by maintaining a buffer zone between monkeys and livestock/humans. Regular screenings for pathogens in fed subgroup are necessary to monitor transmission risk in order to balance the economic development of human communities dependent on wildlife-related tourism, and the conservation of the endangered Yunnan snub-nosed monkey.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Colobinae/parasitologia , Ecossistema , Entamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Entamebíase/transmissão , Comportamento Alimentar , Turismo , Animais , Entamoeba/classificação , Entamoeba/genética , Entamebíase/parasitologia , Meio Ambiente , Filogenia
14.
Funct Integr Genomics ; 21(5-6): 543-555, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291340

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) represents a new direction to identify expression profiles and regulatory mechanisms in various organisms. Here, we report the first dataset of lncRNAs of the golden snub-nosed monkey (GSM), including 12,557 putative lncRNAs identified from seven organs. Compared with mRNA, GSM lncRNA had fewer exons and isoforms, and longer length. LncRNA showed more obvious tissue-specific expression than mRNA. However, for the top ten most abundant genes in each organ, mRNAs expression was more tissue-specific than lncRNAs. By identification of specifically expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs in each organ, it indicates that the expression of SEG-lncRNA (specifically expressed lncRNA) and SEG-mRNA (specifically expressed mRNA) had high correlation. In particular, combined our lncRNA and mRNA data, we identified 92 heart SEG-lncRNAs targeted ten mRNA genes in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway and upregulated the expression of these target genes such as ND4, ATP6, and ATP8. These may contribute to GSM adaption to its high-elevation environment. We also identified 171 liver SEG-lncRNAs, which targeted 27 genes associated with the metabolism of xenobiotics and leaded to high expression of these target genes in liver. These lncRNAs may play important roles in GSM adaptation to a folivory diet.


Assuntos
Colobinae/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética
15.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 176(4): 606-613, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289089

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: It seems to be commonly accepted that gestation length within the subfamily Colobinae lasts several weeks longer in the African tribe (Colobini) than in the Asian tribe (Presbytini) even though closely related taxa of similar body mass should have similar life histories. Suspecting problems with data provenance to cause the difference, we revisited the published records expecting similar gestation lengths in both tribes if based on vetted, accurate data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We compiled published gestation length data for Colobini and Presbytini, labeling them as "unspecified" (n = 16) if the primary reference could not be located, methods were not described, and/or conceptions, the beginning of gestation, were determined based on sporadic observations of mating. If conceptions were determined based on changing hormone levels or patterns of daily mating records, we labeled the data as "accurate" (n = 12). We analyzed the ln transformed data in a phylogenetic framework in relation to adult female body mass. RESULTS: In the unspecified dataset, gestation length in the two tribes overlapped extensively and did not differ significantly. However, in the accurate dataset, gestation length was significantly shorter in Colobini (not longer, as previously assumed). DISCUSSION: Data provenance had a strong impact on the comparison, reversing the relationship in gestation length in the two sister tribes. It remains to be determined why gestation lengths differ, whether, relative to the other primates, Colobini have a shortened gestation or Presbytini a lengthened gestation, and whether similar differences exist in other closely related taxa. Addressing these questions will require additional, broader, comparative analyses.


Assuntos
Colobinae , Presbytini , Animais , Feminino , Filogenia , Gravidez , Primatas , Reprodução
16.
Evolution ; 75(8): 1983-1997, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131927

RESUMO

Extant colobine monkeys are specialized leaf eaters. But during the late Miocene, western Eurasia was home to colobines that were less efficient at chewing leaves than they were at breaking seed shells. To understand the link between folivory and granivory in this lineage, the dietary niche of Mesopithecus delsoni and Mesopithecus pentelicus was investigated in southeastern Europe, where a major environmental change occurred during the late Miocene. We combined dental topographic estimates of chewing efficiency with dental microwear texture analysis of enamel wear facets. Mesopithecus delsoni was more efficient at chewing leaves than M. pentelicus, the dental topography of which matches an opportunistic seed eater. Concurrently, microwear complexity increases in M. pentelicus, especially in the northernmost localities corresponding to present-day Bulgaria. This is interpreted as a dietary shift toward hard foods such as seeds or tubers, which is consistent with the savanna and open mixed forest biomes that covered Bulgaria during the Tortonian. The fact that M. delsoni was better adapted to folivory and consumed a lower amount of hard foods than M. pentelicus suggests that colobines either adapted to folivory before their dispersal to Europe or evolved adaptations to leaf consumption in multiple occurrences.


Assuntos
Colobinae , Animais , Dieta , Europa (Continente) , Fósseis , Folhas de Planta
17.
J Hum Evol ; 156: 103012, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34004496

RESUMO

The postcranium of a large-bodied colobine monkey attributed to Paracolobus mutiwa from the site of Lomekwi, West Turkana, Kenya, is described. The partial skeleton (KNM-WT 16827) was recovered from locality LO 1, dated to 2.58-2.53 Ma, and preserves postcranial elements including fragments of scapula, humerus, proximal ulna, proximal radius, os coxae, proximal femur, astragalus, and calcaneus. KNM-WT 16827 was identified as P. mutiwa based on cranial similarities to the holotype female maxilla (KNM-ER 3843) and the holotype of Paracolobus chemeroni (KNM-BC 3), but is currently the only specimen of this taxon with associated cranial and postcranial elements. The skeleton is morphologically distinct from other large cercopithecid specimens from the Turkana Basin, including several assigned to Cercopithecoides williamsi, Cercopithecoides kimeui, Rhinocolobus turkanaensis, and Theropithecus oswaldi and differs from KNM-BC 3 in the larger cranium and shorter and more robust long bones. KNM-WT 16827 has forelimb and hindlimb features exhibiting a mixture of traits more associated with terrestrial locomotor behavior, including robust humeral deltoid tuberosity, retroflexed humeral medial epicondyle, deep ulnar trochlear notch, relatively short lower iliac height, prominent femoral greater trochanter, asymmetrical astragalar trochlea, and weak digit flexor grooves on the calcaneus. KNM-WT 16827 is also proportionally distinct from KNM-BC 3 and other Turkana Basin specimens attributed to large-bodied taxa such as C. williamsi, C. kimeui, R. turkanaensis, and T. oswaldi in having relatively shorter limbs and smaller tarsals. The traits shared with P. chemeroni and other extinct taxa are either typical for colobines, or likely due to P. mutiwa and P. chemeroni sharing adaptations for terrestrial locomotion relative to extant colobinans. Although a full cranial assessment is needed, based on its postcranial morphology KNM-WT 16827 is distinct from KNM-BC 3, C. williamsi, R. turkanaensis, Theropithecus, and extant colobines, warranting further analyses to better assess the taxonomic assignment of the specimen.


Assuntos
Colobinae/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis , Animais , Feminino , Quênia , Masculino , Esqueleto
18.
BMC Biol ; 19(1): 67, 2021 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trachypithecus leucocephalus, the white-headed langur, is a critically endangered primate that is endemic to the karst mountains in the southern Guangxi province of China. Studying the genomic and transcriptomic mechanisms underlying its local adaptation could help explain its persistence within a highly specialized ecological niche. RESULTS: In this study, we used PacBio sequencing and optical assembly and Hi-C analysis to create a high-quality de novo assembly of the T. leucocephalus genome. Annotation and functional enrichment revealed many genes involved in metabolism, transport, and homeostasis, and almost all of the positively selected genes were related to mineral ion binding. The transcriptomes of 12 tissues from three T. leucocephalus individuals showed that the great majority of genes involved in mineral absorption and calcium signaling were expressed, and their gene families were significantly expanded. For example, FTH1 primarily functions in iron storage and had 20 expanded copies. CONCLUSIONS: These results increase our understanding of the evolution of alkali tolerance and other traits necessary for the persistence of T. leucocephalus within an ecologically unique limestone karst environment.


Assuntos
Colobinae , Álcalis , Animais , China , Genoma , Presbytini , Transcriptoma
19.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 175(3): 559-576, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811653

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The function of the browridge in primates is a subject of enduring debate. Early studies argued for a role in resisting masticatory stresses, but recent studies have suggested sexual signaling as a biological role. We tested associations between circumorbital form, diet, oral processing, and social behavior in two species of colobus monkey-the king colobus (Colobus polykomos) and western red or bay colobus (Piliocolobus badius). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We quantified circumorbital size and dimorphism in a sample of 98 crania. Controlling for age and facial size, we tested whether variation in circumorbital morphology can be explained by variation in diet, oral processing behavior, masticatory muscle size, and mating system. To contextualize our results, we included a broader sample of facial dimorphism for 67 anthropoid species. RESULTS: Greater circumorbital thickness is unrelated to the stresses of food processing. King colobus engages in longer bouts of anterior tooth use, chews more per ingestive event, and processes a tougher diet, yet circumorbital thickness of C. polykomos is reduced compared to P. badius. Differences in circumorbital development do not vary with wear or facial size. Greater sexual dimorphism is present in P. badius; comparisons across anthropoids indicated patterns of circumorbital dimorphism were decoupled from overall size dimorphism. CONCLUSIONS: The expanded circumorbits of male red colobus monkeys evolved in response to intense male-male competition. This hypothesis is consistent with the pattern across anthropoid primates and highlights the underappreciated role of sexual selection in shaping the primate face.


Assuntos
Colobinae , Colobus , Animais , Masculino , Órbita , Primatas , Seleção Sexual
20.
Primates ; 62(3): 507-519, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33694095

RESUMO

Studies of positional behavior, gait, and habitat use are important for understanding how animals adapt to the challenges of their environment. In turn, this information is useful for advancing research on primate morphology, life history, and ecology. Data on eco-mechanical variables can be used to develop concrete conservation and management plans for understudied and threatened primate groups. The present study explores the positional behavior, gaits, and habitat use of male and female adult golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana), an endemic, endangered, and highly dimorphic species of central China. Using focal animal sampling and opportunistic videorecording in the Guanyinshan National Nature Reserve on the southern slopes of the Qinling Mountains, it was determined that gait parameters were largely the same between sexes. By contrast, habitat use and, to a lesser extent, positional behavior varied significantly between males and females. In general, males were more terrestrial than females. When they moved arboreally, males also used a greater proportion of horizontal and large substrates compared to females. Furthermore, males used more standing postures, forelimb suspensory positional behaviors, and quadrupedal walking. These data suggest that, when faced with the mechanical challenges of large body size, primates such as R. roxellana are more likely to respond by altering habitat use rather than positional behaviors or intrinsic kinematics and timing.


Assuntos
Colobinae , Presbytini , Animais , China , Ecossistema , Feminino , Marcha , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...