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1.
Investig. psicol. (La Paz, En línea) ; (supl.): 53-61, sept. 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343818

RESUMO

Los principios del pensamiento complejo que contempla la investigación consisten en enlazar, tejer conceptualmente y entablar diálogos de saberes a través de un recorrido histórico que permite una aproximación de la vida psíquica y la concepción aymara de la locura. Estos son transmitidos por discursos, mitos y ritos. Las investigaciones respecto a la locura privilegian estudios referidos a la medicina occidental, dejando de lado aspectos que aún perviven en el imaginario de los pueblos. Para esta investigación se utilizó el método etnológico y complementariamente el método analítico-interpretativo, junto al análisis de discurso y el método genealógico


The research works with the principles of complex thinking by linking and conceptually weaving them towards the establishment of dialogues of knowledge through an historical journey that allows an aproximation between psychic life and the Aymara conception of madness. The same dialogues of knowledge that are passed down by discurses, myths and rites. The research on insanity usually priviledges Western medicine studies, leaving aside aspects that still survive in people's mind and collective thinking. Both the ethnological method and the analytical-interpretive method were used in the development of the present reseach, as well as discourse analysis and the genealogical method.


Os princípios do pensamento complexo que a pesquisa contempla consistem em vincular, tecer conceitualmente, estabelecer um diálogo de saberes por meio de um percurso histórico que permite uma aproximação da vida psíquica e da concepção aimará de loucura, transmitida por discursos, mitos e ritos, As pesquisas sobre a loucura privilegiam os estudos relacionados à medicina ocidental, deixando de lado aspectos que ainda sobrevivem no imaginário dos povos. Utilizou-se o método etnológico e, adicionalmente, o método analítico-interpretativo, a análise do discurso e o método genealógico.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria Comunitária
2.
Soc Sci Med ; 285: 114297, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388620

RESUMO

This article explores how the integration of digital technology into healthcare processes of social psychiatry impacts the healthcare professional-patient relation. To this end, it adopts a new materialist perspective, viewing the context of social psychiatry as an assemblage of human and technological components and their relations. We draw on a qualitative study of the introduction of an mHealth platform including shared calendars, messaging, and video calls into the care processes of a social psychiatry out-patient setting in Denmark. The study demonstrates how technology acceptance is facilitated by familiarity and relational trust, how the platform streamlines routine care tasks by providing shared structures, and how the platform allows for a multi-channel approach to interactional care. The analysis reveals an emerging type of care interaction, detached co-involvement, which appears to strengthen the healthcare professional-patient relation and concomitantly increase patient autonomy by facilitating temporally and spatially detached albeit more frequent interactions. The implications of these findings extend beyond the context of social psychiatry. First, they demonstrate that the careful integration of digital technology into care processes has the potential to increase the involvement of and even empower mentally vulnerable patients. Second, they demonstrate how adding such technology can extend an assemblage temporally and spatially and, consequently, allow components to remain attached to it while they attach to and detach from other assemblages.


Assuntos
Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Telemedicina , Psiquiatria Comunitária , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Relações Profissional-Paciente
3.
J Community Psychol ; 49(6): 1718-1731, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34004017

RESUMO

Large amounts of text-based data, like study abstracts, often go unanalyzed because the task is laborious. Natural language processing (NLP) uses computer-based algorithms not traditionally implemented in community psychology to effectively and efficiently process text. These methods include examining the frequency of words and phrases, the clustering of topics, and the interrelationships of words. This article applied NLP to explore the concept of equity in community psychology. The COVID-19 crisis has made pre-existing health equity gaps even more salient. Community psychology has a specific interest in working with organizations, systems, and communities to address social determinants that perpetuate inequities by refocusing interventions around achieving health and wellness for all. This article examines how community psychology has discussed equity thus far to identify strengths and gaps for future research and practice. The results showed the prominence of community-based participatory research and the diversity of settings researchers work in. However, the total number of abstracts with equity concepts was lower than expected, which suggests there is a need for a continued focus on equity.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria Comunitária/métodos , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade/métodos , Equidade em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Descoberta do Conhecimento/métodos , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto
4.
Cult Med Psychiatry ; 45(3): 359-384, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905076

RESUMO

In the mid-twentieth century, in the aftermath of WWII and the Nazi atrocities and in the midst of decolonisation, a new discipline of transcultural psychiatry was being established and institutionalised. This was part and parcel of a global political project in the course of which Western psychiatry attempted to leave behind its colonial legacies and entanglements, and lay the foundation for a more inclusive, egalitarian communication between Western and non-Western concepts of mental illness and healing. In this period, the infrastructure of post-colonial global and transcultural psychiatry was set up, and leading psychiatric figures across the world embarked on identifying, debating and sometimes critiquing the universal psychological characteristics and psychopathological mechanisms supposedly shared among all cultures and civilisations. The article will explore how this psychiatric, social and cultural search for a new definition of 'common humanity' was influenced and shaped by the concurrent global rise of social psychiatry. In the early phases of transcultural psychiatry, a large number of psychiatrists were very keen to determine how cultural and social environments shaped the basic traits of human psychology, and 'psy' practitioners and anthropologist from all over the world sought to re-define the relationship between culture, race and individual psyche. Most of them worked within the universalist framework, which posited that cultural differences merely formed a veneer of symptoms and expressions while the universal core of mental illness remained the same across all cultures. The article will argue that, even in this context, which explicitly challenged the hierarchical and racist paradigms of colonial psychiatry, the founding generations of transcultural psychiatrists from Western Europe and North America tended to conceive of broader environmental determinants of mental health and pathology in the decolonising world in fairly reductionist terms-focusing almost exclusively on 'cultural difference' and cultural, racial and ethnic 'traditions', essentialising and reifying them in the process, and failing to establish some common sociological or economic categories of analysis of Western and non-Western 'mentalities'. On the other hand, it was African and Asian psychiatrists as well as Marxist psychiatrists from Eastern Europe who insisted on applying those broader social psychiatry concepts-such as social class, occupation, socio-economic change, political and group pressures and relations etc.-which were quickly becoming central to mental health research in the West but were largely missing from Western psychiatrists' engagement with the decolonising world. In this way, some of the leading non-Western psychiatrists relied on social psychiatry to establish the limits of psychiatric universalism, and challenge some of its Eurocentric and essentialising tendencies. Even though they still subscribed to the predominant universalist framework, these practitioners invoked social psychiatry to draw attention to universalism's internal incoherence, and sought to revise the lingering evolutionary thinking in transcultural psychiatry. They also contributed to re-imagining cross-cultural encounters and exchanges as potentially creative and progressive (whereas early Western transcultural psychiatry primarily viewed the cross-cultural through the prism of pathogenic and traumatic 'cultural clash'). Therefore, the article will explore the complex politics of the shifting and overlapping definitions of 'social' and 'cultural' factors in mid-twentieth century transcultural psychiatry, and aims to recover the revolutionary voices of non-Western psychiatrists and their contributions to the global re-drawing of the boundaries of humanity in the second half of the twentieth century.


Assuntos
Etnopsicologia , Transtornos Mentais , Psiquiatria Comunitária , Comparação Transcultural , Humanos
6.
Riv Psichiatr ; 56(1): 26-35, 2021.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560272

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a relevant public health issue due to its consequences on physical and mental health (mainly depression and post traumatic stress disorder) and then on the healthcare system. AIMS: The main goal of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and consequences of IPV in a sample of women admitted to an outpatient clinic for anxiety and depression (VADEMECUM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study with 150 patients who entered the aforementioned outpatient clinic of the ASST San Gerardo Hospital in Monza (Italy) during the period October 2016-May 2017. All participants completed a screening questionnaire investigating IPV and the K6 questionnaire as index of psychological distress. RESULTS: Among 150 women, 36 (24%) were victims of IPV: 35 with emotional abuse, 23 with physical abuse, and 7 with sexual abuse. In the "abused" group, 80% of women had psychic and physical health consequences, whilst 53% requested help from relatives/friends and/or healthcare staff. Conjugal status (p=0.024), voluntary pregnancy interruptions (p=0.015), anxiety episodes history (p=0.028), previous or current psychological treatment (p=0.001 and p=0.036, respectively), (K6) levels of psychological distress (p=0.0004) and child abuse (p=0.012) were significantly associated with IPV. CONCLUSIONS: "Abused" women have positive psychiatric history of anxiety, greater demand for psychological care, child abuse and worst psychological distress status compared to "not abused". This evidence as well as the high IPV prevalence found in our study suggest the need for appropriate screening and specific treatment pathways in psychiatric services.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Delitos Sexuais , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Criança , Psiquiatria Comunitária , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Prevalência , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
7.
Community Ment Health J ; 57(3): 438-441, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400048

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted community mental health center (CMHC) operations by limiting in-person access to patients and contributing to staff absenteeism. States adjust social distancing levels over time in response to changes in economic needs, healthcare system utilization, and COVID-19 virus transmission levels. Community mental health centers also need to balance service needs with infection risk, which requires adjusting social distancing levels in response to changes in the local conditions. This article will: (1) briefly describe epidemiological indicators most useful for judging the local infection trends, (2) describe a strategy for organizing specific agency clinical functions on a social distancing level scale, (3) propose a set of agency phases to inform administrative responses to changes in the risk to operations, and (4) discuss the role of psychiatrists as physicians in a mental health agency during a pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Psiquiatria Comunitária , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Papel do Médico , Médicos/psicologia , Psiquiatria , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distanciamento Físico , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Eval Clin Pract ; 27(4): 767-775, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although mental health clinics are under increasing pressure to demonstrate value and routine outcome monitoring (ROM) has become a mandated component of care, providers have been slow to adopt ROM into practice, with some estimating that less than 20% of mental health clinicians use it consistently in the United States. This article explores perceived barriers and facilitators to integrating ROM into practice among clinicians and administrators in a large urban US community psychiatry clinic. METHOD: One hundred and thirty-eight clinical and administrative staff were administered an anonymous web-based survey to elicit attitudes towards ROM. Responses were summarized descriptively and qualitatively synthesized into a conceptual model using inductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: Common barriers to integration included insufficient time to collect and/or use measures, not knowing what measures to use, measures being difficult to access, and insufficient training. Facilitators included increased access/ease of use, training and support, measure relevance/validity, and accountability. CONCLUSIONS: In order for psychiatry clinics to successfully implement ROM into practice, they must diagnose organization-side barriers and translate this knowledge into actionable quality improvement initiatives ranging from the infrastructural to the cultural.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Melhoria de Qualidade , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Psiquiatria Comunitária , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
9.
Psychiatr Serv ; 72(1): 91-93, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076793

RESUMO

The increasing need for psychiatry services in medically underserved communities has proven to be challenging for health care systems. Caring for this population is complex and can be overwhelming for the inexperienced provider. Proper utilization of psychiatric and mental health nurse practitioners in this setting can expedite meeting the mental health needs of the community. A postgraduate fellowship program that provides supervision and additional training specific to community psychiatry facilitates the transition from novice provider to experienced clinician while aiming to improve retention rates. In this Open Forum, the authors outline the structure of a federally qualified health center's Community Psychiatry Nurse Practitioner Fellowship.


Assuntos
Bolsas de Estudo , Profissionais de Enfermagem , Psiquiatria Comunitária , Pessoal de Saúde , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Humanos
10.
Psychiatriki ; 31(4): 289-292, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Grego Moderno | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361058

RESUMO

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, all European countries were hit, but mortality rates were heterogenous, with some countries being hit very hard, while others including Greece had a much lower death rate during the first wave of spring 2020. The ultra-fast application of measures was probably the reason of this outstanding success. This outbreak is expected to trigger feelings of fear, worry, and stress, as responses to an extreme threat for the community and the individual. In addition, changes in social behavior, as well as in working conditions, daily habits and routine, are expected to impose further stress, especially with the expectation of an upcoming economic crisis and possible unemployment. In Greece, where the lockdown was extremely successful in terms of containing the outbreak, worries concerning the possible adverse effects on mental health were also predominant. A collaboration concerning mental health during the COVID-19 outbreak was established, between the Aristotle University School of Medicine, the Panhellenic Medical Association and the World Psychiatric Association. Two large multinational studies were launched, one concerning the general population and one university students. Students' mental health is an area of special interest, both because of the vulnerability of this age group as well as because any disruption during the time of the studies has profound long-term consequences in the lives of the individuals, and this might trigger feelings of fear, worry, and stress. According the results from the Greek arm of the students' study, during the lockdown, two-thirds of university students reported at least 'much' increase in anxiety, one third in depressive feelings and in 2.59% concerning suicidal thoughts. There was also a worsening of quality of life and deterioration of lifestyle issues. Major depression was present in 12.43% with an additional 13.46% experiencing severe distress. Beliefs in conspiracy theories enjoyed wide acceptance ranging from 20-68%, with students of law, literature, pedagogics, political sciences and related studies manifesting higher acceptance rates. Female sex and depression/dysphoria both independently but also in interaction were related to higher rates of such beliefs. The results of the Greek arm of the general population study suggested that during the lockdown, clinical depression was present in 9.31%, with an additional 8.5% experiencing severe distress. Increased anxious and depressive emotions (including subclinical cases) were present in more than 40% of the population. In persons with a previous history of depression, 23.31% experienced depression vs. 8.96% of cases without previous history, who were experiencing their first depressive episode. Family dynamics suggested that fewer conflicts and better quality of relationships were surprisingly related to higher anxiety and depressive emotions, higher rates of depression and distress, and greater rates of suicidal thoughts. Eventually, spiritual and religious affiliation could protect the individual from the emerging suicidal thoughts. As correlation does not imply causation, the results suggest that conspiracy theories could be either the cause of depression or on the contrary a coping mechanism against depression. After taking into consideration that also in the family environment the expression of anger seemed to be a protective factor, the most likely explanation could be that the beliefs in conspiracy theories are a coping and 'protective' mechanism against the emergence of depression. These studies were among the first published, they went deeper in the data collection and even led to the creation of a model with distinct stages for the development of mental disorders during the lockdown. The analysis of the international data will probably provide further insight into the prevalence of mental disorders and the universal but also culturally specific models and factors pertaining to their development. At the time this editorial was in press, more than 40 countries representing more than two thirds of earth's population were participating with more than 45,000 responses already gathered.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , COVID-19 , Psiquiatria Comunitária , Saúde Mental/tendências , Angústia Psicológica , Pesquisa Comportamental/organização & administração , Pesquisa Comportamental/tendências , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Psiquiatria Comunitária/métodos , Psiquiatria Comunitária/tendências , Saúde Global , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , SARS-CoV-2 , Comportamento Social
11.
12.
Rev Salud Publica (Bogota) ; 21(1): 122-127, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206919

RESUMO

Due to the need to transform psychiatric care and transcend from a model focused on clinical care towards a community model, Mentalmente Sanos (Mentally Healthy) emerges as an initiative from the academy under the teaching services agreement between the Universidad del Valle and the State Social Enterprises Health Network E.S.E Ladera. This support group, created in 2009 by people with mental disabilities who participate freely and voluntarily, promotes processes of social inclusion and social skills in everyday life. It convenes students and professors of Occupational therapy, Medicine and Psychiatry. Methodologically speaking, it is a space of joint construction based on the approach of the capacities and the community. Activities are planned and developed weekly ensuring the participation of all parties involved, taking into account their interests, concerns and capacities. Mentalmente Sanos, besides enabling social inclusion processes and the implementation of a community approach, is an opportunity to reflect on the construction of the individual from a social model of disability and the importance of linking institutional actors to ensure the implementation of community care strategies.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Adulto , Colômbia , Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental/métodos , Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Participação da Comunidade/métodos , Psiquiatria Comunitária , Feminino , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Ocupacional/métodos , Terapia Ocupacional/organização & administração , Inclusão Social , Estigma Social , Apoio Social
13.
Soins Psychiatr ; 41(328): 26-29, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039088

RESUMO

The care programmes are medical-legal and therapeutic systems that showcase different spaces, the law, the patient's clinic, their freedom and their rights. In this context, the patient preserves their freedom to come and go. In applying the care programme, the doctor must acquire their approval, not to say consent. Outside hospitalisation, the care programmes bring patients and teams together within the city. The matter of social and community psychiatry, a vector of catchment-area psychiatry, then makes full sense.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Psiquiatria Comunitária , Liberdade , Humanos , Direitos do Paciente
14.
Psychiatr Serv ; 71(9): 969-970, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867611
17.
Psychiatr Clin North Am ; 43(3): 511-524, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773078

RESUMO

There are historical predicates for the inequities noted in present-day community mental health. Stigma has led to discrimination for those living with mental illness. It is more difficult for research to occur, and to access care (prevention, early identification, evidence-based treatment services) because funding is limited and workforce development curtailed. Strategies to decrease stigma are suggested, means to enhance funding are offered, and models for workforce development are noted. Different treatment delivery systems are suggested to recruit and retain sufficient numbers of culturally competent and trauma-informed providers, so as to maximize access to necessary services.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria Comunitária , Equidade em Saúde , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Estigma Social
18.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 119(5): e27-e37, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673044

RESUMO

C. J. Wakslak, Y. Trope, N. Liberman, and R. Alony (2006) examined the effect of manipulating the likelihood of future events on level of construal (i.e., mental abstraction). Over 7 experiments, they consistently found that subjectively unlikely (vs. likely) future events were more abstractly (vs. concretely) construed. This well-cited, but understudied finding has had a major influence on the construal level theory (CLT) literature: Likelihood is considered to be 1 of 4 psychological distances assumed to influence mental abstraction in similar ways (Trope & Liberman, 2010). Contrary to the original empirical findings, we present 2 close replication attempts (N = 115 and N = 120; the original studies had N = 20 and N = 34) that failed to find the effect of likelihood on construal level. Bayesian analyses provided diagnostic support for the absence of an effect. In light of the failed replications, we present a meta-analytic summary of the accumulated evidence on the effect. It suggests a strong trend of declining effect sizes as a function of larger samples. These results call into question the previous conclusion that likelihood has a reliable influence on construal level. We discuss the implications of these findings for CLT and advise against treating likelihood as a psychological distance until further tests have established the relationship. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Psiquiatria Comunitária , Teoria Psicológica , Percepção Social , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto
19.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 53: 102233, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593087

RESUMO

The article is about a set of leadership programs on 'mental health leadership under NMHP' that was completed for 161 participants who are the district level health authorities and service providers (psychiatrists, psychologists, nurses and social workers) by the Community Psychiatry Unit of the Department of Psychiatry, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bengaluru. The overarching aim of these programs was to provide an impetus to mental health leadership at district levels that could enable them to upscale public mental healthcare delivery. Upon completion of the program, 109 participants provided a feedback on the content of the program. Majority (98 %) were satisfied with the format of the program in which it was conducted and felt that their expectations were either partially or completely satisfied with appropriate content (93 %). The health authorities (43 %) gained better insights into the magnitude of mental health concerns and agreed that mental health service delivery should scale up. The service providers (17 %) felt the need to upgrade their skills in specialty areas of psychiatry in order to gear up for comprehensive mental health care delivery. Finally, the authors argue that such local level learnings should drive the policy making at the national level.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Mental , Saúde Mental , Psiquiatria Comunitária , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Liderança
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