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Conscious Cogn ; 106: 103435, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36399921


Increased thinking about one's self has been proposed to widen the gaze cone, that is, the range of gaze deviations that an observer judges as looking directly at them (eye contact). This study investigated the effects of a self-referential thinking manipulation and demographic factors on the gaze cone. In a preregistered experiment (N = 200), the self-referential thinking manipulation, as compared to a control manipulation, did not influence the gaze cone, or the use of first-person pronouns in a manipulation check measuring self-referential processing. This may indicate a failure of the manipulation and participants' lack of effort. However, participants' age was significantly correlated with both measures: older people had wider gaze cones and used more self-referring pronouns. A second experiment (N = 300) further examined the effect of the manipulation and demographic factors on self-referential processing, and the results were replicated. These findings may reflect age-related self-reference and positivity effects.

Comunicação não Verbal , Cone de Plantas , Humanos , Idoso , Percepção
Int J Nurs Stud ; 136: 104365, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327681


BACKGROUND: Many people living with dementia experience challenges comprehending language and benefit from nonverbal communication supports. Little published empirical evidence exists for care partners regarding supportive strategies for nonverbal communication with people living with dementia. This study aimed to conduct a scoping review of nonverbal strategies for care partners which have been observed to support communication with people living with dementia. METHODS: Current best practices for scoping research guided this review. CINAHL, PsycInfo, Scopus, and Pubmed databases were searched December 8, 2020. Empirical studies that examined the supportiveness of nonverbal communication strategies used by care partners of people living with dementia were eligible. All publication dates were included. Eligible studies were published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Studies were screened first by title and abstract, and subsequently by full-text review. Data charting was conducted using an evidence summary table, which was subsequently used for analysis. Results were presented in the form of a written summary. RESULTS: Sixteen studies were included in the final review. Six categories of supportive nonverbal communication strategies were identified: eye contact, gestures, facial expression, touch, close proximity, and frontal orientation. Studies observed six outcomes which indicated that these nonverbal strategies were supportive for communication with people living with dementia; however, person-centered outcomes were limited. CONCLUSIONS: The review identified supportive nonverbal communication strategies used by care partners with people living with dementia in the current literature. Disagreement exists in the literature regarding which outcomes define supportive nonverbal communication with people living with dementia. This in combination with the benefits of person-centered approaches to care with people living with dementia presents a critical need to delineate which nonverbal communication strategies are person-centered in future research. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Six supportive nonverbal communication strategies identified by scoping literature review, but there is disagreement in how the literature defines "supportive" @marie_y_s @EmmaBender19.

Demência , Humanos , Comunicação não Verbal , Atenção à Saúde , Pesquisa Empírica
Mol Autism ; 13(1): 42, 2022 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36309762


BACKGROUND: Deficits in establishing and maintaining eye-contact are early and persistent vulnerabilities of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and the neural bases of these deficits remain elusive. A promising hypothesis is that social features of autism may reflect difficulties in making predictions about the social world under conditions of uncertainty. However, no research in ASD has examined how predictability impacts the neural processing of eye-contact in naturalistic interpersonal interactions. METHOD: We used eye tracking to facilitate an interactive social simulation wherein onscreen faces would establish eye-contact when the participant looked at them. In Experiment One, receipt of eye-contact was unpredictable; in Experiment Two, receipt of eye-contact was predictable. Neural response to eye-contact was measured via the N170 and P300 event-related potentials (ERPs). Experiment One included 23 ASD and 46 typically developing (TD) adult participants. Experiment Two included 25 ASD and 43 TD adult participants. RESULTS: When receipt of eye-contact was unpredictable, individuals with ASD showed increased N170 and increased, but non-specific, P300 responses. The magnitude of the N170 responses correlated with measures of sensory and anxiety symptomology, such that increased response to eye-contact was associated with increased symptomology. However, when receipt of eye-contact was predictable, individuals with ASD, relative to controls, exhibited slower N170s and no differences in the amplitude of N170 or P300. LIMITATIONS: Our ASD sample was composed of adults with IQ > 70 and included only four autistic women. Thus, further research is needed to evaluate how these results generalize across the spectrum of age, sex, and cognitive ability. Additionally, as analyses were exploratory, some findings failed to survive false-discovery rate adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Neural response to eye-contact in ASD ranged from attenuated to hypersensitive depending on the predictability of the social context. These findings suggest that the vulnerabilities in eye-contact during social interactions in ASD may arise from differences in anticipation and expectation of eye-contact in addition to the perception of gaze alone.

Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Relações Interpessoais , Comunicação não Verbal
Rev. logop. foniatr. audiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 42(4): 178-185, Oct-Dic. 2022. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-211637


Antecedentes y objetivos: Mucho se ha discutido sobre el uso de la gestualidad en la afasia. Tradicionalmente, los estudios se han centrado en dos aspectos: a)determinar si su empleo se encuentra deteriorado o no en la afasia, y b)si la presencia o ausencia de fluidez tiene alguna influencia en su uso. Sin embargo, en español son pocas las investigaciones que han abordado el estudio de la gestualidad en la afasia y los aspectos antes mencionados. Por tal motivo, el objetivo de esta investigación es analizar el empleo de gestos en cuatro hablantes con afasia para saber si la gestualidad se mantiene a pesar de la patología y para determinar cuál es el papel que desempeña la fluidez en el uso de gestos. Materiales y métodos: Participaron cuatro sujetos con afasia —dos con afasia fluida y dos con afasia no fluida—, por lo que fueron distribuidos en dos grupos. El estudio fue de tipo descriptivo-exploratorio de las conductas no verbales de los participantes. A cada sujeto se le realizó una entrevista semiestructurada con la intención de promover un índice de participación alto. Se evaluó el tipo y la cantidad de gestos utilizados, considerando la variable fluidez/no fluidez, a partir de las propuestas teóricas de Cosnier (1987) y Ekman (2004), principalmente. Resultados: Se observó que los sujetos con afasia conservan el empleo de gestos; además, los participantes con afasia no fluida emplean más gestos con una alta carga semántica y sin la presencia de habla, mientras que los sujetos con afasia fluida emplean menos gestos y con la presencia de habla. Conclusiones: El habla y los gestos son dos procesos independientes que trabajan en paralelo, por lo que el uso de gestos puede permanecer a pesar de las alteraciones lingüísticas de los hablantes con afasia. Los gestos son empleados como estrategias compensatorias que ayudan a que los hablantes con afasia se comuniquen a pesar de la pérdida del habla.(AU)

Background and objective: Much has been discussed about the use of gestures in aphasia. Mainly, studies have been focused on two aspects: (i)to stablish if gestures are employed normally in aphasia or if there is some loss in this capacity, and (ii)to determine if fluency plays a major role. However, in Spanish there are few researches which has tackle study about gestuality in aphasia and the two aspects mentioned before. For this reason, the aim of this study is analyzing the use of gestures in four aphasic-speakers to figure out if gestuality remains despite pathology, and determine what role plays the fluency in the use of gestures. Materials and methods: A descriptive-exploratory study of four subjects with aphasia has been carried out: two with fluent aphasia and two with non-fluent aphasia. A semi-structured interview was conducted with each subject in order to obtain a high participation rate. The type and amount of gestures used were evaluated from the theoretical proposals of Cosnier (1987) and Ekman (2004) mainly, and considering the fluency/non-fluency variable. Results: Both groups employ gestures, but non-fluent subjects use more gestures with a high semantic content and with no speech, meanwhile fluent speakers use less gestures and accompanied of speech. Conclusions: Speech and gestures are two independent processes working in parallel, and gestures are utilized as compensatory strategies which help to speakers with aphasia to communicate despite loss of speech.(AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Afasia , Gestos , Comunicação não Verbal , Afasia Primária Progressiva não Fluente , Transtornos da Linguagem , Transtornos da Comunicação , Fala , Idioma , Fonoaudiologia
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 290: 849-853, 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35673138


Gaze is an important non-verbal behavior in patient-physician communication. We examine the effect of the physician's gaze direction in video consultations on their communication and interpersonal skills ratings. 51 subjects watched videos of a physician providing the same teleconsultations while (a) looking directly at the camera and (b) looking at the computer screen. After each video, the participants rated the physician's skills. The results showed that looking at the camera is perceived as making eye contact and is associated with higher ratings on two communication skill items: (1) using empathy to communicate appreciation of the patient's feelings, and (2) providing support by expressing concern, understanding, and willingness to help. The effect of eye contact depended on the content of the consultation and on the general attitude of the physician. These results highlight the role of eye contact in video consultations and its dependency on other verbal and non-verbal behaviors.

Médicos , Telemedicina , Comunicação , Humanos , Comunicação não Verbal , Relações Médico-Paciente
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 290: 1034-1035, 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35673192


Providing urgent and emergency care to migrant children is often hampered or delayed. Reasons for this are language barriers when children, and their care givers, don't speak any of the languages commonly spoken in Switzerland, which include German, French, Italian, and English. By a participatory design process, we want to develop a novel image-based digital communication aid tailored to the needs of migrant patients and nurses within Swiss paediatric clinics.

Barreiras de Comunicação , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Criança , Comunicação , Gestos , Humanos , Idioma , Comunicação não Verbal
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 32(supl.2B): 226-226, abr.-jun. 2022.
Artigo em Português | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, CONASS, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1377914


INTRODUÇÃO: O Cuidado Paliativo visa o cuidado integral do paciente desde o diagnóstico de uma doença ameaçadora à vida. A equipe multiprofissional que atua nos Cuidados Paliativos busca o alívio do sofrimento biopsicossocial e espiritual sendo a comunicação um pilar imprescindível no processo do cuidado. OBJETIVO: Relatar a atuação multidisciplinar nas questões relacionadas à comunicação não verbal no caso de M. em Cuidado Paliativo. RELATO DE CASO: M. tem histórico de três Infartos Agudo do Miocárdio prévios e Acidente Vascular Cerebral isquêmico 2021. Indicado Cuidados Paliativos devido Síndrome Coronariana Aguda anterior extenso com angioplastia sem sucesso evoluindo com disfunção ventricular grave. M. foi avaliado quanto à comunicação e apresentava um quadro de Afasia com compreensão preservada e dificuldade importante na expressão verbal e escrita o que o limitava na comunicação com a equipe e familiares. No trabalho fonoaudiológico, durante o período de internação, foram construídas pranchas de comunicação com as demandas do paciente contendo sentimentos, imagens dos verbos principais de ação, alimentos de sua rotina, elementos de vestuário e membros da família. E, desse modo, visou favorecer a comunicação do paciente com os familiares para expressar os seus desejos. Na conferência familiar um dado que a esposa contou foi que ao adoecer M. percebeu a proximidade da morte e gravou uma despedida com mensagens de agradecimentos e perdão. E, nesse momento, ele estava muito angustiado por não conseguir se comunicar pelo verbal. Os atendimentos psicológicos propiciaram uma abertura de escuta da comunicação não verbal que era expressada pelos gestos, o corpo que se agitava, o olhar que comunicava as emoções e com a postura. Os conteúdos trazidos eram a dor, o medo de ser abandonado, de não se recuperar e de ter que retornar à Unidade Terapia Intensiva caso piorasse. Foi realizada a diretiva antecipada respeitando o seu desejo e autonomia de caso piorar que fosse cuidado junto aos familiares sem ter o corpo invadido. A rede de apoio conteve e atendeu suas necessidades diminuindo a angústia. A questão relevante foi trabalhar a melhora do seu quadro e o preparo de M. para casa o que causou grande alívio pois estava menos ansioso e mais próximo à vida do que a morte. Também, a questão da autoimagem e do luto por suas perdas foram abordadas. CONCLUSÃO: Através desse caso mostramos a importância de buscar alternativas de comunicação não verbal na tentativa de melhorar a comunicação e minimizar o sofrimento do paciente, família e equipe.

Cuidados Paliativos , Disfunção Ventricular , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , AVC Isquêmico , Comunicação não Verbal , Psicologia
Rev. Enferm. Atual In Derme ; 96(38): 1-10, Abr-Jun. 2022.
Artigo em Português | BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1378617


Objetivo: Relatar, numa perspectiva reflexiva, a experiência vivenciada por internos de enfermagem no seu processo prático de formação a assistência de enfermagem a uma paciente surda hospitalizada. Método:Tratou-se de um estudo descritivo do tipo relato de experiência. A experiência foivivenciadaem um hospital de referência em cuidados intensivos cardiopulmonaresdo Estado do Ceará,durante ointernatohospitalarde acadêmicos de enfermagemde uma instituição de ensino superior federal, no ano de 2018.Essa experiência versa sobre as reflexões obtidas a partirda assistência em saúde prestada auma pacientede 50 anos,surda,admitida em umaUnidade de Terapia Intensiva. Foi possível acompanhá-lapordez dias.Resultados:Os discentesse depararam com dois grandes desafios: implementar os conhecimentos técnicos-teóricos baseados em evidência científica estudadosdurante a graduação; e prestar uma assistência de alta complexidade parauma paciente surda.Ambos os desafios foram importantes para processo de aprendizagem dos internos. Contudo, pode-se considerar que o mais complexo foi estabelecer uma comunicação eficaz na assistência.Considerações Finais:Aequipe da unidade de saúde prestou,mesmo comsuas limitações,uma assistência de qualidadeà paciente,pautada nos princípios éticos, morais e bioéticos.Aexperiência e reflexões descritas foram importantes para a aquisição e consolidação de conhecimentos técnicos-teóricos e o aprimoramento do julgamento clínico e crítico dos internos de enfermagem e de seus supervisores.

Objective: To report, in a reflective perspective, the experience lived by nursing interns in their practical process of training nursing care for a hospitalized deaf patient. Method:This was a descriptive study of the experience report type. The experience was lived in a reference hospital in cardiopulmonary intensive care in the State of Ceará, during the hospital internship of nursing students from a federal higher education institution, in 2018. This experience deals with the reflections obtained from the assistance in health care provided to a 50-year-old deaf patient admitted to an Intensive Care Unit. It was possible to accompany her for ten days. Results:The students faced two major challenges: implementing the technical-theoretical knowledge based on scientific evidence studied during graduation; and provide high-complexity care for a deaf patient. Both challenges were important for the interns' learning process. However, it can be considered that the most complex was to establish effective communication in care. Final Considerations: The health unit team provided, even with its limitations, quality care to the patient, based on ethical, moral and bioethical principles. The experience and reflections described were important for the acquisition and consolidation of technical-theoretical knowledge and the improvement of the clinical and critical judgment of the nursing interns and their supervisors.

Objetivo: Relatar, en una perspectiva reflexiva, la experiencia vivida por internos de enfermería en su proceso práctico de formación en el cuidado de enfermería a un paciente sordo hospitalizado. Método: Se trata de un estudio descriptivo del tipo relato de experiencia. La experiencia fue vivida en un hospital de referencia en cuidados intensivos cardiopulmonares en el Estado de Ceará, durante el internado hospitalario de estudiantes de enfermería de una institución federal de enseñanza superior, en 2018. Esta experiencia trata de las reflexiones obtenidas a partir de la asistencia en salud brindada a Paciente sordo de 50 años ingresado en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. Fue posible acompañarla durante diez días. Resultados:Los estudiantes enfrentaron dos grandes desafíos: implementar los conocimientos técnico-teóricos basados en evidencia científica estudiados durante la graduación; y brindar atención de alta complejidad a un paciente sordo. Ambos desafíos fueron importantes para el proceso de aprendizaje de los pasantes. Sin embargo, se puede considerar que lo más complejo fue establecer una comunicación efectiva en el cuidado. Consideraciones finales:El equipo de la unidad de salud brindó, aún con sus limitaciones, atención de calidad a la paciente, basadaen principios éticos, morales y bioéticos. La experiencia y reflexiones descritas fueron importantes para la adquisición y consolidación de conocimientos técnico-teóricos y la mejora del juicio clínico y crítico de los internos de enfermería y sus supervisores.

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Línguas de Sinais , Barreiras de Comunicação , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva , Comunicação não Verbal , Cuidados de Enfermagem
Rev. latinoam. cienc. soc. niñez juv ; 20(1): 188-209, ene.-abr. 2022. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365871


Resumen (analítico) El objetivo de la siguiente revisión sistemática fue indagar sobre la contribución diferencial del entorno socioeconómico en la capacidad de comunicación verbal y no verbal en los primeros tres años de vida. Se revisaron artículos de investigación empírica de los últimos 30 años en infantes con desarrollo típico. Se encontraron, en general, menores niveles respecto del desarrollo del habla y la comunicación expresiva y productiva en infantes de contextos vulnerables. Sin embargo, los resultados fueron inconsistentes respecto a la comunicación no verbal. Se concluye que se deben realizar más estudios con medidas directas comportamentales en comunicación no verbal para poder paliar las inconsistencias en los resultados actuales sobre la temática.

Abstract (analytical) The objective of this systematic literature review was to inquire about the differential contribution of socioeconomic environment to the capacity for verbal and non-verbal communication in the first three years of life. Empirical research articles from the last 30 years in normally developing infants were reviewed. In general, lower levels were identified among infants from vulnerable contexts in terms of speech development f and expressive and productive communication . However, the results were inconsistent in the area of non-verbal communication. It is concluded that more studies should be carried out with direct behavioral measures in relation to non-verbal communication in order to alleviate existing inconsistencies for the current results in this field.

Resumo (analítico) O objetivo da revisão sistemática a seguir foi indagar sobre a contribuição diferencial do meio socioeconômico na capacidade de comunicação verbal e não verbal nos primeiros três anos de vida. Artigos de pesquisa empírica dos últimos 30 anos em bebês com desenvolvimento típico foram revisados. Em geral, foram encontrados níveis mais baixos em relação ao desenvolvimento da fala e da comunicação expressiva e produtiva em bebês de contextos vulneráveis. No entanto, os resultados foram inconsistentes com relação à comunicação não verbal. Conclui-se que mais estudos devem ser realizados com medidas comportamentais diretas na comunicação não verbal, a fim de amenizar as inconsistências nos resultados atuais sobre o assunto.

Fala , Comunicação , Menores de Idade , Comunicação não Verbal
Inquiry ; 59: 469580211056194, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35341354


Communication is central to nursing care. Yet, the nonverbal aspect of communication tends to be neglected or underestimated in nursing studies. Research has shown that older patients interpret nurses' communication messages during the clinical encounter. This article conceptualizes older adults' interpretation of and need for nonverbal communication (NVC) to enhance patient-centered communication advocated by the World Health Organization. The Corbin and Strauss (2015) inductive Grounded Theory approach was used to collect data from 3 hospital units in Cameroon using in-depth interviews with eight older adults, thirteen nurses, and four student nurses between July 2018 and January 2020. Open coding, axial coding, and selective coding were used for analysis, which reveals that interpretations of NVC can be positive or negative. It means that older adults view nurses either as angels or as difficult persons, depending on the nurses' positive or negative NVC and behaviors. These interpretations lead to consequences ranging from a preference for some nurses to noncompliance with care. The results further show that older adults need active listening, humor, and affection from nurses. Information regarding older adults' interpretation of and need for NVC can be used to improve curriculum content and to develop skills in and awareness of NVC with older adults. It is recommended that further research expand on effective nonverbal techniques during COVID-19 times where the meaning of facial expressions and voice inflection can be disrupted.

COVID-19 , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Idoso , Camarões , Teoria Fundamentada , Humanos , Comunicação não Verbal
Rev. bras. med. fam. comunidade ; 17(44): 2586, 20220304.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, Coleciona SUS | ID: biblio-1379859


Introdução: Nos atendimentos clínicos realizados na Atenção Primária, não é incomum que pacientes chorem durante a consulta. No entanto, os profissionais que atuam nesse âmbito podem não se sentir preparados para lidar com esse cenário, em virtude da falta de conhecimento de ferramentas para lidar com esse tipo de demanda. Objetivo: Este estudo propôs-se a elencar e categorizar técnicas para a abordagem ao paciente que chora, por meio de entrevistas realizadas com preceptores do Programa de Residência em Medicina de Família e Comunidade (MFC) da Secretaria Municipal de Saúde do Rio de Janeiro. Método: Foram realizadas entrevistas com 16 preceptores, que foram gravadas, transcritas e analisadas segundo os preceitos de Bardin. Resultados: Como resultado, obteve-se o compilado de 94 citações de técnicas não verbais e 27 de técnicas verbais, além dos modos de aprendizado delas, que ocorreram sobretudo por conhecimentos obtidos na Residência em MFC, na experiência prática e na leitura de temas correlatos, destacando-se referências sobre comunicação clínica. Ademais, foram categorizados os motivos para o choro dos pacientes, os sentimentos dos médicos, os objetivos das técnicas utilizadas e se se considera que elas auxiliam tanto médicos quanto pacientes nessa situação. Conclusões: Conclui-se que as técnicas empregadas pertencem ao conjunto de ferramentas de comunicação clínica baseadas em empatia e vínculo, e que o primeiro contato com elas ocorre geralmente na Residência em MFC; posteriormente elas são aprimoradas com a experiência clínica. Nesse contexto, destaca-se a importância da ênfase dada ao tema durante a especialização e da educação continuada em benefício do médico e do paciente.

Introduction: During clinical consultations performed in Primary Care, it is not uncommon for patients to cry. However, the professionals that operate in this scope may feel unprepared to deal with this scenario, due to the lack of skills knowledge for the approach to patients with this kind of demand. Objective: This study aims to list and categorize techniques to approach a crying patient, through interviews with preceptors of the Family and Community Medicine (FCM) Residency Program from the Municipal Government of Rio de Janeiro. Methods: 16 preceptors were interviewed, and those interviews were recorded, transcribed and later analyzed according to Bardin's precepts. Results: As a result, we obtained a compilation of 94 quotations of non-verbal techniques and 27 of verbal techniques, as well as their learning methods, which occurred mainly through knowledge obtained during the Residency in FCM, practical experience and reading of related topics, highlighting the references about clinical communication. Moreover, reasons for patients crying, doctors' feelings, objectives of the techniques and whether they were considered to be helpful to both physicians and patients in this situation, were also categorized. Conclusions: It was concluded that the applied techniques belong to the set of clinical communication tools, based on empathy and bond, and that the first contact with these usually occurs at the FCM Residency and is later improved with clinical experience. In this context, stands out the importance of the emphasis given to the topic during specialization and continuing education for the benefit of the physician and the patient.

Introducción: En las consultas clínicas realizadas en la Atención Primaria no es raro que los pacientes lloren. Sin embargo, los profesionales que actúan en este ámbito pueden no sentirse preparados para lidiar con este escenario, debido a la falta de conocimiento de herramientas para manejar este tipo de demanda. Objetivo: Este estudio se propuso a enumerar y categorizar técnicas para abordaje al paciente que llora, a través de entrevistas realizadas con preceptores del Programa de Residencia en Medicina de Familia y Comunidad (MFC) de la prefectura de Rio de Janeiro. Métodos: Se realizaron entrevistas con 16 preceptores, las mismas fueron grabadas, transcritas y analizadas según los preceptos de Bardin. Resultados: Como resultado, se obtuvo un compilado de 94 citas de técnicas no verbales y 27 técnicas verbales, además de los modos de aprendizaje de las mismas, que ocurrió sobre todo por conocimientos obtenidos en la Residencia en MFC, experiencia práctica y lectura de temas relacionados, destacándose referencias sobre comunicación clínica. Además, fueron categorizados motivos para el llanto de los pacientes, sentimientos de los médicos, objetivos de las técnicas utilizadas y se consideran que las mismas auxilian, tanto médicos y pacientes, en esta situación. Conclusiones: Se concluye que las técnicas empleadas pertenecen al conjunto de herramientas de comunicación clínica, basadas en empatía y vínculo, y que el primer contacto con las mismas ocurre generalmente en la residencia en MFC, siendo posteriormente mejoradas con la experiencia clínica. En este contexto, se destaca la importancia del énfasis dado al tema durante la especialización y la educación continuada en beneficio del médico y del paciente.

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relações Médico-Paciente , Competência Clínica , Choro , Educação Médica , Comunicação não Verbal
Autism Res ; 15(4): 702-711, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35080154


A number of studies have reported diminished attention to the eyes in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These studies predominantly used static images of faces as stimuli. Recent studies, however, have shown enhanced response to eye contact in typically developing (TD) individuals when they observe a person in a live interaction. We investigated physiological orienting to perceived eye contact in adolescents with ASD and TD adolescents when they observed a person in live interaction or viewed a photograph of the same person's face. We measured heart rate (HR) deceleration as an index of attentional orienting. Adolescents with ASD, as well as TD adolescents, showed significant HR deceleration for the direct gaze compared to an averted gaze in the live condition, but not in the photographic condition. The results suggest an intact response to perceived eye contact in individuals with ASD during a live face-to-face interaction. LAY SUMMARY: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have a different eye gaze pattern when observing photographic faces. However, little is known about how individuals with ASD process a real person's face. We measured heart rate (HR) and found that adolescents with ASD showed the typical decline in HR when they made eye contact with a real person, which suggests that both groups of individuals directed their attention to eye contact in a live face-to-face interaction.

Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Adolescente , Fixação Ocular , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Comunicação não Verbal
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 44, 2022 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35091536


Patient-clinician concordance in behavior and brain activity has been proposed as a potential key mediator of mutual empathy and clinical rapport in the therapeutic encounter. However, the specific elements of patient-clinician communication that may support brain-to-brain concordance and therapeutic alliance are unknown. Here, we investigated how pain-related, directional facial communication between patients and clinicians is associated with brain-to-brain concordance. Patient-clinician dyads interacted in a pain-treatment context, during synchronous assessment of brain activity (fMRI hyperscanning) and online video transfer, enabling face-to-face social interaction. In-scanner videos were used for automated individual facial action unit (AU) time-series extraction. First, an interpretable machine-learning classifier of patients' facial expressions, from an independent fMRI experiment, significantly distinguished moderately painful leg pressure from innocuous pressure stimuli. Next, we estimated neural-network causality of patient-to-clinician directional information flow of facial expressions during clinician-initiated treatment of patients' evoked pain. We identified a leader-follower relationship in which patients predominantly led the facial communication while clinicians responded to patients' expressions. Finally, analyses of dynamic brain-to-brain concordance showed that patients' mid/posterior insular concordance with the clinicians' anterior insula cortex, a region identified in previously published data from this study1, was associated with therapeutic alliance, and self-reported and objective (patient-to-clinician-directed causal influence) markers of negative-affect expressivity. These results suggest a role of patient-clinician concordance of the insula, a social-mirroring and salience-processing brain node, in mediating directional dynamics of pain-directed facial communication during therapeutic encounters.

Encéfalo , Comunicação não Verbal , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Empatia , Expressão Facial , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Dor/diagnóstico por imagem
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261262, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35081111


Emotions at work have long been identified as critical signals of work motivations, status, and attitudes, and as predictors of various work-related outcomes. When more and more employees work remotely, these emotional signals of workers become harder to observe through daily, face-to-face communications. The use of online platforms to communicate and collaborate at work provides an alternative channel to monitor the emotions of workers. This paper studies how emojis, as non-verbal cues in online communications, can be used for such purposes and how the emotional signals in emoji usage can be used to predict future behavior of workers. In particular, we present how the developers on GitHub use emojis in their work-related activities. We show that developers have diverse patterns of emoji usage, which can be related to their working status including activity levels, types of work, types of communications, time management, and other behavioral patterns. Developers who use emojis in their posts are significantly less likely to dropout from the online work platform. Surprisingly, solely using emoji usage as features, standard machine learning models can predict future dropouts of developers at a satisfactory accuracy. Features related to the general use and the emotions of emojis appear to be important factors, while they do not rule out paths through other purposes of emoji use.

Emoções , Expressão Facial , Comunicação não Verbal , Comunicação , Humanos , Teletrabalho
BMC Palliat Care ; 21(1): 3, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980085


Denmark is considered one of the World's most secular societies, and spiritual matters are rarely verbalized in public. Patients report that their spiritual needs are not cared for sufficiently. For studying spiritual care and communication, twelve patients admitted to two Danish hospices were interviewed. Verbal and non-verbal communication between patients and healthcare professionals were identified and analysed. Methodically, the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used, and the findings were discussed through the lenses of existential psychology as well as philosophy and theory of caring sciences. Three themes were identified: 1. When death becomes present, 2. Direction of the initiative, and 3. Bodily presence and non-verbal communication. The encounter between patient and healthcare professional is greatly influenced by sensing, decoding, and interpretation. A perceived connection between the patient and the healthcare professional is of great importance as to how the patient experiences the relationship with the healthcare professional.The patient's perception and the patient's bodily experience of the healthcare professional are crucial to whether the patient opens up to the healthcare professional about thoughts and needs of a spiritual nature and initiates a conversation hereabout. In this way we found three dynamically connected movements toward spiritual care: 1. From secular to spiritual aspects of care 2. From bodily, sensory to verbal aspects of spiritual care and 3. From biomedical to spiritual communication and care. Thus, the non-verbal dimension becomes a prerequisite for the verbal dimension of spiritual communication to develop and unfold. The behaviour of the healthcare professionals, characterised by the way they move physically and the way they touch the patient, was found to be just as important as verbal conversation when it comes to spiritual care. The healthcare professional can create a connection to the patient through bodily and relational presence. Furthermore, the healthcare professionals should let their sensing and impressions guide them when meeting the patient in dialog about matters of a spiritual nature. Their perception of the patient and non-verbal communication are a prerequisite for being able to meet patient's spiritual needs with care and verbal communication.

Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida , Hospitais para Doentes Terminais , Dinamarca , Humanos , Comunicação não Verbal , Cuidados Paliativos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Espiritualidade
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 365, 2022 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35013481


The present pre-registered research provides the first evidence that a downwards head tilt is sufficient to communicate dominance from a neutral facial expression among the Mayangna, members of an unindustrialized, small-scale traditional society in Nicaragua who have had minimal exposure to North American culture. Consistent with the Action Unit imposter effect observed in North American populations (Witkower and Tracy in Psychol Sci 30:893-906, 2019), changes to the appearance of the upper face caused by a downwards head tilt were sufficient to elicit perceptions of dominance among this population. Given that the Mayangna are unlikely to associate a downwards head tilt or related apparent facial changes with dominance as a result of cross-cultural learning, the present results suggest that perceptions of dominance formed from a downwards head tilt, and the visual illusion shaping these perceptions, are a widely generalizable, and possibly universal, feature of human psychology.

Características Culturais , Expressão Facial , Movimentos da Cabeça , Ilusões , Índios Centro-Americanos , Postura , Predomínio Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nicarágua , Comunicação não Verbal , Adulto Jovem
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261354, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34995305


Previous research has shown deficits in vocal emotion recognition in sub-populations of individuals with hearing loss, making this a high priority research topic. However, previous research has only examined vocal emotion recognition using verbal material, in which emotions are expressed through emotional prosody. There is evidence that older individuals with hearing loss suffer from deficits in general prosody recognition, not specific to emotional prosody. No study has examined the recognition of non-verbal vocalization, which constitutes another important source for the vocal communication of emotions. It might be the case that individuals with hearing loss have specific difficulties in recognizing emotions expressed through prosody in speech, but not non-verbal vocalizations. We aim to examine whether vocal emotion recognition difficulties in middle- aged-to older individuals with sensorineural mild-moderate hearing loss are better explained by deficits in vocal emotion recognition specifically, or deficits in prosody recognition generally by including both sentences and non-verbal expressions. Furthermore a, some of the studies which have concluded that individuals with mild-moderate hearing loss have deficits in vocal emotion recognition ability have also found that the use of hearing aids does not improve recognition accuracy in this group. We aim to examine the effects of linear amplification and audibility on the recognition of different emotions expressed both verbally and non-verbally. Besides examining accuracy for different emotions we will also look at patterns of confusion (which specific emotions are mistaken for other specific emotion and at which rates) during both amplified and non-amplified listening, and we will analyze all material acoustically and relate the acoustic content to performance. Together these analyses will provide clues to effects of amplification on the perception of different emotions. For these purposes, a total of 70 middle-aged-older individuals, half with mild-moderate hearing loss and half with normal hearing will perform a computerized forced-choice vocal emotion recognition task with and without amplification.

Emoções/fisiologia , Comunicação não Verbal/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Idoso , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Surdez , Feminino , Auxiliares de Audição , Perda Auditiva/psicologia , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comunicação não Verbal/psicologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Percepção Social/psicologia , Fala/fisiologia , Suécia , Voz/fisiologia
Memorandum ; 3920220127.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1410453


O objetivo do artigo é compreender a noção de linguagem e expressão em Merleau-Ponty, de modo a evidenciar como se dá a gênese de sentido linguístico. Primeiro, optamos em expor o estado da questão na Fenomenologia da Percepção. Introduzimos o corpo como potência expressiva e significativa de mundo, e a linguagem como expressão atrelada ao caráter gestual da palavra. Em seguida, apresentamos a expressão da linguagem após a apropriação feita por Merleau-Ponty da linguística de Saussure. Por fim, enfocamos a articulação entre o sentido gestual da palavra e o caráter sistemático da língua: o sujeito falante, enquanto potência de atualização e criação de sentido, assume a língua à qual pertence, ao mesmo tempo em que a língua forma sua possibilidade de expressão.

This paper aims to understand the notion of language and expression in Merleau-Ponty, in order to show how the genesis of linguistic meaning occurs. First, we chose to showcase the state of this question in Phenomenology of Perception.We introduce the body as an expressive and significant power of world, and the language as an expression linked to the gestural character of the word. Then, we present the language expression after Merleau-Ponty's appropriation of Saussure's linguistics. Finally, we focus on the articulation between the gestural sense of the word and the systematic character of the language: the speaking subject, as a power of updating and creating meaning, assumes the language to which it belongs, at the same time that the language forms its possibility of expression.

Gestos , Idioma , Comunicação não Verbal
Artif Organs ; 46(3): 439-450, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637156


PURPOSE: To analyze the feasibility of eye-tracking (ET) devices as a communicative approach to the basic needs (BN) of intensive care unit (ICU) and invasively ventilated nonverbal patients. METHODS: Prospective, monocentric, and observational study including all patients without delirium, with an endotracheal tube or tracheostomy tube, with a history of invasive ventilation for more than 48 h, and inadequate nonverbal communication skills. The investigation was performed with commercially available ET devices (Tobii Dynavox I-15+) to express BN of ICU patients following a standardized 30-item yes-or-no questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 64 patients with a mean age of 58.6 years were included. The main diagnoses for ICU admission were major trauma (43.6%), sepsis (21.8%), and acute abdomen (15.6%). Pain during repositioning (69%), thirst (69%), sleep disorders (66%), fatigue (64%), and anxiety regarding the lifelong need for assistance (64%) were the main problems reported by the patients. However, most of the patients described expectations of health improvement (78%), good family support (66%), and an improvement in quality of life due to the use of ET devices (67%). CONCLUSION: The use of ET in selected ICU patients with impaired communication is feasible, allowing them to express their BN. Apart from knowing the patients' individual BN, the results of our BN questionnaire may provide guidance for improvement measures in the care of patients in the ICU who are unable to speak. We believe that ET is useful for inquiring about and expressing BN and, therefore, may be capable of improving patient-medical team interactions and patient satisfaction.

Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Comunicação não Verbal , Respiração Artificial , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Intubação Intratraqueal , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Traqueostomia
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 151(1): 121-136, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323536


Eye contact constitutes a strong communicative signal in human interactions and has been shown to modulate various cognitive processes and states. However, little is known about its impact on gaze-mediated attentional orienting in the context of its interplay with strategic top-down control. Here, we aimed at investigating how the social component of eye contact interacts with the top-down strategic control. To this end, we designed a gaze cuing paradigm with the iCub humanoid robot, in which iCub either established eye contact with the participants before averting its gaze or avoided their eyes. Across four experiments, we manipulated gaze cue validity to either elicit strategic top-down inhibitory activity (25% validity) or to allow for relaxing the control mechanisms (50% validity). Also, we manipulated the stimulus-onset-asynchrony (SOA) to examine the dynamics of the top-down modulatory effects. Our results showed that eye contact influenced the gaze cuing effect when the strategic control was not required, by prolonging the prioritized processing of the gazed-at locations. Thus, the effect was observed only when the measurement was taken after a sufficient amount of time (1,000 ms SOA). However, when inhibitory control was necessary (25% validity), the social component was not potent enough to exert influence over the gaze cuing effect independently. Overall, we propose that strategic top-down control is the primary driving force over the gaze cuing effect and that the social aspect plays a modulatory effect by prolonging prioritized processing of gazed-at locations. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).

Atenção , Fixação Ocular , Sinais (Psicologia) , Olho , Humanos , Comunicação não Verbal