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1.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101340, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333386

RESUMO

Despite the intensive genetic selection in modern poultry, variability of domestic fowl phenotypes has remained, especially in breeds adapted to local conditions. The relevance of this variability to the chicken outdoor ranging activities remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate if external features were associated with the ranging frequency of the 48 female chickens from each of the 2 breeds: Sasso and Green-legged Partridge. In each of 6 single-breed pens, 8 hens and 2 roosters were housed under conditions of EU requirements for organic meat chicken production, including free access to an outdoor range, from wk 5 to 10 of age. The birds were video-recorded during the experiment to obtain frequencies of individual birds' use of the ranges. Comb size (length and height) was measured using a digital ruler, while the sizes of the dark area of neck plumage and beak were processed and analyzed using ImageJ software. The same traits were scored using direct visual assessment by a trained observer on a scale of 1-3. In addition, the eye color of the bird was recorded. Statistical analysis was conducted independently for each breed using regression models, ANOVAs and Spearman correlations. Significant positive associations between neck plumage (P < 0.01), beak darkness (P = 0.03) measurements, comb length (P < 0.01) and comb height (P < 0.01) and frequency of range use were identified for Sasso. Sasso hens scored with darkest neck plumage (P = 0.03) and biggest comb size (P = 0.04) ranged the most, while their external features were significantly and positively correlated between each other, except beak darkness and comb length. No significant associations between ranging and external features were found in Green-legged Partridge birds, except that their comb height was significantly and positively correlated with neck plumage and beak darkness (r = 0.39 and 0.33, respectively). In some genetic strains, better understanding of the associations between chickens' external features with ranging behavior could contribute to improve selection programs and bird welfare, assuring production of breeding stock suitable for outdoor conditions.


Assuntos
Bico , Galinhas , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Crista e Barbelas , Escuridão , Feminino , Masculino
2.
Avian Dis ; 65(2): 310-320, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412463

RESUMO

In April and November of 2018, multiple commercial laying hen flocks within the same company presented with a sharp increase in mortality and drop in egg production that persisted for several days. These flocks showed striking necropsy lesions consistent with systemic infection and responded to antimicrobial treatment in the feed. Staphylococcus aureus (SA) was the most frequently isolated organism from multiple tissues including comb and wattle lesions, lungs, liver, ovary, spleen, and bone marrow. Given such an uncommon presentation of SA, which is known as a secondary opportunistic pathogen, a challenge study was conducted to evaluate its role in these disease outbreaks. In the present study, laying hens of two ages (22 and 96 wk) were inoculated with SA via three routes: oral gavage, subcutaneous (SC) injection, and intravenous (IV) injection. Both young and old hens in the IV group showed a significant increase in body temperature and drop in body weight; however, the clinical signs observed in the naturally occurring outbreaks were not present. SA was reisolated at multiple time points postchallenge from all challenge groups except the negative control group. While the SC group showed localized necrosis at the injection site, microscopic changes were different from changes observed in birds from the natural outbreaks. Despite observed initial differences in route and age, the SA challenge strain was not capable of reproducing the disease on its own. The results of this study indicate that SA may have played a role in the increased mortality, clinical signs, and necropsy lesions reported with the naturally occurring outbreaks. However, SA should still be considered as a secondary opportunistic pathogen. Other factors that could have caused the initial insult are stress, immunosuppression, or other primary infectious agents. The results of this study may aid veterinary diagnosticians, clinicians, and all poultry professionals to include SA in their differentials list as a secondary opportunistic pathogen in similar cases. This is an uncommon presentation and further field observations and clinical studies are needed to better elucidate the pathogenesis of this disease, which will in turn help to prevent future outbreaks.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/etiologia , Sepse/veterinária , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Administração Oral , Fatores Etários , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Autopsia/veterinária , Temperatura Corporal , Peso Corporal , Medula Óssea/microbiologia , Crista e Barbelas/microbiologia , Crista e Barbelas/patologia , Feminino , Injeções Intravenosas/veterinária , Injeções Subcutâneas/veterinária , Fígado/patologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Sepse/microbiologia , Sepse/patologia , Baço/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/etiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/patologia
3.
J Environ Manage ; 288: 112489, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823452

RESUMO

Eroded bare land stabilization is important to reduce soil erosion and stimulate soil carbon (C) sequestration for improved soil biogeochemical quality in hillslope soils. This study investigated the effectiveness of wattle fencing as a bioengineering tool to improve soil stabilization, soil physico-chemical properties and soil organic C dynamics and reduce soil erodibility in the Boyabat mountain regions of Turkey with rough and over-steepened slope (50-70%). Wattle fence treatments were developed in the area of 50 ha in the spring season of 2010 and surface (0-20 cm) and subsurface soil (20-40 cm) samples were taken in Spring, 2015. Results revealed that, compared to control with bare slope, wattle fencing significantly improved some soil physico-chemical, and microbial properties and erodibility indices by increasing clay ratio, dispersion ratio and aggregate stability index in surface and subsoils. Wattle fencing enhanced plant available water contents more in surface than in subsoils. Wattle fencing also increased microbial biomass C contents by 55% and 43% in surface and subsurface soils, respectively. Soil organic C followed similar trends; however, they were indifferent between sampling depths for the control soils. Soil organic C stocks and aggregate stability index were significantly positively correlated and seemed to be better predictor of positive effects of wattle fencing on soil structural stability, erodibility and associated properties. We found positive effects of soil organic C contents on microbial biomass C and soil-water relations suggesting restoration of soil biological functions and favorable influence on soil water retention following wattle fencing. Although sparse vegetation was observed in the research area, our study emphasizes performing further research to understand the effects of wattle fencing along with afforestation with native vegetation on soil erosion rates on a long-term basis by considering the variability in edaphic and environmental factors.


Assuntos
Carbono , Solo , Animais , Biomassa , Carbono/análise , China , Crista e Barbelas/química , Turquia
4.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100843, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518319

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to describe the variations in morphological characteristics of different selected populations of indigenous chickens. Five populations of chickens in different (localities) of Chhajjian, KP, Pakistan, were studied based on qualitative traits recorded for a total of 100 chickens. Each of the study populations contains multiple variants of plumage colors and other physical features. The average flock size was observed to be 38. Predominant plumage color was grayish and other mixtures along with different percentages in different localities. Pea comb was the dominant comb type in all localities. Most of the chickens were yellow skinned. Males in all populations were heavier and taller than the females. This recorded variation in morphological traits will help in the conservation of these chickens.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Crista e Barbelas , Animais , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Crista e Barbelas/anatomia & histologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Feminino , Masculino , Paquistão , Fenótipo , Pigmentação
5.
Physiol Behav ; 226: 113077, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738316

RESUMO

Resilience, the degree to which individuals are physiologically and behaviourally impacted by stressors, can be enhanced by positive experiences (e.g. positive moods in human, environmental enrichment in rodents). Such effects are important for human health, but could also have important animal welfare implications in terms of farm, laboratory and zoo animals' abilities to cope with stressors. Here we investigated whether enrichments can increase resilience in chickens, the world's most abundant agricultural animal. The stress reactivity of laying hens housed for 5-6 weeks in enriched environments was compared to that of controls housed in smaller, emptier, less preferred pens, via: 1) startle reflex amplitudes to an abrupt, intense sensory stimulus (a light flash); and 2) autonomic responses to restraint and the sudden appearance of a novel object, assessed from decreases in comb temperature. Startle amplitudes were consistently reduced in the enriched hens, exerted with around one sixth the force seen in control hens. Maximum comb temperature decreases, and latencies for comb temperatures to return to prestress levels, also both fell by around a third. Enrichment thus reduced hens' intrinsic behavioural and physiological responses to standardized stressors (doing so even outside the home pen), just as occurs in laboratory rodents. Enrichment also reduced baseline comb temperature, suggesting that this could be a non-invasive indicator of welfare. Altered judgment biases did not seem to be the mechanism. Further work should now investigate the processes underlying the apparently enhanced stress resilience of animals housed in preferred conditions, and also investigate baseline comb temperature as a chronic stress indicator in poultry.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Galinhas , Abrigo para Animais , Reflexo de Sobressalto , Animais , Crista e Barbelas , Feminino
6.
Molecules ; 25(7)2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272799

RESUMO

The production of bioactive peptides from organic by-waste materials is in line with current trends devoted to guaranteeing environmental protection and a circular economy. The objectives of this study were i) to optimize the conditions for obtaining bioactive hydrolysates from chicken combs and wattles using Alcalase, ii) to identify the resulting peptides using LC-ESI-MS2 and iii) to evaluate their chelating and antioxidant activities. The hydrolysate obtained using a ratio of enzyme to substrate of 5% (w/w) and 240 min of hydrolysis showed excellent Fe2+ chelating and antioxidant capacities, reducing Fe3+ and inhibiting 2, 2'-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. The mapping of ion distribution showed that a high degree of hydrolysis led to the production of peptides with m/z ≤ 400, suggesting low mass peptides or peptides with multiple charge precursor ions. The peptides derived from the proteins of cartilage like Collagen alpha-2(I), Collagen alpha-1(I), Collagen alpha-1(III) and elastin contributed to generation of bioactive compounds. Hydrolysates from chicken waste materials could be regarded as candidates to be used as ingredients to design processed foods with functional properties.


Assuntos
Crista e Barbelas/efeitos dos fármacos , Crista e Barbelas/metabolismo , Hidrólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Benzotiazóis/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Galinhas , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Colágeno/metabolismo , Elastina/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Picratos/farmacologia , Hidrolisados de Proteína/metabolismo , Subtilisinas/metabolismo , Ácidos Sulfônicos/farmacologia
7.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13308, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808219

RESUMO

To determine the causative variations associated with two chicken comb phenotypes, pendulous comb (PC) or upright comb (UC), two pooled genomic DNA samples from PC and UC chickens were re-sequenced by Next-Generation Sequencer, and genome-wide Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected. Using three selective sweep approaches, FST , θπ, and Tajima's D, with top 5% window values serving as the threshold, a total of 84 positively selective genes (PSGs) were identified. There were no SNPs in exons of the PSGs with significant differences in allele frequencies between the two comb phenotype groups. Then, 515 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the PC and UC were identified by RNA-seq. Three genes including CD36 (CD36 molecule), ADAMTSL3 (ADAMTS-like 3), and AOX1 (aldehyde oxidases 1) are overlapped between PSGs and DEGs. After genotyping seven candidate SNPs in the regulatory regions of the three overlapping genes in 120 chickens from two other breeds, two variants (rs14607046 and rs731818051) in the regulatory regions of AOX1 and ADAMTSL3 were found to have significant differences in allele frequency between the PC and UC, suggesting that the two variants may be causative mutations for PC. Overall, our study shed light on the genetic basis underlying the PC phenotype in chickens.


Assuntos
Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Galinhas/genética , Crista e Barbelas/anatomia & histologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/veterinária , Fenótipo , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária , Proteínas ADAMTS/genética , Aldeído Oxidase/genética , Animais , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Frequência do Gene/genética , Mutação/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
8.
J Med Food ; 22(12): 1294-1300, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794688

RESUMO

Peptides from protein hydrolysate of a mixture of chicken combs and wattles (CCWs) were obtained through enzymatic hydrolysis, and their anticoagulant and inhibitory effects on angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) were investigated. The protein hydrolysate exhibited anticoagulant capacity by the intrinsic pathway (activated partial thromboplastin time) and potent ACE-inhibitory activity. The peptides were sequenced by LC-MS to identify those with higher inhibitory potential. From the pool of sequenced peptides, the following three peptides were selected and synthesized based on their low molecular weight and the presence of amino acids with ACE-inhibitory potential at the C-terminus: peptide I (APGLPGPR), peptide II (Piro-GPPGPT), and peptide III (FPGPPGP). Peptide III (FPGPPGP) showed the highest ACE-inhibitory capacity among the peptides selected. In conclusion, a peptide (FPGPPGP) of unknown sequence was identified as having potent ACE-inhibitory capacity. This peptide originated from unconventional hydrolysates from poultry slaughter waste, including combs and wattles.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Crista e Barbelas/química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/efeitos dos fármacos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Galinhas , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Peso Molecular , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Hidrolisados de Proteína , Receptores de Quinase C Ativada/química , Receptores de Quinase C Ativada/farmacologia , Tromboplastina
9.
Horm Behav ; 116: 104580, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472122

RESUMO

Several studies show that avian females prefer males based on their secondary sexual ornaments and dominance status. We tested in red junglefowl (Gallus gallus) how comb size affected the result of fighting and how the dominance status related to testosterone concentrations in their circulation and ejaculates. We subsequently tested how social status was related to female reproductive investment, including yolk hormone transfer. We found that after a fight 1) winners increased plasma T and decreased ejaculates T whereas losers' T remained unchanged, and 2) plasma T of winners was higher but ejaculates T was lower than those of losers. We argued those are consistent with the different reproductive strategies of dominant and subordinate males. Furthermore, in line with offspring sex-dependent growth patterns females transferred significantly more androstenedione to female than male embryos when mated with winners, while doing the opposite when mated with losers. We concluded therefore that female reproductive investment was affected by both partner quality and embryo sex. The results indicate that male quality influences sex-specific maternal investment, which could be mediated by ejaculate testosterone concentration.


Assuntos
Androgênios/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Gema de Ovo/metabolismo , Hierarquia Social , Sêmen/química , Testosterona/análise , Androstenodiona/metabolismo , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Crista e Barbelas , Gema de Ovo/química , Ejaculação , Feminino , Masculino , Reprodução/fisiologia , Sêmen/metabolismo , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Testosterona/sangue , Testosterona/metabolismo
10.
Food Funct ; 9(6): 3244-3253, 2018 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29888778

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the effects of the intake of low-fat yoghurt supplemented with rooster comb extract (RCE) on muscle strength. METHODS AND RESULTS: 148 subjects, with mild knee pain, participated in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, and parallel study. Muscle strength, knee effusion, and pain perception were measured. C2C12 myoblasts were used to elucidate the mechanisms of action involved. RCE improved total work and mean power in men, and also peak torque in extension by 10%. RCE reduced synovial effusion by 11.8% and pain perception by 24.6%. Both RCE and HA increased myoblast proliferation by 29%, while RCE reduced myoblast differentiation by 36.2%, suggesting a beneficial role of RCE in muscle regeneration. CONCLUSIONS: Low-fat yoghurt supplemented with RCE improved muscle strength. This effect is partially explained by muscle regeneration enhancement, reduced synovial effusion, and reduced pain perception, which could exert a beneficial clinical impact on men affected by mild knee pain.


Assuntos
Artralgia/dietoterapia , Artralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Crista e Barbelas/química , Força Muscular , Músculos/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Animais , Artralgia/fisiopatologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/efeitos dos fármacos , Articulação do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mioblastos/citologia , Mioblastos/metabolismo , Regeneração , Iogurte/análise
11.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 53(4): 859-863, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29604132

RESUMO

Birds obtained by embryo engineering are used to study embryo development and to produce transgenic birds. As this method of producing birds still generate strong emotions of the public opinion head ornaments, testes and semen characteristics of sex chimera roosters were examined to check whether they differ from chickens obtained by non-manipulated methods. Measurements of head ornaments, testes and semen were correlated with each other. Semen quality factor (SQF) was calculated, as well as the level of fluctuating asymmetry (FA) of bilateral traits (wattles and testes). Positive correlation was found for comb width and wattle length and comb thickness and sperm concentration. Semen characteristics and FA did not exceed the level encounter in other chicken lines. Results obtained indicate that germline chimeras are similar in appearance of secondary sexual traits, and semen and testes characteristics to chickens produced in non-manipulated way.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Quimera/genética , Crista e Barbelas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células Germinativas , Análise do Sêmen , Sêmen/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais , Testículo/anatomia & histologia , Testículo/fisiologia
12.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 2015, 2018 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29386544

RESUMO

The comb of the male is an important secondary sexual characteristic. Although quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to comb size have been identified, molecular mechanisms underlying this trait remain mostly unknown. In this study, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was employed to compare whole transcriptomic differences between two groups of Partridge Shank chickens that are divergent in comb sizes. A total of 563 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, including 277 up-regulated and 286 down-regulated DEGs. According to the animal QTL database, eight DEGs including BMP2 and CHADL matching the reported QTLs were associated with the comb size. Functional annotation analysis revealed that DEGs were involved in cell communication and calcium signaling. Protein-protein interaction network analysis showed that STK32A, PIK3R1, EDN1, HSPA5, and HSPA8 have an impact on comb growth. Moreover, potential alternative splicing events and single nucleotide polymorphisms were also identified. Our data provide a source for identifying genes and pathways with functions critical to comb size and accelerate studies involving molecular mechanisms of this sexual ornament.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Crista e Barbelas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Transcriptoma , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino
13.
Anim Sci J ; 89(1): 250-256, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28960711

RESUMO

Upright and pendulous combs commonly exist in most single-comb chicken breeds. Here, the phenotypic characteristics of upright and pendulous combs in chickens and association with growth rate and egg production were analyzed. Phenotypic frequencies of upright and pendulous comb were investigated in five chicken breeds; the phenotypic frequencies of complete pendulous comb (CPC) and partial pendulous comb (PPC) ranged from 10.1% to 29.0% and 21.8% to 65.3%, respectively. CPC hens produced more eggs than PPC hens (P < 0.05) in Nongda-3, Huainan and Wenchang breeds. In Huainan breed, CPC males were heavier than PPC males at 12 and 16 weeks of age, while CPC females were heavier at 24 weeks of age. PPC and CPC chickens have greater (P < 0.05) comb length, comb height and comb index than upright comb (UC) chickens. There was no significant difference in comb phenotypic frequency distribution between the offspring from UC(♂) × CPC(♀) and CPC(♂) × UC(♀); however, it differed (χ² = 45.12, P < 0.01) between offspring from UC(♂) × UC(♀) and CPC(♂) × CPC(♀). These results suggested that the comb phenotype does not appear to be Z-linked; the effective loci influencing the trait could be estimated in a further study.


Assuntos
Variação Anatômica , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/fisiologia , Crista e Barbelas/anatomia & histologia , Ovulação/fisiologia , Animais , Cruzamento , Feminino , Masculino
14.
Poult Sci ; 96(6): 1866-1873, 2017 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28339981

RESUMO

Rose-comb was one of the chicken comb-variants first used by Bateson and Punnet in 1902 to demonstrate Mendelian inheritance in animals. Rose-comb is a monogenic trait that has been widely described in chickens. It is caused by a large structural rearrangement that leads to mis-expression of transcription factor MNR2 on chromosome 7. Rose-comb has pleiotropic effects in homozygous roosters, which is associated with poor sperm mobility. It was postulated that this is caused by the disruption of the CCDC108 gene located at the distal inversion breakpoint. In this study, we did the transcriptional profiling of combs and testes from Rose-comb Silky (RS) (R1/R1) and Beijing Fatty (BF) wild type chickens (r/r) using RNA-seq. We obtained 68,694,797 unique mapped reads and over 80% of the chicken genes were covered for each sample. In combs, we found that differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were significantly enriched in the retinol metabolism (RPE65, CYP26A1, and CYP26C1) and hedgehog-signaling pathway (PTCH1, GLI1, and HHIP), while genes related to cell differentiation and morphogenesis were down-regulated in R1/R1 chickens, suggesting that the transient expression of MNR2 might affect the expression of these genes and influence the development of comb tissue. For testes, DEGs were significantly enriched in the GO terms of binding activates and mitochondrial oxidation-reduction reactions. Our results suggested that the CCDC108 might be functionally related with mitochondrial oxidation-reduction reactions and caused subfertility of roosters. Compared with the genome average, the degree of expression variations within the inversion region did not show significant differences. However, DEGs near the breakpoints showed greater expression variance. Our results demonstrated that the large-scale rearrangements affected the gene expression only around the breakpoint in this case.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Crista e Barbelas/metabolismo , Testículo/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Masculino , Morfogênese/genética , Oxirredução , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Vitamina A/genética , Vitamina A/metabolismo
15.
Pharm Biol ; 55(1): 156-163, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27650976

RESUMO

CONTENT: Recently, low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (LMWHA) has been reported to have novel features, such as free radical scavenging activities, antioxidant activities and dietary supplements. OBJECTIVE: In this study, hyaluronic acid (HA) was extracted from rooster comb and LMWHA was obtained by ultrasonic degradation in order to assess their antioxidant and antiglycation activities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Molecular weight (Mw) and the content of glucuronic acid (GlcA) were used as the index for comparison of the effect of ultrasonic treatment. The effects on the structure were determined by ultraviolet (UV) spectra and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR). The antioxidant activity was determined by three analytical assays (DPPH, NO and TBARS), and the inhibitory effect against glycated-BSA was also assessed. RESULTS: The GlcA content of HA and LMWHA was estimated at about 48.6% and 47.3%, respectively. The results demonstrate that ultrasonic irradiation decreases the Mw (1090-181 kDa) and intrinsic viscosity (1550-473 mL/g), which indicate the cleavage of the glycosidic bonds. The FTIR and UV spectra did not significantly change before and after degradation. The IC50 value of HA and LWMHA was 1.43, 0.76 and 0.36 mg/mL and 1.20, 0.89 and 0.17 mg/mL toward DPPH, NO and TBARS, respectively. Likewise LMWHA exhibited significant inhibitory effects on the AGEs formation than HA. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated that the ultrasonic irradiation did not damage and change the chemical structure of HA after degradation; furthermore, decreasing Mw and viscosity of LMWHA after degradation may enhance the antioxidant and antiglycation activity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Galinhas/metabolismo , Crista e Barbelas/metabolismo , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Ácido Hialurônico/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/efeitos dos fármacos , Soroalbumina Bovina/metabolismo , Extratos de Tecidos/farmacologia , Ultrassom , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Ácido Glucurônico/isolamento & purificação , Glicosilação , Ácido Hialurônico/química , Ácido Hialurônico/isolamento & purificação , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Estrutura Molecular , Peso Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/química , Picratos/química , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/química , Extratos de Tecidos/química , Extratos de Tecidos/isolamento & purificação , Viscosidade
16.
Poult Sci ; 95(8): 1726-35, 2016 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27044873

RESUMO

It is estimated that each year over 19 million pullets in the United States have their combs partially trimmed at a young age to improve egg production and feed efficiency. A possible disadvantage of trimming is that the comb and wattles may be essential for thermoregulation during hot weather allowing for conductive cooling of the blood through vasodilation of superficial vessels in these integumentary tissues. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of partial comb and wattle removal, performed at 21 d of age, on the ability of White Leghorns to thermoregulate before, during, and after an imposed heating episode that averaged 34.6°C for 50.5 h. An increase in mortality at 20 h and body temperature at 48 h post initiation of the heating episode demonstrated that hens with trimmed comb and wattles were not able to cope with heat stress as effectively as controls. The increase in wattle temperature in controls as compared to trimmed hens during the heating episode and following heat stress provides supportive evidence that blood pools to the peripheral surface for conductive heat loss. During high temperatures typical of summer, trimmed hens attempted to compensate for their lack of ability to transfer heat from their comb and wattles to the environment through increased proportion of panting and wing spreading. Under less extreme conditions with lowered ambient temperatures, the trimming of the comb and wattles did not impair the ability of hens to thermoregulate, as body temperatures and behavior were similar to controls with no mortality. Egg weight was the only production parameter adversely affected by the trimming of the comb and wattles as compared to controls. The implication is that hens need their combs and wattles to thermoregulate effectively during periods of high environmental temperature. Pullets should not be subjected to a comb and wattle trim if they are housed in laying facilities that are not appropriately cooled during the summer.


Assuntos
Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Crista e Barbelas/cirurgia , Animais , Temperatura Corporal , Galinhas/cirurgia , Crista e Barbelas/fisiologia , Feminino , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos
17.
Poult Sci ; 95(9): 2011-22, 2016 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27083544

RESUMO

Using the response to Mycobacterium butyricum as the test-immune response, the main goal of this study was to demonstrate the suitability of the growing feather (GF) as a dermal test site and window into in vivo cellular/tissue responses (US-Patent 8,216,551). Using M. butyricum immunized chickens, the specific objectives were to: 1) compare the leukocyte infiltration response to intra-dermally injected M. butyricum in GF, wattles, and wing webs; 2) use GF as the test site to monitor leukocyte response profiles to recall antigen in the same individuals; and 3) gain new knowledge regarding the local response to M. butyricum in chickens. For objective 1, chickens were euthanized for tissue collection at 4 to 6, 24, 48, and 72 h after intra-dermal antigen injection. Leukocyte infiltration profiles were determined using immunochemical and conventional histology. Data from this study established the similarities between the cellular response in GF, wattles, and wing webs and uncovered many advantages of working with GF. For objective 2, antigen was injected into multiple GF per individual. GF were collected before and at 0.25, 1, 2, 3, and 7 d post injection and processed for cell population analysis by flow cytometry. Advantages of the approach used in objective 2 included a technically easier, more comprehensive, and more objective leukocyte profile analysis; same-day data acquisition; and, most importantly, easy, minimally invasive sample collection from the same individual throughout the study. Both studies contributed new knowledge regarding the local cutaneous response to M. butyricum in M. butyricum immunized chickens and confirmed the cell-mediated nature of the immune response to M. butyricum (e.g., elevated levels [P < 0.05] of T cells [CD4+ and CD8+], macrophages and MHC class II+-cells on days one to 3 post injection in M. butyricum- compared to PBS-injected tissues). The use of GF as an "in vivo test tube" to monitor local innate and adaptive immune activities will find direct application in vaccine development, as well as in the assessment and optimization of immune system development and function in poultry.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Crista e Barbelas/imunologia , Plumas/imunologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Asas de Animais/microbiologia , Animais , Crista e Barbelas/microbiologia , Plumas/microbiologia , Imunização/veterinária , Contagem de Leucócitos/veterinária , Leucócitos/imunologia , Masculino , Mycobacterium/fisiologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium/imunologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Asas de Animais/imunologia
18.
Poult Sci ; 95(5): 997-1004, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26976904

RESUMO

The University of Georgia maintains two meat-type chicken control strains: the Athens Random Bred (ARB) and the Athens Canadian Random Bred (ACRB). The Athens Random Bred was developed from colored plumage commercial meat chicken strains in 1956. The ACRB is a replicate population of the Ottawa Meat Control strain which was developed in 1955 from white plumage commercial meat-type chickens. These genetic lines have been extremely valuable research resources and have been used extensively to provide comparative context to modern meat-type strains. The ACRB may be the oldest pedigreed control commercial meat-type chicken still in existence today. This paper reviews the history of the breed backgrounds for both control populations and reviews research utilizing the ACRB.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/fisiologia , Animais , Cruzamento , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Crista e Barbelas , Plumas , Pigmentos Biológicos
19.
Physiol Behav ; 152(Pt A): 225-30, 2015 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26434785

RESUMO

Acute stress triggers peripheral vasoconstriction, causing a rapid, short-term drop in skin temperature in homeotherms. We tested, for the first time, whether this response has the potential to quantify stress, by exhibiting proportionality with stressor intensity. We used established behavioural and hormonal markers: activity level and corticosterone level, to validate a mild and more severe form of an acute restraint stressor in hens (Gallus gallus domesticus). We then used infrared thermography (IRT) to non-invasively collect continuous temperature measurements following exposure to these two intensities of acute handling stress. In the comb and wattle, two skin regions with a known thermoregulatory role, stressor intensity predicted the extent of initial skin cooling, and also the occurrence of a more delayed skin warming, providing two opportunities to quantify stress. With the present, cost-effective availability of IRT technology, this non-invasive and continuous method of stress assessment in unrestrained animals has the potential to become common practice in pure and applied research.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Crista e Barbelas/fisiopatologia , Olho/fisiopatologia , Face/fisiopatologia , Temperatura Cutânea , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Doença Aguda , Animais , Feminino , Manobra Psicológica , Fotoperíodo , Postura/fisiologia , Restrição Física/fisiologia , Restrição Física/psicologia , Termografia , Gravação em Vídeo
20.
Food Funct ; 6(11): 3531-9, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26302034

RESUMO

Preliminary results suggested that oral-administration of rooster comb extract (RCE) rich in hyaluronic acid (HA) was associated with improved muscle strength. Following these promising results, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of low-fat yoghurt supplemented with RCE rich in HA on muscle function in adults with mild knee pain; a symptom of early osteoarthritis. Participants (n = 40) received low-fat yoghurt (125 mL d(-1)) supplemented with 80 mg d(-1) of RCE and the placebo group (n = 40) consumed the same yoghurt without the RCE, in a randomized, controlled, double-blind, parallel trial over 12 weeks. Using an isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex System 4), RCE consumption, compared to control, increased the affected knee peak torque, total work and mean power at 180° s(-1), at least 11% in men (p < 0.05) with no differences in women. No dietary differences were noted. These results suggest that long-term consumption of low-fat yoghurt supplemented with RCE could be a dietary tool to improve muscle strength in men, associated with possible clinical significance. However, further studies are needed to elucidate reasons for these sex difference responses observed, and may provide further insight into muscle function.


Assuntos
Artralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Crista e Barbelas/química , Ácido Hialurônico/farmacologia , Articulação do Joelho/efeitos dos fármacos , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Iogurte , Adulto , Animais , Artralgia/dietoterapia , Galinhas , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico/isolamento & purificação , Articulação do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Extratos de Tecidos/química
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