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New Dir Stud Leadersh ; 2023(177): 67-73, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36945907


This article addresses the limits of social justice and leadership frameworks in addressing the concerns and desires of Indigenous Peoples and communities, particularly settler colonialism, sovereignty, and self-determination. I ask readers to contend with the following question: How can social justice and leadership models be more inclusive of Indigenous Peoples and communities?

Liderança , Justiça Social , Humanos , Povos Indígenas , Colonialismo
Soc Sci Med ; 321: 115787, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36871360


Platforms have been studied in terms of their impact on knowledge production and generation of social value. Little however is known about the significance of the knowledge they transfer to the recipient communities-often in faraway countries of the Global South-or its potential perceived colonizing effects. Our study explores the question around digital epistemic colonialism in the context of health platforms involved in knowledge transfer. Using a Foucauldian lens, we study digital colonialism as a phenomenon that emerges from platforms' underpinning power/knowledge relations. Drawing upon a longitudinal study of MedicineAfrica-a nonprofit platform intended to offer clinical education to healthcare workers and medical students in Somaliland-we discuss interview findings from two phases: (a) with Somaliland-based medical students who studied MedicineAfrica as part of their medical studies, and (b) with medical professionals who attended a MedicineAfrica Continuing Professional Development (CPD) course on Covid-19 treatment/prevention. Our study shows how the platform 'makes up' healthcare professionals by offering opportunities for learning and skill development whilst instilling work values and ethos resembling Western medical identities. The platform was also perceived to produce subtle colonizing effects as its content embodies knowledge that (a) presupposes medical infrastructures that are absent in the recipient country; (b) is presented in English instead of participants' mother tongue; and (c) neglects the idiosyncrasies of the local context. The platform sets its tutees in a colonial condition in which they cannot fully practice what they learn; they cannot entirely engage with the subject they learn, taught as it is in a different language, and they do not necessarily learn about the medical conditions and the patients they encounter. This alienation from their local context, embraced by the platform's underpinning power/knowledge relations, is at the heart of digital epistemic colonialism and comes together with the social value the platform generates.

COVID-19 , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Colonialismo , Tratamento Farmacológico da COVID-19 , Estudos Longitudinais
Glob Health Action ; 16(1): 2186575, 2023 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36940174


Despite taking on several forms throughout history such as colonial medicine, tropical medicine, and international health, the field of global health continues to uphold colonialist structures. History demonstrates that acts of colonialism inevitably lead to negative health outcomes. Colonial powers promoted medical advancements when diseases affected their own people, and only did so for locals when in the colonies' best interests. Numerous medical advancements in the United States also relied on the exploitation of vulnerable populations. This history is critical in evaluating the actions of the United States as a proclaimed leader in global health. A significant barrier to progress in the field of global health is that most leaders and leading institutions are located in high-income countries, thereby defining the global standard. This standard fails to meet the needs of most of the world. In times of crisis, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, colonial mentalities may be more evident. In fact, global health partnerships themselves are often ingrained in colonialism and may be counterproductive. Strategies for change have been called into question by the recent Black Lives Matter movement, particularly in evaluating the role that less privileged communities should have in their own fate. Globally, we can commit to evaluating our own biases and learning from one another.

COVID-19 , Humanos , Estados Unidos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Colonialismo , Renda
AMA J Ethics ; 25(2): E141-147, 2023 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36754077


Understanding papal documents from the 15th century and the nature and scope of their authority is important when working with Black, Indigenous, and people of color communities influenced by forces and structures of colonialism. Intergenerational trauma has deep roots, which require clinicians to understand historical and cultural context when working with vulnerable patients-in particular, young victims of child abuse and neglect.

Maus-Tratos Infantis , Índios Norte-Americanos , Criança , Humanos , Colonialismo , População Negra , Povos Indígenas
mSystems ; 8(1): e0087522, 2023 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36695590


Indigenous Peoples have a rich and long-standing connection with the environments that they descend from-a connection that has informed a deep and multifaceted understanding of the relationship between human well-being and the environment. Through cultural narratives and practices, much of this knowledge has endured despite the ongoing effects that colonization has had on many Indigenous peoples across the world. These narratives and practices, based on observation, experimentation, and practical application over many generations, have the potential to make compelling contributions to our understanding of the environmental microbiome and its relationship to health. Furthermore, the inclusion of Indigenous perspectives regarding the microbiome opens pathways to those who rarely engage with the field and its learnings. Within the scientific community, Indigenous perspectives have not always been acknowledged as valid contributions and are often seen as myth or lacking rigor. Thus, this paper aims to explore an Indigenous perspective of the microbiome as an unseen influence on health and well-being by framing the importance of the natural environment, Indigenous knowledge and leadership, and future research directions that can contribute to this domain. Although the Indigenous perspective in this article reflects the experiences, worldviews, and knowledge of two New Zealand Maori authors, it is hoped that the concepts discussed can relate to Indigenous peoples, and non-Indigenous advocates, globally.

Povos Indígenas , Conhecimento , Microbiota , Humanos , Pesquisa Empírica , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Colonialismo
J Anal Psychol ; 68(1): 27-47, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36546618


Using a duoethnological approach, supported by Jung's theory of archetypes and the layered objective psyche, the paper demonstrates how a duoethnological encounter can lead to new formulations of archetypal theory that challenge attitudes to diversity. The paper arises from the authors' desire to explore the shame and pain of colonialism, initially in a diversity workshop and later by way of duoethnological dialogue, using transcripts of recorded conversation between the authors as well as email exchange. Notions of a colonizer archetype and ethnic shadow are presented and elaborated. The six conceptualized themes in relation to the exploration of colonialism in the cultural layer of the objective psyche are as follows: (1) Belonging, (2) The layered psyche and our understanding of difference, (3) Facing the ethnic shadow, (4) The colonizing archetype in the consulting room, (5) The exploration of colonial structures in the psyche and, lastly, (6) Valuing emancipatory encounter. These themes support an argument for the praxis of societal and internal encounters in order to raise the colonizer archetype and split off shadow material to consciousness, in the hope of bringing about a personal and cultural shift away from oppression.

Utilisant une approche duoethnologique, soutenue par la théorie de Jung sur les archétypes et la psyché objective à plusieurs niveaux, l'article montre comment une rencontre duoethnologique peut aboutir à de nouvelles formulations de la théorie archétypale, qui mettent au défi les attitudes concernant la diversité. L'article provient du désir des auteurs d'explorer la honte et la souffrance du colonialisme, initialement dans le contexte d'un atelier sur la diversité et ensuite par le biais d'un dialogue duoethnologique. Ce dialogue utilise les transcriptions de conversations entre les auteurs ainsi que leurs échanges par mail. Les notions d'archétype du colonisateur et d'ombre ethnique sont exposées et détaillées. Les six thèmes conceptualisés en lien avec l'exploration du colonialisme dans la couche culturelle de la psyché objective sont les suivants: 1) l'appartenance; 2) la psyché à plusieurs niveaux et notre compréhension de la différence; 3) la confrontation avec l'ombre ethnique; 4) l'archétype colonisateur dans la salle de consultation; 5) l'examen des structures coloniales dans la psyché; 6) la valorisation de la rencontre émancipatrice. Ces thèmes soutiennent une argumentation pour la pratique de rencontres sociétales et internes afin de faire remonter à la conscience l'archétype colonisateur et le matériel clivé en lien avec l'ombre, dans l'espoir de promouvoir un changement personnel et culturel qui nous éloigne de l'oppression.

Utilizando un abordaje duo-etnográfico, y apoyándose en la teoría de Jung sobre los arquetipos y la dimensión de la psique objetiva, el presente ensayo demuestra como un encuentro duo-etnográfico puede conducir a una nueva formulación de la teoría arquetipal desafiando actitudesacerca de la diversidad. El trabajo emerge a partir del deseo de los autores de explorar la verguenza y el dolor del colonialismo, inicialmente en un taller de diversidad y posteriormente a través de un diálogo duo-etnográfico, utilizando transcripciones de conversaciones grabadas entre los autores así como de intercambios de correo electrónico. Se presentan y elaboran nociones acerca de un arquetipo colonizador y de una ética en sombra. Los seis temas conceptualizados en relación a la exploración del colonialismo en la dimensión cultural de la psique objetiva son los siguientes: (1) pertenencia; (2) la multidimensionalidad psíquica y nuestra comprensión de la diferencia; (3) confrontar una ética en sombra; (4) el arquetipo colonizador en el consultorio; (5) la exploración de estructuras coloniales en la psique; (6) valoración del encuentro emancipador. Estos temas ofrecen sustento a un argumento acerca de la práctica de encuentros interiores y sociales para hacer consciente el arquetipo colonizador y material inconsciente disociado, con la esperanza de posibilitar un cambio liberador de la opresión personal y cultural.

Colonialismo , Comunicação , Humanos
Health Hum Rights ; 24(2): 237-254, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36579312


In this paper, we examine the social construction of race as a determinant of health inequities in Palestine. Race myths about Palestinians conform to the "logic of elimination" integral to settler colonialism, predicated on the dispossession and removal of the Indigenous people from the land. Racialized legal categorizations of Palestinians are deployed in strategies of elimination that include policies and practices of extrajudicial killing, maiming, and excessive use of force; displacement, dispossession, isolation, and containment; and arbitrary detention and movement restrictions. Differential freedoms and entitlements derive from the deployment of racialized legal categorizations, regulating the material conditions of life and exposure to deliberate bodily harm that make up intermediary determinants of health. Our iterative model outlining the symbolic and systemic constitution of racialized health inequities in Palestine aims to support analysis of the root causes of human rights violations, essential to a human rights-based approach to health. Root-cause analysis confers appropriate recommendations for action. The radical dismantling of systematic racial oppression and domination in Palestine, tantamount to apartheid, is a precondition for realizing the right to health for all.

Árabes , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Colonialismo , Políticas , Povos Indígenas
Curr Opin Psychol ; 48: 101494, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36434967


This paper provides a review of issues impacting the mental health of two-spirit people. Research has documented high rates of poverty, disparities in rates of harassment and violence, PTSD, anxiety, depression, suicidality, and substance use. Most research has focused on mental health disparities, often framing two-spirit people as affected by intersecting oppressions (i.e., racism or colonialism intersecting with homophobia or transphobia). Most research to date has been qualitative or has drawn on small convenience samples, limiting the generalizability of findings. Large-scale quantitative data is needed to advance understanding of how mental health disparities emerge and how protective factors, such as cultural engagement, improve well-being.

Saúde Mental , Resolução de Problemas , Humanos , Ansiedade , Colonialismo , Ideação Suicida
Ann Glob Health ; 88(1): 99, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36380745


The current movement to 'decolonize' global health aims to both dismantle colonial frameworks that perpetuate inequity and racism, as well as to rebuild and uplift structures and systems that celebrate indigeneity. However, it is critical to recognize that teaching decoloniality within global health education is more than just the acknowledgement that there are key paradigms missing from current global health education. It is imperative to have a methodology to hold ourselves and our learners accountable to progress in practices and ideals that promote equity-based praxis. In this paper, we propose the creation of a tool to assess learner levels and their progression over time in both recognizing the impacts of colonialism and acting to transform their own global health praxis towards equity and decoloniality. We developed a model to illustrate an increasing scope and impact of decolonial and global health equity praxis. We hypothesize through this model that the way in which learners engage with power dynamics and structural advocacy at each level is essential to describing learner stages. Based on extensive literature review, existing curricular frameworks, global partner discussion(s), feedback on our pilot curriculum, and adaptation of philosophical theory, these learner milestones were conceptualized. We discuss the inherent challenges in assessment of the complex mix of knowledge, attitude and skills described in these milestones with the understanding that any such assessment would always be formative, as we all continue learning how to do better. We hope these milestones can be utilized to promote critical transformational change in the field of global health. This requires deep self-reflection and examination of existing structures of oppression followed by intentional reparative actions to embody decoloniality in our praxis and advocacy and reimagine global health based on equity and local leadership.

Colonialismo , Saúde Global , Humanos , Currículo , Aprendizagem , Educação em Saúde
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6945, 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36376333

CMAJ ; 194(34): E1194-E1197, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36265065
Uisahak ; 31(2): 429-466, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36192844


Previous studies on the history of Korean public health have shown that the public hygiene system in Korea under Japan's colonial rule relied heavily on the sanitary police, whose lack of expertise in hygiene reinforced the coercion and violence of the colonial public hygiene system. This view, however, has overlooked the existence and function of scientific knowledge, which underpinned the formulation and implementation of public hygiene policies. This paper explores the knowledge production in public hygiene by research institutes of Japan's colonial government in Korea, drawing on the Hygiene Laboratory as a case. The Hygiene Laboratory chiefly played three roles: first, providing advice on the sanitary police's crackdowns; second, quality inspection of food, beverage, and pharmaceuticals, and authorizing their production and distribution; third, investigating health resources such as conventional food ingredients, medicinal herbs, and drinking water to support the wartime public health policy of the colonial government in Korea. The third function in particular continued after the reorganization of the Hygiene Laboratory as the National Chemistry Laboratory in the postcolonial period. By tracing the Hygiene Laboratory's research activities, this paper highlights the complicated cooperation between expertise, practices, and institutions in the field of sanitation control in colonial Korea.

Água Potável , Ingredientes de Alimentos , Colonialismo , História do Século XX , Higiene , Preparações Farmacêuticas , República da Coreia
Nat Ecol Evol ; 6(11): 1597-1598, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36253545
Nat Ecol Evol ; 6(11): 1723-1732, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36253544


The redistribution of alien species across the globe accelerated with the start of European colonialism. European powers were responsible for the deliberate and accidental transportation, introduction and establishment of alien species throughout their occupied territories and the metropolitan state. Here, we show that these activities left a lasting imprint on the global distribution of alien plants. Specifically, we investigated how four European empires (British, Spanish, Portuguese and Dutch) structured current alien floras worldwide. We found that compositional similarity is higher than expected among regions that once were occupied by the same empire. Further, we provide strong evidence that floristic similarity between regions occupied by the same empire increases with the time a region was occupied. Network analysis suggests that historically more economically or strategically important regions have more similar alien floras across regions occupied by an empire. Overall, we find that European colonial history is still detectable in alien floras worldwide.

Colonialismo , Espécies Introduzidas , Plantas