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1.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0267103, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35421188

RESUMO

Non-Human Primates (NHPs) harbor Cryptosporidium genotypes that can infect humans and vice versa. NHPs Chlorocebus aethiops and Colobus guereza and humans have overlapping territories in some regions of Ethiopia, which may increase the risk of zoonotic transmission of Cryptosporidium. This cross-sectional study examined the molecular prevalence and subtypes of Cryptosporidium spp. from 185 fecal samples of Chlorocebus aethiops and Colobus guereza in rural and urban areas in Ethiopia. Samples were tested for Cryptosporidium infection using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and subtypes were determined by sequencing a fragment of the 60-kDa glycoprotein gene (gp60). Of the 185 samples, fifty-one (27.56%) tested positive for Cryptosporidium infection. The species detected were C. parvum (n = 34), C. hominis (n = 12), and C. cuniculus (n = 3). Mixed infection with C. parvum and C. hominis were detected in 2 samples. Four C. hominis family subtypes (Ia, Ib, Id, and Ie) and one C. parvum family subtype (IIa) were identified. C. hominis IaA20 (n = 7) and C. parvum IIaA17G1R1 (n = 6) were the most prevalent subtypes detected. These results confirm that Chlorocebus aethiops and Colobus guereza can be infected with diverse C. parvum and C. hominis subtypes that can also potentially infect humans. Additional studies could help to understand the role of NHPs in the zoonotic transmission of Cryptosporidium in Ethiopia.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Colobus , Estudos Transversais , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Fezes , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Primatas
2.
Primates ; 63(3): 271-282, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35362914

RESUMO

The olive colobus (Procolobus verus) is the smallest extant colobine. Based on the axiom that folivory is associated with larger body mass, the olive colobus is expected to be less folivorous than its sister taxon Piliocolobus badius, but previous studies show that the opposite is true. Here we test the hypothesis that masticatory and ingestive effort in the olive colobus is greater due to allometric factors related to bite force scaling and throughput of ingested foods. We analyzed oral processing data collected on olive colobus in the Taï Forest, Ivory Coast, between May 2016 and May 2018. We compare these with previously published data on P. badius and Colobus polykomos from Taï. In terms of overall feeding effort, olive colobus invest more effort (i.e., chewing cycles) than the larger colobines. When contrasts are restricted to commonly consumed foods, this greater energetic investment is not consistently observed. Ingestion of young leaves is associated with a reduced number of masticatory cycles in all three colobine species. A slightly elevated average effort in the olive colobus during young leaf feeding suggests this food source is more challenging in smaller monkeys, but mature leaf processing effort is generally the same among Taï colobines. Thus, for olive colobus, leaf ductility may be more problematic than leaf toughness in terms of masticatory effort. While there may be an allometric cost to being a small colobine, food selectivity is an important mitigating factor.


Assuntos
Colobinae , Comportamento Alimentar , Animais , Colobus , Preferências Alimentares
3.
Am J Primatol ; 84(7): e23384, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35389522

RESUMO

Whether the Colobus angolensis that reside in the fragmented forests in eastern Kenya and Tanzania represent one subspecies or two has been debated for 50 years. Morphological and more recent genetic and ecological studies suggest that these populations represent two subspecies, C. a. palliatus and C. a. sharpei. However, their distribution of mitochondrial variation remains unresolved since the genetic study only characterized four populations at the range ends. Therefore, we characterized five populations in the area of the hypothesized subspecies divide. We identified eight new haplotypes which, combined with those previously identified, provided 26 haplotypes from nine populations for analysis. Haplotypes found south of the Rufiji River cluster together but separately from northern haplotypes. The largest sequence differences within cytochrome b occur between population pairs representing opposite sides of the river; their mean difference (1.5%) is more than that of other primate subspecies. Analysis of molecular variance attributes most of the variation to that north versus south of the river. These results support the previous subspecies distinction between C. a. palliatus (northern) and C. a. sharpei (southern), divided by the Rufiji River. The estimated time of the most recent common ancestor of all haplotypes indicates that the subspecies have been isolated from each other for approximately 550,000 years. The common ancestor of northern and southern haplogroups was 370,000 and 290,000 years ago, respectively. Nevertheless, the correlation between genetic and geographic distances suggests that isolation-by-distance contributed to population structuring. Significant variation among populations, with only three haplotypes shared between populations, also indicates that an extended period of isolation drove population distinctiveness. Considering these results, we evaluate hypotheses about the founding and differentiation of these subspecies during Pleistocene climatic fluctuations and propose a novel, more direct migration route from Central Africa to their current range navigating Lake Tanganyika, the central Tanzanian corridor, and the Rufiji River.


Assuntos
Colobus , Florestas , Animais , Colobus/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Variação Genética , Haplorrinos , Haplótipos , Quênia , Filogenia , Tanzânia
4.
J Hum Evol ; 163: 103123, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999336

RESUMO

Two similarly-sized colobine species living sympatrically in the Ivory Coast's Taï Forest that differ in both diet and oral processing behavior provide an opportunity to explore the strength of associations between feeding behavior and dental wear patterns. Here we test the hypothesis that vigorous processing of tough, hard Pentaclethra macrophylla pods by Colobus polykomos manifests in greater anterior tooth wear relative to that observed in Piliocolobus badius, which does not exploit this resource. We assessed levels of anterior tooth wear in a sample of 160 upper incisors and 131 lower incisors from 18 adult Colobus polykomos and 62 adult Piliocolobus badius naturally deceased individuals from Taï National Park. We operationalized tooth wear by dividing the area of exposed dentin by total occlusal crown area. To assess relative degrees of incisor wear, we regressed incisor wear against molar wear (sample = 105 upper molars, 135 lower molars) for the pooled Colobus polykomos and Piliocolobus badius wear data and compared the number of individuals from each species that fell above and below the pooled regression curve for each model using Chi-square tests of independence and odds ratios. Under our hypothesis, we would expect more Colobus polykomos points above the pooled regression curve than Piliocolobus badius, indicating higher incisor wear relative to molar wear in Colobus polykomos. Nine of sixteen interspecific comparisons demonstrated this predicted pattern; however, none of the Chi-square tests or odds ratios were significant, indicating no difference between Colobus polykomos and Piliocolobusbadius incisor wear relative to molar wear. The absence of significant differences in incisor wear relative to molar wear highlights the challenge of identifying idiosyncratic feeding behavior in fossil taxa and the necessity for continued exploration of the relationship between diet and macrowear.


Assuntos
Colobinae , Colobus , Animais , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos
5.
Primates ; 63(2): 151-160, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35038067

RESUMO

Given the current rate of habitat degradation and loss in the tropics, data on primate population densities and habitat use are indispensable for assessing conservation status and designing feasible management plans for primates. The Omo River guereza (Colobus guereza guereza) is a subspecies of the eastern black-and-white colobus monkey endemic to the western Rift Valley forests of Ethiopia. Their restricted distribution along with habitat loss and hunting within their range render them vulnerable to local extirpation and extinction. Furthermore, there are no published data available on the population status and habitat use patterns of the Omo River guereza. We therefore aimed to assess the population size of Omo River guerezas in different habitats (Erica-Juniperus mixed forest, mixed plantation forest, undisturbed natural forest, disturbed natural forest) using transect surveys at Wof-Washa Natural State Forest (WWNSF) in central Ethiopia. Our surveys covered a cumulative distance of 88.5 km in four different habitats, during which we recorded a total of 140 Omo River guereza groups. The average group density was 14.3 groups/km2, average individual density was 94.4 individuals/km2, and we estimated the total population size within WWNSF to be 2549 individuals. The sex ratio of the population was split evenly between males and females, though the age classes skewed strongly towards adults. Of the habitats surveyed, the highest group encounter rate (1.83 groups/km) occurred in the disturbed natural forest. However, the highest individual density (110.1 individuals/km2) was recorded in undisturbed natural forest. Still, sizable densities (group and individual) were recorded in three of the disturbed habitats (disturbed natural forest, mixed plantation forest, and to a lesser extent Erica-Juniperus mixed forest). Our study offers the first baseline information with which to compare future population density estimates and habitat use in the range of Omo River guerezas.


Assuntos
Colobus , Rios , Animais , Ecossistema , Etiópia , Feminino , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica
6.
Am J Primatol ; 84(2): e23355, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34927751

RESUMO

Cooperative home range defense is common in primates, despite a collective action problem that arises when group members benefit from winning the intergroup encounter regardless of whether they participate. The costs associated with this collective action problem may be mitigated by residing in small groups, residing with kin, or by forming strong bonds with group members. The potential to decouple the effects of these variables provided an opportunity to investigate which of these three variables best explains coparticipation in intergroup encounters among adult and subadult female colobus at Boabeng-Fiema, Ghana. Because males are often the main participants, we also investigated the relationship between female-female coparticipation and adult and subadult male participation. We collected intergroup behaviors from 94 adult and subadult individuals in eight groups during 1 year. We quantified female grooming bond strength and approach rates using focal samples. We classified female dyads as close kin (i.e., halfsiblings or more closely related) or nonkin based on partial pedigrees and genotypes generated from 17 STR loci. Female-female coparticipation was higher in dyads with stronger grooming bonds but was not associated with dyadic kinship, approach rate, or age class. Female coparticipation decreased with increasing female group size as expected if there is a collective action problem. Females coparticipated less in groups with more males and male intergroup aggression, possibly because there is less need for female-female cooperation if males are participating in the intergroup encounter. Females in smaller groups may not only benefit from increased female-female cooperation during intergroup encounters, they are also likely to reside with a higher-quality alpha male, both of which may increase the likelihood of winning intergroup encounters. There may be strong selection for facultative female dispersal in populations like the Boabeng-Fiema colobus in which small groups are associated with multiple benefits and cooperation is not affected by kinship.


Assuntos
Agressão , Colobus , Animais , Feminino , Genótipo , Asseio Animal , Comportamento de Retorno ao Território Vital , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Social
7.
Am J Primatol ; 83(10): e23327, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487561

RESUMO

Caring for infants involves lactation, protection, provisioning, and carrying-all energetically taxing states for primate mothers. Holding and carrying clinging infants often constrains mothers from moving and traveling, potentially reducing their food and energy intake; however, when separated from its mother an infant is at risk of predation. This separation therefore requires that mothers be vigilant, further deterring them from feeding. Allomaternal care (AMC) is hypothesized to allow mothers to safely detach from their infants to feed, permitting them to increase energy intake, which is particularly needed for lactation. We examined the nutritional benefits of AMC in black-and-white colobus monkeys (Colobus guereza) by estimating energy intake by lactating mothers during AMC versus non-AMC. We studied seven mother-infant dyads in three groups of C. guereza during six months in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Immature group members handled infants more often than adults, and females handled infants more often than males. An infant's distance to its mother and its nearest neighbor's age and sex best predicted the occurrence of AMC. Lactating mothers fed more often, fed and rested for longer durations, and consumed more metabolizable energy during AMC compared to when they were caring for their infants. These results demonstrate that AMC in C. guereza provides mothers with feeding opportunities that increase their energy intake.


Assuntos
Colobus , Lactação , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Uganda
8.
Zoo Biol ; 40(5): 436-443, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34032313

RESUMO

Young leaves are favored by mantled guereza (Colobus guereza) and the gastrointestinal tract of this species is well adapted to such a high fiber diet. Fresh maple leaves are often used in the diets for guereza in captivity but their use in winter feeding time is limited. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of additives on chemical composition and fermentation parameters of maple leaf silage, as well as inclusion of maple leaf silage in the diet for mantled guereza on feed and nutrient intake. Maple leaves were ensiled without additives (MLS), with a mixture of bacterial inoculants (MLS + BI) and with carrot additives (MLS + C). The chemical composition and fermentation parameters were determined in fresh and ensiled material. A group of seven mantled guerezas were fed a standard diet, and afterwards shifted to a diet with maple leaf silage (contained 20% of MLS; as fed). Each diet was fed for 7 days when the feed and nutrient intake were measured. The ensiling process did not change the concentration of most nutrients compared to the fresh material. The inclusion of leaf silage increased dry matter intake by guereza (125.3 vs. 163.3 g dry matter/day). Therefore, higher nutrient intake (crude protein, NDF, ADF) was observed when maple leaf silage was included in the diet. In conclusion, the ensiling process (even without additives) proved to be a good conservation method for maple leaves. Furthermore, inclusion of maple leaf silage in the winter diets for guereza, and possibly other folivorous primates, may increase dry matter and nutrients (particularly fiber) intake.


Assuntos
Acer , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Colobus , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Digestão , Fermentação , Lactação , Estado Nutricional , Folhas de Planta/química , Rúmen/química , Rúmen/metabolismo
9.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 175(3): 559-576, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811653

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The function of the browridge in primates is a subject of enduring debate. Early studies argued for a role in resisting masticatory stresses, but recent studies have suggested sexual signaling as a biological role. We tested associations between circumorbital form, diet, oral processing, and social behavior in two species of colobus monkey-the king colobus (Colobus polykomos) and western red or bay colobus (Piliocolobus badius). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We quantified circumorbital size and dimorphism in a sample of 98 crania. Controlling for age and facial size, we tested whether variation in circumorbital morphology can be explained by variation in diet, oral processing behavior, masticatory muscle size, and mating system. To contextualize our results, we included a broader sample of facial dimorphism for 67 anthropoid species. RESULTS: Greater circumorbital thickness is unrelated to the stresses of food processing. King colobus engages in longer bouts of anterior tooth use, chews more per ingestive event, and processes a tougher diet, yet circumorbital thickness of C. polykomos is reduced compared to P. badius. Differences in circumorbital development do not vary with wear or facial size. Greater sexual dimorphism is present in P. badius; comparisons across anthropoids indicated patterns of circumorbital dimorphism were decoupled from overall size dimorphism. CONCLUSIONS: The expanded circumorbits of male red colobus monkeys evolved in response to intense male-male competition. This hypothesis is consistent with the pattern across anthropoid primates and highlights the underappreciated role of sexual selection in shaping the primate face.


Assuntos
Colobinae , Colobus , Animais , Masculino , Órbita , Primatas , Seleção Sexual
10.
Primates ; 62(4): 637-646, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856586

RESUMO

Infant handling (holding or carrying) by adult males is rare in mammals; however, high levels have been reported in some primates. Though infant handling is a costly behaviour, there are many benefits that male handlers can accrue. Infant handling by males is most conspicuous in platyrrhines and tends to be uncommon in catarrhines. In the latter species, research on male-infant interactions has focused on low-cost behaviours, such as proximity and grooming. However, to better understand the evolution of infant handling by males, more data on its occurrence across the Primate order are essential, even in species where it is relatively uncommon. We compare the occurrence of infant handling by males in three closely related species of catarrhine: Colobus vellerosus, C. guereza, and C. angolensis ruwenzorii. We collected focal animal samples on infants to quantify infant handling rates and durations, and found that adult male C. a. ruwenzorii handled infants much more frequently and for much longer than males in the other two species. We discuss how C. a. ruwenzorii's unique social organization may explain high levels of infant handling by adult males in this species. More long-term and detailed comparisons of infant handling across species and populations will shed light on how sociality has shaped the evolution of this behaviour in the Primate order.


Assuntos
Colobus , Manobra Psicológica , Comportamento Social , Animais , Colobus/fisiologia , Colobus/psicologia , Feminino , Gana , Asseio Animal , Masculino , Uganda
11.
Zoo Biol ; 40(2): 115-123, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544921

RESUMO

Behavior is one of the most observable and informative indicators of animal welfare. This study used behavioral observation methodologies to evaluate the impact of an enclosure expansion on the activity budgets of a group of three eastern black-and-white colobus monkeys, Colobus guereza, housed at the Adelaide Zoo in South Australia. Instantaneous scan sampling methods were used to record the monkeys' behavior before and after they were given access to new aerial walkways at 2-min intervals between 8:30 a.m. and 4:30 p.m., over a total of 109 h (66 baseline hours, 43 post-expansion hours). Broad state behaviors (e.g., social, moving, resting, interacting, and feeding) were recorded and were used to generate activity budgets. Locomotion, feeding, and social behaviors increased following the addition of the aerial walkways, along with an overall increase in activity, attributed to the larger area and increased complexity of the environment. Results indicate that the addition of aerial walkways was effective for increasing the behavioral repertoire in colobus monkeys, aligning activity budgets more closely with their wild counterparts, and increasing active and affiliative behaviors.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Colobus/fisiologia , Abrigo para Animais , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Locomoção , Masculino , Comportamento Social
12.
Primates ; 62(1): 133-142, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32676864

RESUMO

Geophagy, the intentional consumption of soil, has been observed in humans and numerous other animal species. Geophagy has been posited to be adaptive, i.e., consumed soil protects against gastrointestinal distress and/or supplements micronutrients. We conducted a field experiment in the Budongo Forest, Uganda, to investigate geophagic behaviors, including soil preference, the quantity of soil eaten, and competition for access to preferred soils. We placed pairs of artificial tree stumps at two existing geophagy sites. One stump contained soil from the surrounding area, Sonso, that could supplement bioavailable iron. The other stump contained soil from a neighboring community, Waibira, that was richer in clay minerals, which could provide protection from plant secondary compounds. We monitored activity and engagement with the stumps for 10 days using camera traps. After 5 days, we reversed the type of soil that was in the stumps at both sites (i.e., a crossover design). Only Colobus guereza (black-and-white colobus monkeys) interacted with the stumps. These monkeys used visual and olfactory cues to select between the two soils and exclusively ate the clay-rich soil, consuming 9.67 kg of soil over 4.33 h. Our findings lend the greatest plausibility to the protection hypothesis. Additionally, monkeys competed for access to the stumps, and 13% of the videos captured aggression, including pushing, excluding, and chasing other individuals from the experimental stumps. Nine episodes of vigilance and flight behavior were also observed. Given that intentionally ingested soil is a valuable resource that may confer health benefits, geophagy sites should be conserved and protected.


Assuntos
Colobus/fisiologia , Pica , Solo/química , Agressão , Animais , Comportamento de Escolha , Argila/química , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Ferro/química , Masculino , Uganda
13.
Folia Primatol (Basel) ; 92(1): 58-69, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352563

RESUMO

Minerals are vital for many metabolic processes, and mineral deficiencies can adversely impact health and fitness. Mineral concentrations of food items are commonly reported in primate nutritional ecology studies and have been identified as important factors in primate food selection; however, very few studies have quantified daily mineral intake of free-ranging primates. We examined the concentration of 9 minerals (Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn) in foods consumed by Colobus angolensis palliatus inhabiting the Diani Forest of Kenya, and test whether individuals preferentially selected leaves in accordance with their mineral concentrations. We also examined the effects of sex, group, and season on daily mineral intake, quantifying both percentage-based and mass-based intakes. We then compared daily mineral intake values to published recommendations. Behavioral data and plant samples were collected from July 2014 to December 2015. We found that individuals preferred leaves with greater P content and lower Ca content. Daily mineral intake differed significantly between sexes and among groups and seasons. These results are interpretable via differences in time spent feeding and total energy intake. Intakes fell below percentage-based recommendations for P, Na, Fe, Cu, and Mn but met or exceeded mass-based recommendations for all minerals except Na. This discrepancy is likely explained by the conservative nature of percentage-based mineral recommendations and the difficulty of comparing and scaling mass-based mineral recommendations among primate species. Studies that quantify daily mineral intake are needed to better understand the role of minerals on dietary selection, more accurately identify potential mineral deficiencies, and provide more informed recommendations for captive primates.


Assuntos
Colobus , Dieta/veterinária , Minerais , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Quênia , Masculino , Folhas de Planta/química
14.
Folia Primatol (Basel) ; 92(1): 35-48, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130677

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Colobine monkeys are specialized folivores that use foregut fermentation to digest leaves. The slow process of fermentation forces them to spend a lot of time resting and to minimize their energy expenditure to subsist on a lower-quality diet. METHODS: We recorded the diet and activity budget of Colobus angolensis ruwenzorii, which form a three-tiered multi-level society, at Lake Nabugabo, Uganda, over 12 months using scan sampling on adults and subadults, to determine whether they utilize the energy minimization strategy typical of colobines. RESULTS: We found that the annual diet was primarily comprised of high-quality food resources (young leaves 65% and fruit 31%), and fruits were the only plant part the monkeysselected when available. Both the fruits and young leaves of some species were preferred food items in some months, and mature leaf consumption correlated negatively with preferred food availability. Mature leaves appear to be a fallback food for this population but are rarely relied upon (3%). The C. a. ruwenzoriiat Nabugabo spent less time resting (40%) and more time moving (25%) than is typical for other species of black-and-white colobus. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: The high-quality diet of this population appears to allow them to utilize an energy maximization strategy. Their reliance on food items that tend to be clumped in space and time likely explains the frequent fission-fusion behaviour that we observe between core units. Our findings demonstrate that the foraging strategies of colobines may be more flexible than was previously thought and illustrate how food availability and distribution can impact primate social organization.


Assuntos
Colobus/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Animais , Comportamento Apetitivo , Feminino , Frutas , Masculino , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta , Descanso/fisiologia , Uganda
15.
Zoo Biol ; 40(2): 124-134, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33238048

RESUMO

Melengestrol acetate (MGA) implants are progestin-based reversible contraceptives used to manage fertility in zoo populations. Although it is recommended that MGA implants should be replaced every 2 years, the duration of efficacy has not been systematically evaluated in most species. Anecdotal reports for Old World monkeys indicate that reproduction may be suppressed longer if the implant is not removed. This study uses Guereza colobus monkey (Colobus guereza) as a model Old World monkey species to examine the effects of MGA implants on reproductive potential. In particular, we investigate whether the probability of reproducing (pR) and rates of stillbirth differ among (1) non-implanted females, (2) females who have had MGA implants removed, and (3) females whose implants were left in past expiration. We found no significant difference in pR between non-implanted and implant-removed groups, but when implants were left in past expiration, the pR was significantly lower than in other groups. Both parity and age significantly impacted pR for the non-implanted group (i.e., younger females and those who were parous increased pR), but neither were significant factors for the implant-removed group. Stillbirth rates were significantly higher post-contraception as compared with pre-contraception. These results support similar analyses in other taxa that show a shorter time to reversal after MGA contraception when implants are removed, making this a good contraceptive option for females likely to receive a breeding recommendation, especially when a more predictable time to reversal is important.


Assuntos
Colobus/fisiologia , Anticoncepção/veterinária , Anticoncepcionais Femininos/administração & dosagem , Acetato de Melengestrol/administração & dosagem , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Implantes de Medicamento , Feminino , Gravidez , Natimorto/veterinária
16.
Genomics ; 112(6): 4924-4933, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898640

RESUMO

We report for the first time the fragmented mitochondrial (mt) genomes of two Pedicinus species: Pedicinus obtusus and Pedicinus badii, and compared them with the lice of humans and chimpanzees. Despite being congeneric, the two monkey lice are distinct from each other in mt karyotype. The variation in mt karyotype between the two Pedicinus lice is the most pronounced among the congeneric species of sucking lice observed to date and is attributable to the opposite directions between them in mt karyotype evolution. Two of the inferred ancestral mt minichromosomes of the higher primate lice merged as one in the macaque louse whereas one of the ancestral minichromosomes split into two in the colobus louse after these two species diverged from their most recent common ancestor. Our results showed that mt genome fragmentation was a two-way process in the higher primate lice, and minichromosome merger was more common than previously thought.


Assuntos
Anoplura/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Mitocondrial , Animais , Anoplura/classificação , Cromossomos de Insetos , Colobus , Feminino , Cariótipo , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Filogenia , RNA de Transferência de Leucina/química
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10917, 2020 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616818

RESUMO

In light of the current biodiversity crisis, investigating the human impact on non-human primate gut biology is important to understanding the ecological significance of gut community dynamics across changing habitats and its role in conservation. Using traditional coproscopic parasitological techniques, we compared the gastrointestinal protozoan and metazoan symbiont richness of two primates: the Udzungwa red colobus (Procolobus gordonorum) and the yellow baboon (Papio cynocephalus). These species live sympatrically in both protected and unprotected forests within the Udzungwa Mountains of Tanzania with distinct ecological adaptations and diets. Our results showed that terrestrial and omnivorous yellow baboons had 2 (95% CI 1.47-2.73) and 3.78 (2.62-5.46) times higher gut symbiont richness (both including and excluding rare protozoans) compared to the arboreal and leaf-eating Udzungwa red colobus in unprotected and protected forest, respectively. We also found a consistent depletion of symbiont richness in red colobus living in the unprotected forest fragment compared to the continuous protected forests [the latter having 1.97 times (95% CI 1.33-2.92) higher richness], but not in yellow baboons. Richness reduction was particularly evident in the Udzungwa red colobus monkeys, confirming the pattern we reported previously for gut bacterial communities. This study demonstrates the impact of human activities even on the microbiodiversity of the intestinal tract of this species. Against the background of rapid global change and habitat degradation, and given the health benefits of intact gut communities, the decrease in natural gut symbionts reported here is worrying. Further study of these communities should form an essential part of the conservation framework.


Assuntos
Amébidos , Colobus , Helmintos , Intestinos , Papio , Simbiose , Trichostomatida , Animais , Biodiversidade , Dieta , Ecossistema , Fezes , Florestas , Atividades Humanas , Especificidade da Espécie , Tanzânia
18.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2020: 5691324, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454802

RESUMO

Primates are the mammals of the order Primate that is characterized by advanced development of binocular vision and enlargement of the cerebral hemispheres. The aim of this study was to investigate the abundance, diversity, and distribution of primates on Welel Mountain. From August 2017 to February 2018, we collected data from different parts of Welel Mountain during wet and dry seasons of the year and analyzed them using SPSS version 20. We identified four primate species: Chlorocebus aethiops, Cercopithecus mitis, Papio anubis, and Colobus guereza. We conducted t-test analysis for abundance and distribution of primates in wet and dry season of the year, and the P value obtained was 0.20. The mean percentages of primates in forest, woodland, and shrubs were 43.16%, 32.26%, and 24.58%, respectively. Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H') value was higher in wet season than in dry season. The current study showed that the species are distributed more evenly in wet season than in dry season, and the number of young individuals is more than that of adults. This indicates that currently the status of primates population on Welel Mountain is good. Therefore, to keep the status of primates in the study area effective, wildlife management and conservation policy should be formulated.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Primatas/classificação , Animais , Cercopithecus , Chlorocebus aethiops , Colobus , Etiópia , Florestas , Estações do Ano
19.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(6): 2789-2796, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445593

RESUMO

Blastocystis sp. is a common enteric protist that colonizes humans and a wide range of animals. Although some studies have reported incidences of Blastocystis sp. in humans and animals in China, there are limited data available concerning the prevalence among people and non-human primates. The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence, subtype distribution and genetic characteristics of Blastocystis sp. in primates, and to investigate the potential for zoonotic transmission between human and non-human primates. A total of 185 faecal samples from non-human primates and 1,118 samples from human volunteers were collected in Hebei province. The overall prevalence of Blastocystis sp. in non-human primates was 32.97% (61/185) based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the barcode region of the SSU rRNA gene. Rates of prevalence were highest among Cercopithecus neglectus (100%, 5/5) and were absent in Cebus apella and Colobus guereza. The prevalence of Blastocystis sp. in humans was 34.88% (390/1,118), and the highest rates were 41.24% in children three years of age. There was a higher detection rate in humans with diarrhoea (53.68%). Five potentially zoonotic subtypes (ST1, ST2, ST3, ST5 and ST9) were identified; among these, ST1 and ST2 were more prevalent than others in non-human primates. Similarly, two subtypes (ST2 and ST5) were detected in humans and ST2 was also the most prevalent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the prevalence and subtype composition of Blastocystis sp. in Hebei province, and the first study concerning the relationship of Blastocystis sp. among primates in China. The findings of the study will improve our understanding of the genetic diversity and public health potential of Blastocystis sp. enteric infections in addition to providing a profile of subtype characteristics of Blastocystis sp. in primates of northern China.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis/veterinária , Blastocystis/genética , Variação Genética , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Adolescente , Animais , Blastocystis/classificação , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/parasitologia , Cercopithecus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Colobus , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Prevalência , Sapajus apella
20.
Am J Primatol ; 82(6): e23127, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249977

RESUMO

Primates display broad diversity in their social organization. The social groups of a few primate species are organized in a multilevel fashion, with large groups composed of multiple, core one-male units (OMUs). A characteristic of multilevel societies is that the higher levels can include hundreds of individuals. The Rwenzori black-and-white colobus (Colobus angolensis ruwenzorii) in the montane forests of Rwanda form supergroups and have been suspected to exhibit multilevel social organization. Here we present the first data on the "anatomy" of a supergroup numbering 500+ individuals. We identified subgroups within the supergroup based on progression data, extracting the social network structure from the time-stamped spatiotemporal distribution of passing individuals identified to age-sex class, and selecting an optimal time window for each network using the two-step approach developed by Uddin, Choudhury, Farhad, and Rahman (2017). We detail the existence of core units-multi-male units (MMUs) with a mean of 1.7 adult males and 3.1 adult females, as well as OMUs, all-female units and bachelor units composed of adult and sub-adult males. More than two-thirds of units are MMUs. These grouping patterns conform to a multilevel society with predominantly multi-male core units, a social system that has recently also been described for a population of the same taxon in Uganda. Individual identification will be required to corroborate these interpretations.


Assuntos
Colobus/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Ruanda , Análise Espaço-Temporal
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