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1.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-08-12. (PAHO/PHE/EMO/COVID-19/22-0014).
Não convencional | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56260

RESUMO

In recent past years, the countries of the Americas have been combatting COVID-19 while simultaneously addressing many ongoing and emerging health challenges. The pandemic remains an acute and evolving emergency with significant economic and social impact, which has disproportionate effects on population groups living in conditions of vulnerability. In the Region of the Americas, the pandemic occurs in a context of several underlying political, economic, social and health issues. This exposes and amplifies challenges in health inequities, including access to health services and continuity of care for acute and chronic conditions. Humanitarian situations in the Americas are complex and multifaceted. Threats affecting the lives and wellbeing of the Latin America and Caribbean population range from emerging and re-emerging infectious hazards to the ones generated by escalating climate risks, food insecurity and displacement. This document outlines the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) regional priorities for the year 2022 to sustain and scale-up health emergency and humanitarian assistance in the Americas, with particular focus on six priority countries currently facing prolonged humanitarian crisis and/or recovering from recent acute emergencies: Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras and Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of). It is aligned with and builds on the World Health Organizations's Global Health Emergency Appeal for 2022, its principles, priorities and strategies. PAHO's Health Emergency Appeal for 2022 targets approximately 13.4 million people in need of assistance across the Region. PAHO needs US$ 350.8 million in 2022 to help vulnerable individuals and communities recover from the impact of health emergencies and better protect them from existing and emerging health threats. This Appeal covers requirements to meet urgent health emergency and humanitarian needs in the Region of the Americas, including COVID-19 response efforts for 2022.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Pandemias , Emergências , América , Região do Caribe
2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 896958, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35928814

RESUMO

Vaccines can prevent many millions of illnesses against infectious diseases and save numerous lives every year. However, traditional vaccines such as inactivated viral and live attenuated vaccines cannot adapt to emerging pandemics due to their time-consuming development. With the global outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic, the virus continues to evolve and mutate, producing mutants with enhanced transmissibility and virulence; the rapid development of vaccines against such emerging global pandemics becomes more and more critical. In recent years, mRNA vaccines have been of significant interest in combating emerging infectious diseases due to their rapid development and large-scale production advantages. However, their development still suffers from many hurdles such as their safety, cellular delivery, uptake, and response to their manufacturing, logistics, and storage. More efforts are still required to optimize the molecular designs of mRNA molecules with increased protein expression and enhanced structural stability. In addition, a variety of delivery systems are also needed to achieve effective delivery of vaccines. In this review, we highlight the advances in mRNA vaccines against various infectious diseases and discuss the molecular design principles and delivery systems of associated mRNA vaccines. The current state of the clinical application of mRNA vaccine pipelines against various infectious diseases and the challenge, safety, and protective effect of associated vaccines are also discussed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Humanos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Tecnologia , Vacinação , Vacinas Atenuadas , Vacinas Sintéticas , Vacinas de mRNA
3.
Euro Surveill ; 27(31)2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35929428

RESUMO

In the Netherlands, the avian influenza outbreak in poultry in 2003 and the Q fever outbreak in dairy goats between 2007 and 2010 had severe consequences for public health. These outbreaks led to the establishment of an integrated human-veterinary risk analysis system for zoonoses, the Zoonoses Structure. The aim of the Zoonoses Structure is to signal, assess and control emerging zoonoses that may pose a risk to animal and/or human health in an integrated One Health approach. The Signalling Forum Zoonoses (SO-Z), the first step of the Zoonoses Structure, is a multidisciplinary committee composed of experts from the medical, veterinary, entomology and wildlife domains. The SO-Z shares relevant signals with professionals and has monthly meetings. Over the past 10 years (June 2011 to December 2021), 390 different signals of various zoonotic pathogens in animal reservoirs and humans have been assessed. Here, we describe the Zoonoses Structure with examples from signals and responses for four zoonotic events in the Netherlands (tularaemia, Brucella canis, West Nile virus, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)). This may serve as an example for other countries on how to collaborate in a One Health approach to signal and control emerging zoonoses.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Saúde Única , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Humanos , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35897451

RESUMO

Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are defined as diseases that are newly identified, newly introduced, or newly evolved; or diseases that have recently and rapidly changed in incidence or expanded geographic, host, or vector range agents; or previous infections that acquire new virulence factors; or infections that spread to unaffected regions [...].


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Saúde Única , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Saúde Pública
7.
Molecules ; 27(14)2022 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35889247

RESUMO

Medicinal plants have considerable potential as antimicrobial agents due to the presence of secondary metabolites. This comprehensive overview aims to summarize the classification, morphology, and ethnobotanical uses of Euphorbia neriifolia L. and its derived phytochemicals with the recent updates on the pharmacological properties against emerging infectious diseases, mainly focusing on bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections. The data were collected from electronic databases, including Google Scholar, PubMed, Semantic Scholar, ScienceDirect, and SpringerLink by utilizing several keywords like 'Euphorbia neriifolia', 'phytoconstituents', 'traditional uses', 'ethnopharmacological uses', 'infectious diseases', 'molecular mechanisms', 'COVID-19', 'bacterial infection', 'viral infection', etc. The results related to the antimicrobial actions of these plant extracts and their derived phytochemicals were carefully reviewed and summarized. Euphol, monohydroxy triterpene, nerifoliol, taraxerol, ß-amyrin, glut-5-(10)-en-1-one, neriifolione, and cycloartenol are the leading secondary metabolites reported in phytochemical investigations. These chemicals have been shown to possess a wide spectrum of biological functions. Different extracts of E. neriifolia exerted antimicrobial activities against various pathogens to different extents. Moreover, major phytoconstituents present in this plant, such as quercetin, rutin, friedelin, taraxerol, epitaraxerol, taraxeryl acetate, 3ß-friedelanol, 3ß-acetoxy friedelane, 3ß-simiarenol, afzelin, 24-methylene cycloarenol, ingenol triacetate, and ß-amyrin, showed significant antimicrobial activities against various pathogens that are responsible for emerging infectious diseases. This plant and the phytoconstituents, such as flavonoids, monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, and alkaloids, have been found to have significant antimicrobial properties. The current evidence suggests that they might be used as leads in the development of more effective drugs to treat emerging infectious diseases, including the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Euphorbia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/tratamento farmacológico , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
8.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 808098, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35782112

RESUMO

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging arboviral infectious disease with a high rate of lethality in susceptible humans and caused by severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus (SFTSV). Currently, neither vaccine nor specific antiviral drugs are available. In recent years, given the fact that both the number of SFTS cases and epidemic regions are increasing year by year, SFTS has become a public health problem. SFTSV can be internalized into host cells through the interaction between SFTSV glycoproteins and cell receptors and can activate the host immune system to trigger antiviral immune response. However, SFTSV has evolved multiple strategies to manipulate host factors to create an optimal environment for itself. Not to be discounted, host genetic factors may be operative also in the never-ending winning or losing wars. Therefore, the identifications of SFTSV, host immune and genetic factors, and their interactions are critical for understanding the pathogenic mechanisms of SFTSV infection. This review summarizes the updated pathogenesis of SFTS with regard to virus, host immune response, and host genetic factors to provide some novel perspectives of the prevention, treatment, as well as drug and vaccine developments.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bunyaviridae , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Phlebovirus , Febre Grave com Síndrome de Trombocitopenia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/epidemiologia , Glicoproteínas , Humanos , Phlebovirus/genética
10.
Yale J Biol Med ; 95(2): 271-280, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35782474

RESUMO

This paper presents an ethical argument in support of an international Pandemic Treaty. It argues that an international Pandemic Treaty is the best way to mark progress on global vaccine equity and broader issues of global pandemic preparedness and response which came to light during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Section I evaluates principles of multilateral charity, national security, and international diplomacy standardly invoked in debates about global vaccine allocation and argues that these approaches fall short. Section II explicates notions of solidarity, duties to the least well-off, and mutual aid as ethical values more fitting for an era of emerging infectious diseases. Section III relates the discussion to an international Pandemic Treaty and presents legal, pragmatic, and ethical reasons to support it. The paper concludes that in an interconnected world, fair sharing of vaccines between nations is morally mandatory.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Vacinas , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Pandemias/prevenção & controle
11.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 35(4): 370-377, 2022 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35849528

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite advances in infection prevention and control and breakthroughs in vaccination development, challenges remain for long-term care facilities (LTCFs) as they face a likely future of emerging infectious diseases. To ensure the safety of LTCF residents from the current and future pandemics, we identify lessons learned from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) experience for improving future prevention and response efforts. RECENT FINDINGS: In addition to high disease susceptibility among LTCF residents, LTCF vulnerabilities include a lack of pandemic preparedness, a lack of surge capacity in human, material and testing resources, and poorly designed buildings. External sources of vulnerability include staff working in multiple LTCFs and high COVID-19 rates in surrounding communities. Other challenges include poor cooperation between LTCFs and the other components of health systems, inadequately enforced regulations, and the sometimes contradictory interests for-profit LTCFs face between protecting their residents and turning a profit. SUMMARY: These challenges can be addressed in the post-COVID-19 period through systemic reforms. Governments should establish comprehensive health networks that normalize mechanisms for prediction/preparedness and response/recovery from disruptive events including pandemics. In addition, governments should facilitate cooperation among public and private sector health systems and institutions while utilizing advanced digital communication technologies. These steps will greatly reduce the threat to LTCFs posed by emerging infectious diseases in future.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle
12.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(4): 209, 2022 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35687155

RESUMO

In Thailand, pork is one of the most consumed meats nationwide. Pig farming is hence an important business in the country. However, 95% of the farms were considered smallholders raising only 50 pigs or less. With limited budgets and resources, the biosecurity level in these farms is relatively low. Pig movements have been previously identified as a risk factor in the spread of infectious diseases. Therefore, the present study aimed to explicitly analyze the pig movement network structure and assess its vulnerability to the spread of emerging diseases in Thailand. We used official electronic records of nationwide pig movements throughout the year 2021 to construct a directed weighted one-mode network. Degree centrality, degree distribution, connected components, network community, and modularity were measured to explore the network architectures and properties. In this network, 484,483 pig movements were captured. In which, 379,948 (78.42%) were moved toward slaughterhouses and hence excluded from further analyses. From the remaining links, we suggested that the pig movement network in Thailand was vulnerable to the spread of emerging infectious diseases. Within the network, we found a strongly connected component (SCC) connecting 1044 subdistricts (38.6% of the nodes), a giant weakly connected component (GWCC) covering 98.2% of the nodes (2654/2704), and inter-regional communities with overall network modularity of 0.68. The disease may rapidly spread throughout the country. A better understanding of the nationwide pig movement networks is helpful in tailoring control interventions to cope with the newly emerged diseases once introduced.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Doenças dos Suínos , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Meios de Transporte
13.
Front Public Health ; 10: 904569, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35712292

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic gives humankind a lesson that the outbreak of an emerging infectious disease (EID) is sudden and uncertain. Accurately mastering its dynamics and putting forward an efficient and fair humanitarian logistics plan for personal protective equipment (PPE) remains difficult. This study examines the decision making for humanitarian logistics to answer the question that how to coordinate fairness and efficiency when facing supply-demand imbalance during humanitarian logistics planning in an EID environment. The main contributions include two aspects: (1) The victims' losses in terms of fairness and efficiency in receiving PPE are jointly explored by evaluating their bearing capacity evolution, and then a novel loss function is built to search for a reasonable compromise between fairness and efficiency. (2) A multi-objective optimization model is built, which is solved using the combined use of goal programming approach and improved branch and bound method. Finally, the practicability of the proposed model is tested by an EID case study. The potential advantages of the proposed model and improved approach are discussed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual
14.
Ecohealth ; 19(2): 299-314, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35674864

RESUMO

The majority of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in people are zoonotic. Despite substantial research in communities adjacent to protected areas with high levels of biodiversity, limited data exist on people's knowledge, attitudes, and practices to avoid exposure to infections from domestic and wild animals. We used a modified grounded-theory framework in QS NVivo to develop a Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices (KAP) survey administered at two time points, KAPT1 (April-July 2016) and KAPT2 (February-May 2018) to participants living at the edge of Kibale National Park, Uganda. We measured the difference in willingness to engage in protective behaviors around zoonotic exposure between an Intervention group (n = 61) and a Comparison group (n = 125). Prior to KAPT1, the Intervention group engaged in a human-centered design (HCD) activity identifying behaviors that reduce zoonotic exposure (March-May 2016). Using a difference-in-difference approach, we compared the Intervention and Comparison groups to assess sustained willingness and use of protective behaviors against domestic and wild animal exposures. At KAPT1, Comparison group participants had a significantly lower (p < 0.05) level of willingness to engage in behaviors that increase exposure to zoonoses from domestic animals; Intervention group participants had a significantly higher (p < 0.01) level of willingness to engage in behaviors that increase exposure to zoonoses from wild animals. At KAPT2, the treatment effect was significant (p < 0.01) for sustained willingness to engage in protective behaviors for domestic animal exposure in the Intervention group. There were no significant differences in practices to avoid domestic and wild animal zoonotic exposure between the Intervention and Comparison groups.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Exposição Ambiental , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Educação em Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Zoonoses , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Animais Selvagens , Biodiversidade , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Parques Recreativos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/transmissão
15.
J Theor Biol ; 548: 111195, 2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35716723

RESUMO

Seasonal variations in environmental conditions lead to changing infectious disease epidemic risks at different times of year. The probability that early cases initiate a major epidemic depends on the season in which the pathogen enters the population. The instantaneous epidemic risk (IER) can be tracked. This quantity is straightforward to calculate, and corresponds to the probability of a major epidemic starting from a single case introduced at time t=t0, assuming that environmental conditions remain identical from that time onwards (i.e. for all t≥t0). However, the threat when a pathogen enters the population in fact depends on changes in environmental conditions occurring within the timescale of the initial phase of the outbreak. For that reason, we compare the IER with a different metric: the case epidemic risk (CER). The CER corresponds to the probability of a major epidemic starting from a single case entering the population at time t=t0, accounting for changes in environmental conditions after that time. We show how the IER and CER can be calculated using different epidemiological models (the stochastic Susceptible-Infectious-Removed model and a stochastic host-vector model that is parameterised using temperature data for Miami) in which transmission parameter values vary temporally. While the IER is always easy to calculate numerically, the adaptable method we provide for calculating the CER for the host-vector model can also be applied easily and solved using widely available software tools. In line with previous research, we demonstrate that, if a pathogen is likely to either invade the population or fade out on a fast timescale compared to changes in environmental conditions, the IER closely matches the CER. However, if this is not the case, the IER and the CER can be significantly different, and so the CER should be used. This demonstrates the need to consider future changes in environmental conditions carefully when assessing the risk posed by emerging pathogens.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Doenças Transmissíveis , Epidemias , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Probabilidade
17.
West J Emerg Med ; 23(3): 432-438, 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679497

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related articles published in emergency medicine (EM) journals provide insight into the responses of EM researchers and journal editors globally to a newly emerging infectious disease. We studied trends in the number, types, and national origins of COVID-19 literature published in EM journals to investigate knowledge transmission via scientific publication during the pandemic. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study. The EM journal list was adopted from the 2019 Journal Citation Reports. We retrieved data from the SCOPUS database, limited to publication year 2020, and identified COVID-19 publications when the title, abstract, or keywords included "COVID" or "SARS." The outcome measurements were as follows: 1) monthly COVID-19 publication numbers in EM journals; 2) the percentage of COVID-19 published literature in terms of total journal publications; 3) the countries, affiliations, and authors of COVID-19-related publications; 4) the differences in the proportions of "Articles" and "Letters" between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 publications; and 5) the total, average, and maximum number of times cited for different types of COVID-19-related scientific literature. RESULTS: We retrieved a total of 7,457 published papers from 31 EM journals. There were 765 (10.26%) COVID-19-related publications in 27 journals contributed by 67 countries; the first authors were from 49 countries. The monthly COVID-19 publication numbers in the categories of "Letters" and "Articles" were nearly equal before July 2020. The yearly proportions of COVID-19-focused articles and letters were 48.8% and 29.9%, respectively, while non-COVID-19 proportions were 72.1% and 9.8%, respectively. The chi-squared statistic of the differences between the numbers of articles and letters in COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 published research was significant (P < .001). CONCLUSION: An analysis of COVID-19 publications in EM journals indicated that, in the early stage of a newly emerging infectious disease, the number of letters and articles increased simultaneously. The proportion of COVID-19-focused letters was higher than those published on other topics. The "Article" and "Review" category of COVID-19 research was cited more times than that of "Letters."


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Medicina de Emergência , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Bibliometria , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos
18.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1208, 2022 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35715790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the accelerated global integration and the impact of climatic, ecological and social environmental changes, China will continue to face the challenge of the outbreak and spread of emerging infectious diseases and traditional ones. This study aims to explore the spatial and temporal evolutionary characteristics of the incidence of Class B notifiable infectious diseases in China from 2007 to 2020, and to forecast the trend of it as well. Hopefully, it will provide a reference for the formulation of infectious disease prevention and control strategies. METHODS: Data on the incidence rates of Class B notifiable infectious diseases in 31 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions of China from 2007 to 2020 were collected for the prediction of the spatio-temporal evolution and spatial correlation as well as the incidence of Class B notifiable infectious diseases in China based on global spatial autocorrelation and Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA). RESULTS: From 2007 to 2020, the national incidence rate of Class B notifiable infectious diseases (from 272.37 per 100,000 in 2007 to 190.35 per 100,000 in 2020) decreases year by year, and the spatial distribution shows an "east-central-west" stepwise increase. From 2007 to 2020, the spatial clustering of the incidence of Class B notifiable infectious diseases is significant and increasing year by year (Moran's I index values range from 0.189 to 0.332, p < 0.05). The forecasted incidence rates of Class B notifiable infectious diseases nationwide from 2021 to 2024 (205.26/100,000, 199.95/100,000, 194.74/100,000 and 189.62/100,000) as well as the forecasted values for most regions show a downward trend, with only some regions (Guangdong, Hunan, Hainan, Tibet, Guangxi and Guizhou) showing an increasing trend year by year. CONCLUSIONS: The current study found that since there were significant regional disparities in the prevention and control of infectious diseases in China between 2007 and 2020, the reduction of the incidence of Class B notifiable infectious diseases requires the joint efforts of the surrounding provinces. Besides, special attention should be paid to provinces with an increasing trend in the incidence of Class B notifiable infectious diseases to prevent the re-emergence of certain traditional infectious diseases in a particular province or even the whole country, as well as the outbreak and spread of emerging infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Doenças Transmissíveis , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Análise Espacial , Análise Espaço-Temporal
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682341

RESUMO

Despite the popularity and efficiency of dictionary-based sentiment analysis (DSA) for public health research, limited empirical evidence has been produced about the validity of DSA and potential harms to the validity of DSA. A random sample of a second-hand Ebola tweet dataset was used to evaluate the validity of DSA compared to the manual coding approach and examine the influences of textual features on the validity of DSA. The results revealed substantial inconsistency between DSA and the manual coding approach. The presence of certain textual features such as negation can partially account for the inconsistency between DSA and manual coding. The findings imply that scholars should be careful and critical about findings in disease-related public health research that use DSA. Certain textual features should be more carefully addressed in DSA.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Mídias Sociais , Atitude , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Análise de Sentimentos
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