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1.
Animal ; 18(6): 101157, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744228

RESUMO

The comb is an ornament involved in signalling condition in domestic fowl. We hypothesised that comb size, comb shape complexity (i.e., rugosity, the comb perimeter jaggedness), and comb laterality of laying hens would be influenced by the degree of environmental enrichment experienced during juvenile development in the form of resource choice. We conducted a 2 × 2 factorial crossover experiment with pullets reared in pens containing four perches of equal length and four litter areas of equal size. Pullets were exposed to a single choice vs multiple choices of perch and litter types (i.e., all the same vs all different) during Weeks 1-4 (Period 1) and/or Weeks 5-15 (Period 2) of rearing (n = 4 pens/treatment combination) prior to transfer to standard adult laying pens for Weeks 16-27 (Period 3). In Week 27, combs were photographed, and comb laterality (hanging on left or right side) was noted. Using a custom-made image analysis programme, we captured comb area (mm2), perimeter length (mm), and rugosity ((perimeter length - horizontal length) / horizontal length) from comb photographs of 6-7 randomly selected hens/pen. We predicted that hens reared in the multi-choice environment during Periods 1 and 2 would have larger, more complex, and left-side-biased combs than those in the other treatment groups, reflecting lower allostatic load. The predicted comb side bias was based on a possible bias in head posture/movements associated with greater right eye/ear use and left-brain hemispheric dominance. Contrary to our predictions, we detected an overall right-side bias in comb laterality, and no associations between resource choice treatment in Period 1 or Period 2 and comb area, perimeter length, rugosity, or laterality of the adult hens. Thus, variation in allostatic load resulting from the rearing treatments was insufficient to modify the trajectory of comb morphological development, possibly due to a ceiling effect when comparing environmental treatments on the positive end of the welfare spectrum. We found that left-lopping combs had shorter perimeters than right-lopping combs. However, among hens with left-lopping combs, those with larger combs were heavier and had less feather damage, while among hens with right-lopping combs, those with longer-perimeter combs were heavier and tended to have less comb damage. In conclusion, comb characteristics were related to physical condition at the individual level but did not serve as sensitive integrated indicators of hen welfare in response to basic vs enhanced resource choice during rearing.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Crista e Barbelas/anatomia & histologia , Crista e Barbelas/fisiologia , Abrigo para Animais , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Meio Ambiente , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Estudos Cross-Over
2.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 14(3)2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38096217

RESUMO

The genus Acacia is a large group of woody legumes containing an enormous amount of morphological diversity in leaf shape. This diversity is at least in part the result of an innovation in leaf development where many Acacia species are capable of developing leaves of both bifacial and unifacial morphologies. While not unique in the plant kingdom, unifaciality is most commonly associated with monocots, and its developmental genetic mechanisms have yet to be explored beyond this group. In this study, we identify an accession of Acacia crassicarpa with high regeneration rates and isolate a clone for genome sequencing. We generate a chromosome-level assembly of this readily transformable clone, and using comparative analyses, confirm a whole-genome duplication unique to Caesalpinoid legumes. This resource will be important for future work examining genome evolution in legumes and the unique developmental genetic mechanisms underlying unifacial morphogenesis in Acacia.


Assuntos
Acacia , Animais , Acacia/genética , Crista e Barbelas , Sequência de Bases , Cromossomos
3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 30(52): 113055-113067, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37848795

RESUMO

Black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.) barks are residues produced by tannin industries in huge quantities, which are normally discharged on environmental or used for energy production. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the use of black wattle bark residues as a raw material on obtaining of a rich-cellulose material by alkaline (MET1), acetosolv (MET2), and organosolv (MET3) procedures. The results obtained indicated that the alkaline methodology, followed by a bleaching step (MET1), promoted klason lignin and hemicellulose removals more efficiently. It was possible to observe that better results were achieved using NaOH concentration of 6% (wt%), at 65 °C for 2.5 h, presenting a yield of 63.24 ± 1.25%, and a reduction on klason lignin content of almost 90.45%. Regarding the bleaching step, it was possible to obtain a material free of non-cellulosic compounds with a yield of 78.28 ± 1.48%. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated the removal of lignin and hemicellulose as well as an increase in cellulose degradation temperature, due to changes in crystalline phases. According to X-ray diffraction (XRD), the procedures employed have led to an increase in crystallinity from 66.27 to 91.78% due to the removal of non-cellulosic compounds. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed morphological alterations in accordance with the removal of non-cellulosic compounds.


Assuntos
Acacia , Celulose , Animais , Celulose/química , Lignina/metabolismo , Acacia/química , Casca de Planta/química , Crista e Barbelas/metabolismo
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 30(28): 71614-71627, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34145546

RESUMO

Considering the serious health effects of fluoride contamination, an environment friendly bioadsorbent was derived from wattle humus for fluoride removal by conventional thermal activation process. Analytical characterizations revealed that heterogeneous morphological textured wattle humus enabled remarkable adsorption capacity. XPS analysis substantiated that fluoride had been successfully adsorbed on to the carbonized wattle humus surface through chemisorption. Fluoride adsorption efficiency was systematically rationalized via batch adsorption studies. Experiments were performed at different initial fluoride concentration and scrutinized the impact of contact time (10-120 min), adsorbent dosage (0.5-2.5 g), pH (2.0-9.0), and interfering co-existing ions (SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, and HCO3-) on fluoride removal. Even at different adsorbate dosage (2-10 mg/L), 98% fluoride removal efficiency was achieved under pH > 6. The competitive anions do not interfere the wattle humus fluoride adsorption capacity. Moreover, the adsorption isotherms and kinetics studies inferred that monolayer and multilayer adsorption behavior by wattle humus leads to noticeable fluoride adsorption. Adsorbent regeneration test affirms that regenerated adsorbent found higher (>95%) fluoride removal efficiency even at five recycle runs.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Animais , Fluoretos/análise , Adsorção , Crista e Barbelas/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Ânions/química , Cinética , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
5.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 227: 58-70, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36529224

RESUMO

This work proposed new black-wattle tannin/kraft lignin H3PO4-activated carbon xerogels as sustainable and efficient adsorbents. The precursors were chosen based on their eco-friendly and cost-effective nature, aiming to achieve adsorbents with high adsorption capacities. Carbon xerogels were synthesized through polycondensation with formaldehyde and alkaline catalyst in a simple one-pot procedure. Activation was performed using H3PO4 in a tubular furnace (500 °C), under a nitrogen atmosphere. Results show that the inclusion of the kraft lignin led to changes in the morphology of the materials, facilitating the development of their porous structure and increasing specific surface area and pore volume. The best adsorbent (XLT 50 %) was synthesized using a 1:1 tannin/kraft lignin mass ratio. This material presented an adsorption capacity of nearly 1150 mg g-1 of methylene blue (pH = 5 and T = 298 K), which was linked to its high specific surface area of 1348 m2 g-1. The adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, whereas the adsorption isotherms were best fitted by the Sips model. The XLT 50 % presented good reusability properties, maintaining its adsorption capacity for 3 cycles. Finally, the XLT 50 % presented good adsorptive properties toward other pollutants (methyl orange, 4-chlorophenol, and hexavalent chromium), indicating its versatility for adsorption processes.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Taninos , Crista e Barbelas , Formaldeído , Lignina/química , Adsorção , Cinética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
6.
Anim Genet ; 53(5): 700-705, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35748186

RESUMO

In domestic goats, wattles often appear in even numbers, mostly on the neck and a few under the ear. Goat wattle is composed of ectopic cartilage tissue covered by skin and was reported as a dominant inheritance. Thirty-eight goats from two Southwest Chinese breeds were studied to elucidate the genetic basis of wattle phenotype in goat. Their genomes were sequenced for wide-genome selective sweep analysis (WGSA) and a genome-wide association study (GWAS). The WGSA results revealed 500 candidate genes identified by fixation index and π ratio and 261 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways enriched with 195 genes and 38 significantly enriched KEGG items. In particular, three chondrogenesis-related pathways (Wnt, Hippo and MAPK signaling pathways) were found. Among the 500 genes, 474 were enriched to 2855 Gene Ontology items, and four (BMP2, BMP4, RARA and MSX1) were annotated in the regulation and development of chondrogenesis. Four chondrogenesis-related genes (GREM1, NEDD4, ATG7 and ITGA1) were identified from 519 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with a GWAS above the threshold. Six and 11 SNPs on chromosome 10 are located on GREM1 and NEDD4 respectively, and the highest numbers of SNPs on chromosomes 20 and 22 are located on ITGA1 and ATG7 respectively. All of these genes are related to cartilage development. This study identified a series of genes related to chondroplasia by GWAS and WGSA and presented the possibility that wattle inheritance may be influenced by multiple genes. This work provides a new theoretical understanding of the hereditary basis of wattle phenotype.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Cabras , Animais , Crista e Barbelas , Genoma , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Cabras/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
7.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 24(7): 1297-1305, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35344631

RESUMO

Two of the most important processes threatening vulnerable plant species are competitive displacement by invasive alien species and water stress due to global warming. Quercus lusitanica, an oak shrub species with remarkable conservation interest, could be threatened by the expansion of the invasive alien tree Paraserianthes lophantha. However, it is unclear how competition would interact with predicted reductions in water availability due to global climate change. We set up a full factorial experiment to examine the direct interspecific competition between P. lophantha and Q. lusitanica seedlings under control and water-limited conditions. We measured seed biomass, germination, seedling emergence, leaf relative growth rate, biomass, root/shoot ratio, predawn shoot water potential and mortality to assess the individual and combined effects of water stress and interspecific competition on both species. Our results indicate that, at seedling stage, both species experience competitive effects and responses. However, water stress exhibited a stronger overall effect than competition. Although both species responded strongly to water stress, the invasive P. lophantha exhibited significantly less drought stress than the native Q. lusitanica based on predawn shoot water potential measurements. The findings of this study suggest that the competition with invasive P. lophantha in the short term must not be dismissed, but that the long-term conservation of the native shrub Q. lusitanica could be compromised by increased drought as a result of global change. Our work sheds light on the combined effects of biological invasions and climate change that can negatively affect vulnerable plant species.


Assuntos
Quercus , Plântula , Animais , Plântula/fisiologia , Secas , Quercus/fisiologia , Crista e Barbelas , Desidratação , Espécies Introduzidas
8.
Avian Dis ; 65(2): 310-320, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412463

RESUMO

In April and November of 2018, multiple commercial laying hen flocks within the same company presented with a sharp increase in mortality and drop in egg production that persisted for several days. These flocks showed striking necropsy lesions consistent with systemic infection and responded to antimicrobial treatment in the feed. Staphylococcus aureus (SA) was the most frequently isolated organism from multiple tissues including comb and wattle lesions, lungs, liver, ovary, spleen, and bone marrow. Given such an uncommon presentation of SA, which is known as a secondary opportunistic pathogen, a challenge study was conducted to evaluate its role in these disease outbreaks. In the present study, laying hens of two ages (22 and 96 wk) were inoculated with SA via three routes: oral gavage, subcutaneous (SC) injection, and intravenous (IV) injection. Both young and old hens in the IV group showed a significant increase in body temperature and drop in body weight; however, the clinical signs observed in the naturally occurring outbreaks were not present. SA was reisolated at multiple time points postchallenge from all challenge groups except the negative control group. While the SC group showed localized necrosis at the injection site, microscopic changes were different from changes observed in birds from the natural outbreaks. Despite observed initial differences in route and age, the SA challenge strain was not capable of reproducing the disease on its own. The results of this study indicate that SA may have played a role in the increased mortality, clinical signs, and necropsy lesions reported with the naturally occurring outbreaks. However, SA should still be considered as a secondary opportunistic pathogen. Other factors that could have caused the initial insult are stress, immunosuppression, or other primary infectious agents. The results of this study may aid veterinary diagnosticians, clinicians, and all poultry professionals to include SA in their differentials list as a secondary opportunistic pathogen in similar cases. This is an uncommon presentation and further field observations and clinical studies are needed to better elucidate the pathogenesis of this disease, which will in turn help to prevent future outbreaks.


Reporte de caso­Comparación de la septicemia por presentación natura o por infección natural por Staphylococcus aureus en gallinas de postura de dos grupos diferentes de edades. En abril y noviembre del 2018, múltiples parvadas comerciales de gallinas de postura dentro de la misma empresa presentaron un marcado aumento en la mortalidad y una caída en la producción de huevo que persistió durante varios días. Estas parvadas mostraron marcadas lesiones a la necropsia compatibles con una infección sistémica y respondieron al tratamiento antimicrobiano en el alimento. El organismo que se aisló con mayor frecuencia de múltiples tejidos fue Staphylococcus aureus (SA), incluyendo lesiones de cresta y barbillas, pulmones, hígado, ovario, bazo y médula ósea. Dada una presentación tan poco común de S. aureus, que se conoce como un patógeno oportunista secundario, se realizó un estudio de desafío para evaluar su papel en estos brotes de enfermedades. En el presente estudio, se inocularon con Staphylococcus aureus gallinas de postura de dos edades (22 y 96 semanas) a través de tres vías: sonda oral, inyección subcutánea (SC) e inyección intravenosa (IV). Tanto las gallinas jóvenes como las de mayor edad del grupo IV mostraron un aumento significativo de la temperatura corporal y una disminución del peso corporal; sin embargo, los signos clínicos observados en los brotes naturales no estaban presentes. Se aisló S. aureus en varios momentos posteriores al desafío de todos los grupos desafiados, excepto el grupo de control negativo. Si bien el grupo inoculado por inyección subcutánea mostraron necrosis localizada en el sitio de la inyección, los cambios microscópicos fueron diferentes de los cambios observados en las aves de los brotes naturales. A pesar de las diferencias iniciales observadas en la ruta y en la edad, la cepa de desafío de S. aureus no fue capaz de reproducir la enfermedad por sí sola. Los resultados de este estudio indican que S. aureus pudo haber jugado un papel en el aumento de la mortalidad, los signos clínicos y las lesiones a la necropsia reportadas con los brotes de origen natural. Sin embargo, se debe considerar S. aureus como un patógeno oportunista secundario. Otros factores que podrían haber causado el daño inicial son el estrés, la inmunosupresión u otros agentes infecciosos primarios. Los resultados de este estudio pueden ayudar a los patólogos veterinarios, clínicos y todos los profesionales avícolas para incluir S. aureus en su lista de diferenciales como patógeno oportunista secundario en casos similares. Esta es una presentación poco común y se necesitan más observaciones de campo y estudios clínicos para dilucidar mejor la patogénesis de esta enfermedad, lo que a su vez ayudará a prevenir futuros brotes.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/etiologia , Sepse/veterinária , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Administração Oral , Fatores Etários , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Autopsia/veterinária , Temperatura Corporal , Peso Corporal , Medula Óssea/microbiologia , Crista e Barbelas/microbiologia , Crista e Barbelas/patologia , Feminino , Injeções Intravenosas/veterinária , Injeções Subcutâneas/veterinária , Fígado/patologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Sepse/microbiologia , Sepse/patologia , Baço/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/etiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/patologia
9.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101340, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333386

RESUMO

Despite the intensive genetic selection in modern poultry, variability of domestic fowl phenotypes has remained, especially in breeds adapted to local conditions. The relevance of this variability to the chicken outdoor ranging activities remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate if external features were associated with the ranging frequency of the 48 female chickens from each of the 2 breeds: Sasso and Green-legged Partridge. In each of 6 single-breed pens, 8 hens and 2 roosters were housed under conditions of EU requirements for organic meat chicken production, including free access to an outdoor range, from wk 5 to 10 of age. The birds were video-recorded during the experiment to obtain frequencies of individual birds' use of the ranges. Comb size (length and height) was measured using a digital ruler, while the sizes of the dark area of neck plumage and beak were processed and analyzed using ImageJ software. The same traits were scored using direct visual assessment by a trained observer on a scale of 1-3. In addition, the eye color of the bird was recorded. Statistical analysis was conducted independently for each breed using regression models, ANOVAs and Spearman correlations. Significant positive associations between neck plumage (P < 0.01), beak darkness (P = 0.03) measurements, comb length (P < 0.01) and comb height (P < 0.01) and frequency of range use were identified for Sasso. Sasso hens scored with darkest neck plumage (P = 0.03) and biggest comb size (P = 0.04) ranged the most, while their external features were significantly and positively correlated between each other, except beak darkness and comb length. No significant associations between ranging and external features were found in Green-legged Partridge birds, except that their comb height was significantly and positively correlated with neck plumage and beak darkness (r = 0.39 and 0.33, respectively). In some genetic strains, better understanding of the associations between chickens' external features with ranging behavior could contribute to improve selection programs and bird welfare, assuring production of breeding stock suitable for outdoor conditions.


Assuntos
Bico , Galinhas , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Crista e Barbelas , Escuridão , Feminino , Masculino
10.
J Environ Manage ; 288: 112489, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823452

RESUMO

Eroded bare land stabilization is important to reduce soil erosion and stimulate soil carbon (C) sequestration for improved soil biogeochemical quality in hillslope soils. This study investigated the effectiveness of wattle fencing as a bioengineering tool to improve soil stabilization, soil physico-chemical properties and soil organic C dynamics and reduce soil erodibility in the Boyabat mountain regions of Turkey with rough and over-steepened slope (50-70%). Wattle fence treatments were developed in the area of 50 ha in the spring season of 2010 and surface (0-20 cm) and subsurface soil (20-40 cm) samples were taken in Spring, 2015. Results revealed that, compared to control with bare slope, wattle fencing significantly improved some soil physico-chemical, and microbial properties and erodibility indices by increasing clay ratio, dispersion ratio and aggregate stability index in surface and subsoils. Wattle fencing enhanced plant available water contents more in surface than in subsoils. Wattle fencing also increased microbial biomass C contents by 55% and 43% in surface and subsurface soils, respectively. Soil organic C followed similar trends; however, they were indifferent between sampling depths for the control soils. Soil organic C stocks and aggregate stability index were significantly positively correlated and seemed to be better predictor of positive effects of wattle fencing on soil structural stability, erodibility and associated properties. We found positive effects of soil organic C contents on microbial biomass C and soil-water relations suggesting restoration of soil biological functions and favorable influence on soil water retention following wattle fencing. Although sparse vegetation was observed in the research area, our study emphasizes performing further research to understand the effects of wattle fencing along with afforestation with native vegetation on soil erosion rates on a long-term basis by considering the variability in edaphic and environmental factors.


Assuntos
Carbono , Solo , Animais , Biomassa , Carbono/análise , China , Crista e Barbelas/química , Turquia
11.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100843, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518319

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to describe the variations in morphological characteristics of different selected populations of indigenous chickens. Five populations of chickens in different (localities) of Chhajjian, KP, Pakistan, were studied based on qualitative traits recorded for a total of 100 chickens. Each of the study populations contains multiple variants of plumage colors and other physical features. The average flock size was observed to be 38. Predominant plumage color was grayish and other mixtures along with different percentages in different localities. Pea comb was the dominant comb type in all localities. Most of the chickens were yellow skinned. Males in all populations were heavier and taller than the females. This recorded variation in morphological traits will help in the conservation of these chickens.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Crista e Barbelas , Animais , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Crista e Barbelas/anatomia & histologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Feminino , Masculino , Paquistão , Fenótipo , Pigmentação
12.
Physiol Behav ; 226: 113077, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738316

RESUMO

Resilience, the degree to which individuals are physiologically and behaviourally impacted by stressors, can be enhanced by positive experiences (e.g. positive moods in human, environmental enrichment in rodents). Such effects are important for human health, but could also have important animal welfare implications in terms of farm, laboratory and zoo animals' abilities to cope with stressors. Here we investigated whether enrichments can increase resilience in chickens, the world's most abundant agricultural animal. The stress reactivity of laying hens housed for 5-6 weeks in enriched environments was compared to that of controls housed in smaller, emptier, less preferred pens, via: 1) startle reflex amplitudes to an abrupt, intense sensory stimulus (a light flash); and 2) autonomic responses to restraint and the sudden appearance of a novel object, assessed from decreases in comb temperature. Startle amplitudes were consistently reduced in the enriched hens, exerted with around one sixth the force seen in control hens. Maximum comb temperature decreases, and latencies for comb temperatures to return to prestress levels, also both fell by around a third. Enrichment thus reduced hens' intrinsic behavioural and physiological responses to standardized stressors (doing so even outside the home pen), just as occurs in laboratory rodents. Enrichment also reduced baseline comb temperature, suggesting that this could be a non-invasive indicator of welfare. Altered judgment biases did not seem to be the mechanism. Further work should now investigate the processes underlying the apparently enhanced stress resilience of animals housed in preferred conditions, and also investigate baseline comb temperature as a chronic stress indicator in poultry.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Galinhas , Abrigo para Animais , Reflexo de Sobressalto , Animais , Crista e Barbelas , Feminino
13.
Molecules ; 25(7)2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272799

RESUMO

The production of bioactive peptides from organic by-waste materials is in line with current trends devoted to guaranteeing environmental protection and a circular economy. The objectives of this study were i) to optimize the conditions for obtaining bioactive hydrolysates from chicken combs and wattles using Alcalase, ii) to identify the resulting peptides using LC-ESI-MS2 and iii) to evaluate their chelating and antioxidant activities. The hydrolysate obtained using a ratio of enzyme to substrate of 5% (w/w) and 240 min of hydrolysis showed excellent Fe2+ chelating and antioxidant capacities, reducing Fe3+ and inhibiting 2, 2'-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. The mapping of ion distribution showed that a high degree of hydrolysis led to the production of peptides with m/z ≤ 400, suggesting low mass peptides or peptides with multiple charge precursor ions. The peptides derived from the proteins of cartilage like Collagen alpha-2(I), Collagen alpha-1(I), Collagen alpha-1(III) and elastin contributed to generation of bioactive compounds. Hydrolysates from chicken waste materials could be regarded as candidates to be used as ingredients to design processed foods with functional properties.


Assuntos
Crista e Barbelas/efeitos dos fármacos , Crista e Barbelas/metabolismo , Hidrólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Benzotiazóis/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Galinhas , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Colágeno/metabolismo , Elastina/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Picratos/farmacologia , Hidrolisados de Proteína/metabolismo , Subtilisinas/metabolismo , Ácidos Sulfônicos/farmacologia
14.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13308, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808219

RESUMO

To determine the causative variations associated with two chicken comb phenotypes, pendulous comb (PC) or upright comb (UC), two pooled genomic DNA samples from PC and UC chickens were re-sequenced by Next-Generation Sequencer, and genome-wide Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected. Using three selective sweep approaches, FST , θπ, and Tajima's D, with top 5% window values serving as the threshold, a total of 84 positively selective genes (PSGs) were identified. There were no SNPs in exons of the PSGs with significant differences in allele frequencies between the two comb phenotype groups. Then, 515 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the PC and UC were identified by RNA-seq. Three genes including CD36 (CD36 molecule), ADAMTSL3 (ADAMTS-like 3), and AOX1 (aldehyde oxidases 1) are overlapped between PSGs and DEGs. After genotyping seven candidate SNPs in the regulatory regions of the three overlapping genes in 120 chickens from two other breeds, two variants (rs14607046 and rs731818051) in the regulatory regions of AOX1 and ADAMTSL3 were found to have significant differences in allele frequency between the PC and UC, suggesting that the two variants may be causative mutations for PC. Overall, our study shed light on the genetic basis underlying the PC phenotype in chickens.


Assuntos
Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Galinhas/genética , Crista e Barbelas/anatomia & histologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/veterinária , Fenótipo , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária , Proteínas ADAMTS/genética , Aldeído Oxidase/genética , Animais , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Frequência do Gene/genética , Mutação/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
15.
J Med Food ; 22(12): 1294-1300, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794688

RESUMO

Peptides from protein hydrolysate of a mixture of chicken combs and wattles (CCWs) were obtained through enzymatic hydrolysis, and their anticoagulant and inhibitory effects on angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) were investigated. The protein hydrolysate exhibited anticoagulant capacity by the intrinsic pathway (activated partial thromboplastin time) and potent ACE-inhibitory activity. The peptides were sequenced by LC-MS to identify those with higher inhibitory potential. From the pool of sequenced peptides, the following three peptides were selected and synthesized based on their low molecular weight and the presence of amino acids with ACE-inhibitory potential at the C-terminus: peptide I (APGLPGPR), peptide II (Piro-GPPGPT), and peptide III (FPGPPGP). Peptide III (FPGPPGP) showed the highest ACE-inhibitory capacity among the peptides selected. In conclusion, a peptide (FPGPPGP) of unknown sequence was identified as having potent ACE-inhibitory capacity. This peptide originated from unconventional hydrolysates from poultry slaughter waste, including combs and wattles.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Crista e Barbelas/química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/efeitos dos fármacos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Galinhas , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Peso Molecular , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Hidrolisados de Proteína , Receptores de Quinase C Ativada/química , Receptores de Quinase C Ativada/farmacologia , Tromboplastina
16.
Horm Behav ; 116: 104580, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472122

RESUMO

Several studies show that avian females prefer males based on their secondary sexual ornaments and dominance status. We tested in red junglefowl (Gallus gallus) how comb size affected the result of fighting and how the dominance status related to testosterone concentrations in their circulation and ejaculates. We subsequently tested how social status was related to female reproductive investment, including yolk hormone transfer. We found that after a fight 1) winners increased plasma T and decreased ejaculates T whereas losers' T remained unchanged, and 2) plasma T of winners was higher but ejaculates T was lower than those of losers. We argued those are consistent with the different reproductive strategies of dominant and subordinate males. Furthermore, in line with offspring sex-dependent growth patterns females transferred significantly more androstenedione to female than male embryos when mated with winners, while doing the opposite when mated with losers. We concluded therefore that female reproductive investment was affected by both partner quality and embryo sex. The results indicate that male quality influences sex-specific maternal investment, which could be mediated by ejaculate testosterone concentration.


Assuntos
Androgênios/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Gema de Ovo/metabolismo , Hierarquia Social , Sêmen/química , Testosterona/análise , Androstenodiona/metabolismo , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Crista e Barbelas , Gema de Ovo/química , Ejaculação , Feminino , Masculino , Reprodução/fisiologia , Sêmen/metabolismo , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Testosterona/sangue , Testosterona/metabolismo
17.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-761776

RESUMO

Head-lice infestation, pediculosis capitis, remains a public-health burden in many countries. The widely used first-line pediculicides and alternative treatments are often too costly for use in poor socio-economic settings. Ivermectin has been considered an alternate treatment for field practice. This study was composed of 2 parts, a cross-sectional survey and an intervention study. The main objectives were to determine the prevalence and potential factors associated with head-lice infestation, and to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of oral ivermectin administration. A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 890 villagers in rural areas along Thai-Myanmar border. Females with infestations were eligible for the intervention study, and 181 participated in the intervention study. A post-treatment survey was conducted to assess acceptance of ivermectin as a treatment choice. Data analysis used descriptive statistics and a generalized-estimation-equation model adjusted for cluster effect. The study revealed the prevalence of head-lice infestation was 50% among females and only 3% among males. Age stratification showed a high prevalence among females aged <20 years, and among 50% of female school-children. The prevalence was persistent among those with a history of infestation. The major risk factors were residing in a setting with other infected cases, and sharing a hair comb. The study also confirmed that ivermectin was safe and effective for field-based practice. It was considered a preferable treatment option. In conclusion, behavior-change communication should be implemented to reduce the observed high prevalence of head-lice infestation. Ivermectin may be an alternative choice for head-lice treatment, especially in remote areas.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Crista e Barbelas , Estudos Transversais , Cabelo , Ivermectina , Infestações por Piolhos , Pediculus , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Saúde da População Rural , Estatística como Assunto , Tailândia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-761750

RESUMO

Adult specimens of Echinochasmus caninus n. comb. (Verma, 1935) (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) (syn. Episthmium caninum Yamaguti, 1958) were recovered from 11 riparian people who resided along the Mekong River in Khammouane Province, Lao PDR. In fecal examinations done by the Kato-Katz technique, the cases revealed eggs of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal flukes, hookworms, and in 2 cases echinostome eggs. To recover the adult helminths, praziquantel 30–40 mg/kg and pyrantel pamoate 10–15 mg/kg in a single dose were given and purged with magnesium salts. Various species of trematodes (including O. viverrini and Haplorchis spp.), cestodes, and nematodes were recovered from their diarrheic stools. Among the trematodes, small echinostome flukes (n=42; av. 3.8 specimens per case) of 0.7–1.2 mm in length are subjected in this study. They are morphologically characterized by having 24 collar spines interrupted dorsally and anterior extension of vitellaria from the cirrus sac or genital pore level to the posterior end of the body. Particularly based on this extensive distribution of vitellaria, the specific diagnosis was made as Echinochasmus caninus. The cases were co-infected with various other helminth parasites; thus, clinical manifestations specific for this echinostome infection were difficult to determine. The present paper describes for the first time human E. caninus infections in Lao PDR. Our cases marked the 4–14th human infections with this echinostome around the world following the 3 previous cases reported from Thailand.


Assuntos
Adulto , Animais , Humanos , Ancylostomatoidea , Cestoides , Crista e Barbelas , Diagnóstico , Ovos , Helmintos , Magnésio , Opisthorchis , Óvulo , Parasitos , Praziquantel , Pamoato de Pirantel , Rios , Sais , Coluna Vertebral , Tailândia , Trematódeos
19.
Food Funct ; 9(6): 3244-3253, 2018 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29888778

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the effects of the intake of low-fat yoghurt supplemented with rooster comb extract (RCE) on muscle strength. METHODS AND RESULTS: 148 subjects, with mild knee pain, participated in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, and parallel study. Muscle strength, knee effusion, and pain perception were measured. C2C12 myoblasts were used to elucidate the mechanisms of action involved. RCE improved total work and mean power in men, and also peak torque in extension by 10%. RCE reduced synovial effusion by 11.8% and pain perception by 24.6%. Both RCE and HA increased myoblast proliferation by 29%, while RCE reduced myoblast differentiation by 36.2%, suggesting a beneficial role of RCE in muscle regeneration. CONCLUSIONS: Low-fat yoghurt supplemented with RCE improved muscle strength. This effect is partially explained by muscle regeneration enhancement, reduced synovial effusion, and reduced pain perception, which could exert a beneficial clinical impact on men affected by mild knee pain.


Assuntos
Artralgia/dietoterapia , Artralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Crista e Barbelas/química , Força Muscular , Músculos/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Animais , Artralgia/fisiopatologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/efeitos dos fármacos , Articulação do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mioblastos/citologia , Mioblastos/metabolismo , Regeneração , Iogurte/análise
20.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 53(4): 859-863, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29604132

RESUMO

Birds obtained by embryo engineering are used to study embryo development and to produce transgenic birds. As this method of producing birds still generate strong emotions of the public opinion head ornaments, testes and semen characteristics of sex chimera roosters were examined to check whether they differ from chickens obtained by non-manipulated methods. Measurements of head ornaments, testes and semen were correlated with each other. Semen quality factor (SQF) was calculated, as well as the level of fluctuating asymmetry (FA) of bilateral traits (wattles and testes). Positive correlation was found for comb width and wattle length and comb thickness and sperm concentration. Semen characteristics and FA did not exceed the level encounter in other chicken lines. Results obtained indicate that germline chimeras are similar in appearance of secondary sexual traits, and semen and testes characteristics to chickens produced in non-manipulated way.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Quimera/genética , Crista e Barbelas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células Germinativas , Análise do Sêmen , Sêmen/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais , Testículo/anatomia & histologia , Testículo/fisiologia
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