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1.
J Hist Behav Sci ; 59(1): 62-69, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36533611

RESUMO

After the general societal and political change in November 1989 in Czechoslovakia, the subject "History of Psychology" became the stable component of curriculum of studying psychology at the Department of Psychology of Faculty of Arts of Charles University in Prague. The author of this paper has taught "History of Psychology" in Czech since 1998 for more than 20 years all students of psychology and he is teaching this subject the students of ERASMUS+ program from whole Europe, studying at Charles University in Prague, now. Indivisible part of the curriculum is represented by the history of Czechoslovak and Czech psychology. In References, the most important publications in the field of history of Czechoslovak and Czech psychology are presented.


Assuntos
Comunismo , Isoflavonas , Masculino , Humanos , História do Século XX , República Tcheca , Tchecoslováquia , Europa (Continente) , Sistemas Políticos
4.
Hist Psychol ; 25(4): 385-387, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395018

RESUMO

This short research report focuses on psychologist Leon Kamin, who is best known for his research on what became known as the Kamin (blocking) effect. In the 1970s and 1980s he became prominent both inside and outside of psychology, not for laboratory research but for his writings on the heritability of intelligence. Kamin was no stranger to political activism. He joined the Communist Party U.S.A. at age 17, when he was a sophomore at Harvard. By 1949, he was writing for the Daily Worker (pen name: Leo Soft) and was employed as its New England editor in 1949-1950. In January 1954, Kamin was called to testify by Joseph McCarthy's anti-Communist Senate subcommittee, which was visiting Boston and justified its interest in Harvard by citing its winning research grants from the U.S. Department of Defense. Kamin refused to "name names" and he was indicted for contempt of the Senate. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Ativismo Político , Estados Unidos , Masculino , Humanos , Adolescente , Comunismo , Inteligência , Boston , New England
5.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 52(5): 303-308, 2022 Sep 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36268666

RESUMO

A sequence of essential measures were taken by the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the government in the Southwest District, to rebuild social rules, carry out social changes and improve the local health situation in the beginning period of the New China. These measures referred to the construction of an administrative organization system, the recovery and rectification of medical and pharmaceutical administration, the training of health professionals, environmental pollution improvement and disease prevention and publicising medical and health knowledge. These measures not only improved health management but also promoted national unity and political identity. As a result, they helped solve the problems left by the local new democratic government and made social changes and consolidated the new national power.


Assuntos
Comunismo , Países em Desenvolvimento , China , Atenção à Saúde , Preparações Farmacêuticas
6.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 1420542, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36213035

RESUMO

Teaching evaluation (TE) is of great significance in education and can judge the value and appropriateness of the curriculum, which is a distinguished part of the educational work. Compared with other courses focusing on imparting knowledge, mental health not only imparts psychological knowledge but also cultivates Marxism students' (MSs) ability to adjust psychology and maintain mental health. Therefore, the evaluation of this course has a special character. As the unity of scientific world outlook and values, Marxism can promote students' mental health. When assessing students' ability to maintain mental health, the influence of Marxism should be taken into account. In this study, we first established an evaluation index system in line with the actual mental health considering the influence of Marxism and put forward a deep memory network with prior information (PI-DMN) to realize the aspect-based sentiment analysis (ABSA) of the student evaluation text. Combined with students' scoring of the course, the sentiment analysis results are used as the input dataset of LSTM model to realize the TE of mental health course. The data analysis exposes that Marxism can promote mental health, and the empirical analysis reveals that the accuracy of TE can be improved by considering the sentiment analysis of comment texts and can also be improved to a certain extent after aspect labeling of the dataset.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Saúde Mental , Comunismo , Currículo , Humanos , Estudantes/psicologia
7.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 1231601, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36089976

RESUMO

Popularizing contemporary Chinese Marxism is urgently needed in order to support the ongoing development of socialism with Chinese characteristics as well as the inherent necessity of Marxism. This essay views the popularization of Marxism as a turning point in the new media environment. It examines the necessity and reality of this popularization in the new media era, considers the new development needs of the popularization of Marxism in propaganda, and further unearths the original construction concepts of the popularization of the Marxism propaganda network. In parallel, a Marxist learning platform is built using data mining technology. Studies reveal that this algorithm has a high clustering accuracy and a recall rate that is about 6% higher than DECluster's. Additionally, this algorithm takes less time to execute under the same scale transaction set. This demonstrates the superior performance of this algorithm. The user's learning record and learning interests can be formed into an intuitive law using the algorithm presented in this study, which can be used to analyze and calculate the user's learning content related to Marxism. This law can then be used to assist the user in creating a customized learning plan for Marxism.


Assuntos
Comunismo , Análise por Conglomerados
8.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 5961735, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36060887

RESUMO

The core of socialist ideology is Marxist discourse power, which refers to Marxism's dominance in ideological education and dissemination as well as its dominant position throughout the entire social ideological system. Big data (BD) has altered how people think, captured recent advancements in the process of thinking development, enriched and advanced thinking science, and improved how people think in relation to the times. This paper examines the BD era's discourse power construction of Marxist ideology. The percentage of respondents who answered "several times a day" when asked if they listen to, watch, or read political news on a daily basis increased from 7.2 percent in 2018 to 17.5 percent in 2021. The percentage of "once a day" and "several times a week" responses also increased, but the response "once or twice a week" did not. Understanding the latest developments and ideas in human thinking in the age of BD can help us think more broadly and creatively, and it can also give us the theoretical groundwork and thinking power to advance the use and development of BD.


Assuntos
Big Data , Comunismo , Humanos
9.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 2201497, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35844938

RESUMO

From the perspective of comprehensive modernization, the Sinicization and modernization of Marxism are inseparable from the popularization of Marxism, which will promote the Sinicization and modernization of Marxism and make it more practical and vital. Time has changed, and the traditional ways and methods have faced a new pattern, but they still contain the practical value worth exploring and give full play to the contemporary function of beneficial historical experience. On the basis of drawing on historical experience, we follow the idea of establishing basic principles, focusing on important ways and looking for the development prospects, and discuss the discussion layer by layer in clear guidance, grasping the key points and thinking about the future. In today's era, with the development of the network, the popularization of Marxist philosophy has ushered in a period of opportunity for development, but at the same time, the development has also encountered some challenges. Based on the actual situation of contemporary China, in recent years, the popularization of Marxism has made great achievements, but it also presents the phenomenon of unbalanced overall development, low operation efficiency, and uneven cooling between the officials and the people. Under these conditions, popularizing network knowledge, developing network culture, improving relevant laws, and making its theories more popular are all important ways to realize the popularization of Marxist philosophy. The research on the popularization of Marxism and the academic level is more profound, while the practical practice is more lacking. In order to correct the bias of emphasizing science and theory, it is of strong practical significance to conduct in-depth theoretical research and practical discussion from the perspective of "ways and methods."


Assuntos
Comunismo , Filosofia , China , Eficiência , Humanos
10.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 7873226, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35692662

RESUMO

Marxist philosophy has always been attached to the practice. In the new age, Marxist philosophy needs to solve many problems, such as ecological destruction, environmental pollution, international conflicts, and technical innovation, and improve the integration of the Marxist philosophy system with China's national conditions. The premise of change is practice, and the premise of practice is dissemination. Promoting the dissemination of Marxist philosophy is the cornerstone of solving the blind spot in the process of Marxist philosophy popularization. Because of the development of Internet technology, in order to ensure the validity of the uploaded videos related to Marxist philosophy on the platform, combining the research on human visual perception and the advantages of the long-term recurrent convolutional network (LRCN) model in video content recognition, an attention mechanism-based LRCN model is proposed, which simulates the attention characteristics of the human brain in the deep learning model, considers the video content globally, and makes the attention of the model fall in the effective area of the whole video. The experiment uses HMDB51, UCF101, and YouTube-8M data sets, and the results show that the LRCN model based on the attention mechanism proposed in this paper can effectively improve the accuracy of video content recognition, and it can converge quickly during training to improve the efficiency of model training.


Assuntos
Comunismo , Mídias Sociais , Eficiência , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Filosofia
11.
EMBO Rep ; 23(6): e55285, 2022 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499106

RESUMO

Russia's invasion of Ukraine is the continuation of Soviet communism's aggressive expansion. But as under communism, freedom of thought will prevail.


Assuntos
Comunismo , Ucrânia
12.
J Hist Ideas ; 83(1): 87-109, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35185025

RESUMO

The Laozi (or Daodejing) is unique within the global transmission of ideas as the most translated philosophical work. This article confirms the proliferation of this classic (1930 translations in 94 languages) and employs the framework of Global Laozegetics to engage the diversity of interpretations included within this material. Its first section covers various early renderings in Asia and Europe, while its second section highlights how translations form interpretive lineages that transmit ideological readings, including fascist, anarchist, Marxist, and self-realizationist ones. Comprehending the complex global reception of the Laozi elucidates which versions impacted which people, including figures like Tolstoy and Heidegger.


Assuntos
Comunismo , Filosofia , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Tradução , Traduções
13.
Econ Hum Biol ; 45: 101117, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35193042

RESUMO

We study whether a democracy improves a measure of individual wellbeing: human heights. Drawing on individual-level datasets, we test the democracy and height hypothesis using a battery of eight different measures of democracy and we account for several potential confounders, regional and cohort fixed effects. We document that democracy - or its quality during early childhood - shows a strong and positive conditional correlation with male, but not female, adult stature. Our preferred estimates suggest that being born in a democracy increases average male stature from a minimum of 1.33 to a maximum of 2.4 cm. We also show a positive association when democracy increases from childhood to adolescence, and when we adopt measures of existing democratic capital before birth, and at the end of height plasticity in early adulthood. We also document that democracy is associated with a reduction in inequality of heights distribution. Our estimates are driven by period-specific heterogeneity, namely, early democratizations are associated with taller people more than later ones. Results are robust to the inclusion of countries exposed to communism.


Assuntos
Estatura , Democracia , Adolescente , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Comunismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Parto , Gravidez
14.
Hist Sci ; 60(3): 383-404, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573403

RESUMO

From 17 to 22 October 1955, Madrid hosted the UNESCO Festival of Science. In the early years of the Cold War, in a dictatorial country that had recently been admitted into the international community, the festival aimed to spread science to the public through displays of scientific instruments, public lectures, book exhibitions, science writers professional associations, and debates about the use of different media. In this context, foreign visitors, many of whom came from liberal democracies, seemed comfortable in the capital of a country ruled by a dictatorship that had survived after the defeat of fascism in the Second World War and was struggling to gain foreign recognition after years of isolation.This article analyzes the political role of science popularization in Madrid at that time. It approaches the apparently puzzling marriage between UNESCO's international agenda for peace and democracy and the interests of the Francoist elites. Shared views of technocratic modernity, the fight against communism, and a diplomacy that served Spanish nationalism, paved the way for the alliance.


Assuntos
Fascismo , Férias e Feriados , Comunismo , Sistemas Políticos/história , UNESCO
15.
Hist Psychol ; 25(1): 68-90, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197131

RESUMO

This article will compare the life and work of two Marxist psychologists of the midtwentieth century, George Politzer (1903-1942) and Ferenc Mérei (1909-1986). Both were Hungarian Jews who were educated at the French Sorbonne. They were both involved in covert activities related to the French Communist movement in the 1920 and 1930s. As young communist intellectuals, they combined Marxist ideology with the need to elaborate a new psychology. I present their work as an alternative to better known versions of Marxist psychology, namely, Freudo-Marxism and Soviet action theories. Unlike these theories, Politzer and Mérei created a partly empirical, partly theoretical psychological oeuvre that operationalized the ideas of a concrete dramatic psychology anchored in the actual social life of humans. Politzer and Mérei shared desire for a psychology that is rooted in dynamics, changes, and interactions-a psychology that is rooted in the human drama, rather than in abstractions of academic laboratory psychology, and in the static topography of Freud. For Politzer, the critique of traditional psychology was mainly conceptual. Mérei looked for concrete psychology in data from field work in social psychology and from applied clinical research. The work of Mérei provided an empirical, concrete psychology, which eventually led to an influx of many new psychologists within the field in Hungary. Politzer's contributions, in contrast, remained largely conceptual and philosophical. The main message of their work is that it is an almost impossible task to combine a Marxist-Communist engagement with a commitment toward traditional civic values of enlightenment and rationality. The combination of social-political commitment and an analysis of concrete human interactions remained a formal combination, rather than a real synthesis. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comunismo , Psicologia Social , História do Século XX , Humanos , Hungria , Psicologia Social/história
16.
Hist Psychol ; 25(2): 170-189, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516192

RESUMO

The present article assesses the hidden importance of Georges Politzer's (1903-1942) work in the development of French philosophy and psychology. After sketching his biography and isolating the most important concepts developed in his book Critique of the Foundations of Psychology (1928), this article proceeds by dividing his reception into four distinct moments, the features of which derive from the interconnected mutations of the scientific field in its relation with the transformation of the political field. In the first moment, the publication of the Critique, Politzer's most important work, played an essential role in introducing psychoanalysis into philosophy, psychology, and psychiatry, and in sketching the path of a possible encounter between psychoanalysis and Marxism. In the second moment, during the 1940s and the 1950s, following Politzer's Marxist auto-critique, French communists widely rejected psychoanalysis as a dangerous ideology. In the third moment, during the 1960s in a context marked by structuralism, both the psychoanalysts and the Marxists addressed to Politzer's humanism a new, theoretical, critique. Finally, at the end of the 1960s and even more after May 1968, Politzer's works were republished and reevaluated, and new transformations taking place in the intellectual and political field during the 1970s contributed to a better understanding of Politzer's essential role in French philosophy, psychology, and psychoanalysis. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Psiquiatria , Psicanálise , Comunismo , França , História do Século XX , Filosofia , Psicologia
17.
Integr Psychol Behav Sci ; 56(2): 355-367, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34699019

RESUMO

In this paper, I examine a Chinese family's oral history, which revolves around their tumultuous life transformations under the impact of China's communist movement between 1940 and 1977. Using interviews with four siblings who have distinctive personalities and life narratives, I focus on how they apply fatalistic thinking-a phenomenon popular among ordinary Chinese but is rarely analyzed by scholars-to make sense of the vicissitudes of the fates of the family members. I position the Chinese family's oral history in macro and micro contexts. In the macro context, since the land reform in 1940s, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) had attempted to replace peasants' fatalistic thinking with class analysis to explain the roots of hardships in their lives. As the communist movement and class struggle receded, fatalistic thinking-which has never been eradicated-revived. In the micro context, fatalistic thinking is expressed through distinctive memories and narratives, which are linked to personalities and identities. I argue that fatalistic thinking is a mean of self-construction that people consciously or unconsciously resort to when facing absurdity. By using fatalistic thinking, people develop narratives about the self and create a sense of mental balance.


Assuntos
Comunismo , População Rural , China , Humanos
18.
Textos contextos (Porto Alegre) ; 21(1): 39058, 2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283191

RESUMO

O objetivo desse artigo é tratar do significado do fenômeno do "duplo poder", algo presente desde as revoluções burguesas até as revoluções proletárias. Os sovietes (conselhos) de trabalhadores das Revoluções Russas de 1905 e 1917 ganham destaque no texto como exemplos da dualidade de poder. A questão que surge é se toda a revolução proletária deve necessariamente passar por um momento de duplo poder, ou, ao contrário, o choque entre dois Estados é algo que se tornou anacrônico. O texto contém observações de autores que participaram ativamente de revoluções, como Marx, Engels, Lênin, Trotsky, Zinoviev, Rosa Luxemburgo e Gramsci, além de diversos comentadores. Com este texto pretende-se contribuir com o debate sobre a estratégia a ser assumida pelo proletariado mundial.


This article approaches the meaning of the phenomenon of double power which is observed since the bourgeois revolutions until the proletarian revolutions. The workers' soviets (councils) of the Russians Revolutions of 1905 and 1917 are highlighted as examples of the duality of power. The relevant issue here is whether the whole proletarian revolution must necessarily undergo a moment of double power or, otherwise, the clash between two States is something that has become anachronistic. The text contains observations from authors who actively took part of revolutions, such as Marx, Engels, Lenin, Trotsky, Zinoniev, Rosa Luxemburgo and Gramsci in addition to several commentators. This article intends to contribute to the debate on the strategy to be assumed by the worldwide proletariat.


Assuntos
Poder Psicológico , Comunismo , Categorias de Trabalhadores , Política , Classe Social
19.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2022. 88 f p. tab, graf, fig.
Tese em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379065

RESUMO

O estudo buscou explorar o papel do Estado na condução Política Nacional de Atenção Integral à Saúde do Adolescente em Conflito com a Lei - PNAISARI no Estado do Rio de Janeiro a partir das contribuições da Economia Política Marxista. Argumenta-se que o Estado é um espaço relacional, complexo e contraditório permeado pela disputa de visões sociais de mundo e que a implementação de políticas públicas, incluindo as políticas de saúde, ocorrem em torno do conflito distributivo. No estudo de caso da PNAISARI foi evidenciado que a publicação das portarias 1.082 e 1.083 levou a indução da descentralização da política aos municípios contribuindo no reconhecimento do direito à saúde dos adolescentes em atendimento socioeducativa e na responsabilidade sanitária do município perante as unidades socioeducativas reforçando o princípio da incompletude institucional previsto no SINASE. O processo de descentralização da política aos municípios foi caracterizado pela baixa participação da Secretaria Estadual de Saúde levando a pactuações interfederativas frágeis e com baixa interlocução entre os gestores da saúde e do socioeducativo na corresponsabilização pela saúde dos adolescentes. Neste cenário, ainda persistem os problemas estruturais do SUS que dificultam ou mesmo impossibilitam a atenção integral à saúde desta população. Desta forma, concluísse que consolidar o direito à saúde dos adolescentes envolve considerar a determinação social da saúde que condiciona a vida e a saúde dos adolescentes e de suas familias. E, ainda, necessariamente o enfrentamento a ideologia neoliberal que impossibilita a conformação de um modelo de proteção social no Brasil.


The present study explored of the State in steering the National Policy on Comprehensive Health Care of Adolescents in Conflict with the Law (PNAISARI) in the State of Rio de Janeiro the contributions of the Marxist Political Economy. It discusses that the State is a relational, complex, and contradictory permeated by the dispute of different ideological views and that the development of public policies, including health policies, happens in the context of a distributive conflict. In the case study of the PNAISARI, it became evident that the publication of resolutions 1.082 e 1.083 leaded to the decentralization to municipalities contributing in the acknowledgement of the right to health of the adolescents under socio-educational measures and in the sanitary responsibility of the municipalities. The decentralization process of the health system to the municipalities was characterized by a low commitment of the State Secretary of Health leading to fragile negotiations and little dialog between health and socio-educational public managers in the commitment to adolescent´s health. In this context, the structural problems of the SUS that limits the possibilities of comprehensive and universal care. As conclusions, the dissertation reaffirms that the right to health of adolescents includes confronting the social determinants of health that deeply influence their lives and health, fighting against the neoliberal ideology that impedes the development of universal social protection in Brazil.


Assuntos
Política Pública , Comunismo , Estado , Saúde do Adolescente Institucionalizado , Direito à Saúde , Política de Saúde , Brasil
20.
Edumecentro ; 13(4): 303-309, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345964

RESUMO

RESUMEN Entre los temas más debatidos en el VIII Congreso del Partido Comunista de Cuba destaca el trabajo político-ideológico con los jóvenes, teniendo en cuenta las peculiaridades del nuevo escenario en que transcurre el debate cultural revolucionario de estos tiempos. Para lograr este propósito, una vía aprovechable lo constituye el espacio curricular brindado a las asignaturas comprendidas por el ciclo de Marxismo Leninismo, implementado con el Plan E para la universidad médica; de ahí que los autores se propusieron socializar estas ideas a través de las páginas de la revista con toda la comunidad docente, en función de fortalecer el trabajo formativo en los egresados.


ABSTRACT Among the most debated topics in the VIII Congress of the Communist Party of Cuba, the political-ideological work with young people stands out, taking into account the peculiarities of the new scene in which the revolutionary cultural debate of these times is taking place. To achieve this purpose, an exploitable way is constituted by the curricular space offered to the subjects comprised by the cycle of Marxism Leninism, implemented with Plan E for the medical university; Hence, the authors set out to socialize these ideas through the pages of this journalwith the entire teaching community, in order to strengthen the training work in graduates.


Assuntos
Filosofia , Comunismo , Educação Médica , Ativismo Político , Humanismo
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