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1.
Science ; 377(6604): 416-420, 2022 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35862538

RESUMO

Species' geographic ranges are limited by climate and species interactions. Climate is the prevailing explanation for why species live only within narrow elevational ranges in megadiverse biodiverse tropical mountains, but competition can also restrict species' elevational ranges. We test contrasting predictions of these hypotheses by conducting a global comparative test of birds' elevational range sizes within 31 montane regions, using more than 4.4 million citizen science records from eBird to define species' elevational ranges in each region. We find strong support that competition, not climate, is the leading driver of narrow elevational ranges. These results highlight the importance of species interactions in shaping species' ranges in tropical mountains, Earth's hottest biodiversity hotspots.


Assuntos
Altitude , Aves , Comportamento Competitivo , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ecologia , Ecossistema , Clima Tropical
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anxiety is one of the most complex and the most studied constructs in psychology, and it is extremely frequent in high-level sportsmen and women. The main goal was to study the influence of sex, age, type of sport, sport modality, other professional occupation, and competitive level on the competitive anxiety symptoms and self-confidence of elite athletes. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out with Colombian elite athletes who were members of the "Support to the Excellence Coldeportes Athlete" program. The total population studied included 334 Colombian elite athletes: mean age 27.10 ± 6.57 years old with 13.66 ± 6.37 years practicing his/her sports modality. The precompetitive anxiety symptoms of the participants were assessed using the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2R (CSAI-2R). RESULTS: Men showed higher levels of self-confidence than women. Younger athletes had a higher cognitive and somatic anxiety. The athletes of individual sports had a higher mean somatic anxiety than those of collective sports. The higher-level athletes had lower values of cognitive and somatic anxiety and higher levels of self-confidence. Finally, the values of anxiety symptoms positively correlated with each other, and negatively correlated with self-confidence. CONCLUSION: Individualised psychological intervention programs adapted to elite athletes are needed, considering the divergent results found in various variables of scientific interest.


Assuntos
Atletas , Comportamento Competitivo , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Atletas/psicologia , Colômbia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
3.
Nature ; 607(7920): 721-725, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35859181

RESUMO

Mounting concern over the global decline of pollinators has fuelled calls for investigating their role in maintaining plant diversity1,2. Theory predicts that competition for pollinators can stabilize interactions between plant species by providing opportunities for niche differentiation3, while at the same time can drive competitive imbalances that favour exclusion4. Here we empirically tested these contrasting effects by manipulating competition for pollinators in a way that predicts its long-term implications for plant coexistence. We subjected annual plant individuals situated across experimentally imposed gradients in neighbour density to either ambient insect pollination or a pollen supplementation treatment alleviating competition for pollinators. The vital rates of these individuals informed plant population dynamic models predicting the key theoretical metrics of species coexistence. Competition for pollinators generally destabilized the interactions between plant species, reducing the proportion of pairs expected to coexist. Interactions with pollinators also influenced the competitive imbalances between plant species, effects that are expected to strengthen with pollinator decline, potentially disrupting plant coexistence. Indeed, results from an experiment simulating pollinator decline showed that plant species experiencing greater reductions in floral visitation also suffered greater declines in population growth rate. Our results reveal that competition for pollinators may weaken plant coexistence by destabilizing interactions and contributing to competitive imbalances, information critical for interpreting the impacts of pollinator decline.


Assuntos
Insetos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Plantas , Polinização , Animais , Biodiversidade , Comportamento Competitivo , Flores/fisiologia , Insetos/classificação , Insetos/fisiologia , Plantas/classificação , Pólen , Dinâmica Populacional
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(25): e2119176119, 2022 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35700363

RESUMO

Conflicts between social groups or "intergroup contests" are proposed to play a major role in the evolution of cooperation and social organization in humans and some nonhuman animal societies. In humans, success in warfare and other collective conflicts depends on both fighting group size and the presence and actions of key individuals, such as leaders or talismanic warriors. Understanding the determinants of intergroup contest success in other warlike animals may help to reveal the role of these contests in social evolution. Using 19 y of data on intergroup encounters in a particularly violent social mammal, the banded mongoose (Mungos mungo), we show that two factors, the number of adult males and the age of the oldest male (the "senior" male), have the strongest impacts on the probability of group victory. The advantage conferred by senior males appears to stem from their fighting experience. However, the galvanizing effect of senior males declines as they grow old until, at very advanced ages, senior males become a liability rather than an asset and can be evicted. As in human conflict, strength in numbers and the experience of key individuals combine to determine intergroup contest success in this animal society. We discuss how selection arising from intergroup contests may explain a suite of features of individual life history and social organization, including male eviction, sex-assortative alloparental care, and adult sex ratio.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Comportamento Competitivo , Herpestidae , Fatores Etários , Animais , Herpestidae/psicologia , Hostilidade , Masculino , Probabilidade
5.
J Sports Sci Med ; 21(2): 233-244, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35719225

RESUMO

The aims of the study were to provide benchmarks and normative data for 100 m, 200 m, and 400 m short-course individual medley (IM) races, investigate differences between the various swimming strokes and turns involved in IM, and quantify the effect and contribution of various race sections on swimming performance. All IM races (n = 320) at the 2019 European Short-Course Swimming Championships were video monitored and digitized with interrater reliability described by a mean intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.968. Normative data were provided for the eight finalists of each event (FINA points = 886 ± 37) and the eight slowest swimmers from each event (FINA points = 688 ± 53). Contribution and effects of race sections on swimming performance were investigated using stepwise regression analysis based on all races of each event. Regression analysis explained 97-100% of total variance in race time and revealed turn time (ß ≥ 0.53) as distinguishing factor in short-course IM races in addition to swim velocity (ß ≥ -0.28). Start time only affected 100 m (ß ≥ 0.14) and 200 m (ß ≥ 0.04) events. Fastest turn times were found for the butterfly/backstroke turn. Breaststroke showed slowest swim velocities and no difference between fastest and slowest 100 m IM swimmers. Therefore, breaststroke may provide largest potential for future development in IM race times. Correlation analyses revealed that distance per stroke (r ≥ -0.39, P < 0.05) rather than stroke rate (r ≤ -0.18, P > 0.05) is a performance indicator and may be used by coaches and performance analysts to evaluate stroke mechanics in male IM swimmers despite its more complex assessment. Performance analysts, coaches, and swimmers may use the present normative data to establish minimal and maximal requirements for European Championship participation and to create specific drills in practice.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Natação , Comportamento Competitivo , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10740, 2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35750752

RESUMO

Humans compete for jobs, promotions, income, status, and many other scarce goods. In some situations, allocating scarce goods via competition is socially beneficial. In other situations, competition is not necessary to allocate goods, and nevertheless engaging in competition creates inefficiencies and welfare loss. We use an incentivized lab experiment to study whether people compete differently depending on whether allocating scarce goods via competition is socially wasteful or socially beneficial. We find that competition behavior is strikingly similar in situations where competing is socially wasteful and socially beneficial. Accordingly, there is large excess competition in situations of wasteful competition, creating considerable efficiency losses. We find evidence of a social trap involved in this excess competition. People are considerably more likely to compete if they believe others compete, and their beliefs on others' competition are similar in situations where competing is socially wasteful and socially beneficial. Interventions aimed at lowering beliefs on others' competition may be an effective method of lowering excess competition to prevent inefficiencies and welfare loss.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo , Humanos
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35564428

RESUMO

Turn performances are important success factors for short-course races, and more consistent turn times may distinguish between higher and lower-ranked swimmers. Therefore, this study aimed to determine coefficients of variation (CV) and performance progressions (∆%) of turn performances. The eight finalists and eight fastest swimmers from the heats that did not qualify for the semi-finals, i.e., from 17th to 24th place, of the 100, 200, 400, and 800 (females only)/1500 m (males only) freestyle events at the 2019 European Short Course Championships were included, resulting in a total of 64 male (finalists: age: 22.3 ± 2.6, FINA points: 914 ± 31 vs. heats: age: 21.5 ± 3.1, FINA points: 838 ± 74.9) and 64 female swimmers (finalists: age: 22.9 ± 4.8, FINA points: 904 ± 24.5 vs. heats: age: 20.1 ± 3.6, FINA points: 800 ± 48). A linear mixed model was used to compare inter- and intra-individual performance variation. Interactions between CVs, ∆%, and mean values were analyzed using a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results showed impaired turn performances as the races progressed. Finalists showed faster turn section times than the eight fastest non-qualified swimmers from the heats (p < 0.001). Additionally, turn section times were faster for short-, i.e., 100 and 200 m, than middle- and long-distance races, i.e., 400 to 1500 m races (p < 0.001). Regarding variation in turn performance, finalists showed lower CVs and ∆% for all turn section times (0.74% and 1.49%) compared to non-qualified swimmers (0.91% and 1.90%, respectively). Similarly, long-distance events, i.e., 800/1500 m, showed lower mean CVs and higher mean ∆% (0.69% and 1.93%) than short-distance, i.e., 100 m events (0.93% and 1.39%, respectively). Regarding turn sections, the largest CV and ∆% were found 5 m before wall contact (0.70% and 1.45%) with lower CV and more consistent turn section times 5 m after wall contact (0.42% and 0.54%). Non-qualified swimmers should aim to match the superior turn performances and faster times of finalists in all turn sections. Both finalists and non-qualified swimmers should pay particular attention to maintaining high velocities when approaching the wall as the race progresses.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Comportamento Competitivo , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Masculino , Natação , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268171, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511919

RESUMO

The goal of performance analysis is to capture the multitude of factors that affect sports strategy, and present them in an informative, interpretable, and accessible format. The aim of this study was to outline a performance analysis process in field hockey that captures, analyses and visualises strategy in layers of detail culminating in the creation of an RStudio Shiny application. Computerised notational analysis systems were developed to capture in-game events and ball tracking data of 74 matches from the Women's Pro League 2019. Game styles were developed using k-means cluster analysis to reduce detailed in-game events into practical profiles to identify the attack types, game actions and tempo of a team's strategy. Ball movement profiles were developed to identify the predictability (entropy) and direction (progression rates) of ball movements, and consequent distribution of possession in different attacking zones. The Shiny application, an interactive web-platform, links the information from simple game profiles with detailed game variables to understand each teams' holistic game plan, how they are different, and how to exploit these differences. The process outlined can be applied to any team invasion sport to understand, develop and communicate successful strategies under different match situations.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Hóquei , Logro , Comportamento Competitivo , Feminino , Humanos , Movimento
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457792

RESUMO

In sports, there has been a recent and active movement to promote mixed-gender competitions for achieving gender equality in the field. However, the current debate regarding its effects limitedly focuses on balancing the number of opportunities for females and neglects its effect on athlete performance. To address this gap, this study investigated whether and how mixed-gender competitions mitigate gender-specific disadvantages of interim leaders in dynamic tournaments from the perspective of choking under pressure. Using data from 127 international segregated-gender single and mixed-gender pair figure skating competitions organized by the International Staking Union from 1 July 2006 to 30 June 2018, this study showed that female interim leaders in segregated-gender competitions are more likely to make mistakes in task executions under pressure-inducing circumstances than male interim leaders. However, in mixed-gender competitions, all of these gender-specific influences disappear. The findings contribute to the literature on mixed-gender competitions by providing new evidence on the positive impact of them, as well as expanding the literature on the impact of gender on competitive pressure.


Assuntos
Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias , Desempenho Atlético , Comportamento Competitivo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento
10.
Sci Med Footb ; 6(2): 181-188, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35475738

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Outscoring opponents is the primary goal in football. To optimise goal scoring opportunities (GSOs), it is important to understand the preceding physical and tactical performance. This observational study explored whether running behaviour prior to GSOs related to the subsequent outcome (goal or no goal) or contextual factors. METHODS: Tracking data was collected from one professional team during its 2016/2017 season. Physical output was differentiated for attacking styles and analysed for attackers (taking shots) and defenders (trying to prevent shots). RESULTS: Counter attacks were found most effective, as outcomes improved with fewer defenders behind the ball (r=-0.27; p=0.03). Offensively, running behaviour in the minute prior to GSOs explained most variance and increased activities correlated with success (r=0.26; p=0.04). Moreover, decreased high-intensity distances covered during matches significantly correlated with favourable outcomes (r=-0.21; p=0.02). Finally, increased attacking effectiveness was found to relate to greater defensive covered distances (r=0.51; p<0.01). DISCUSSION: Running behaviour prior to GSOs was found to relate to the subsequent outcome. Specifically, space ahead of attackers, forcing defenders to cover more ground, was found to relate to GSO effectiveness. The running behaviour of attackers was found unrelated to previous activity, highlighting the significance of physical capacity and well-timed substitutions.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Futebol Americano , Futebol , Comportamento Competitivo , Equipamentos Médicos Duráveis , Humanos
11.
J Anim Ecol ; 91(5): 958-969, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35262914

RESUMO

Sexual dimorphism is a ubiquitous source of within-species variation, yet the community-level consequences of sex differences remain poorly understood. Here, we analyse a bitrophic model of two competing resource species and a sexually reproducing consumer species. We show that consumer sex differences in resource acquisition can have striking consequences for consumer-resource coexistence, abundance and dynamics. Under both direct interspecific competition and apparent competition between two resource species, sexual dimorphism in consumers' attack rates can mediate coexistence of the resource species, while in other cases can lead to exclusion when stable coexistence is typically expected. Slight sex differences in total resource acquisition also can reverse competitive outcomes and lead to density cycles. These effects are expected whenever both consumer sexes require different amounts or types of resources to reproduce. Our results suggest that consumer sexual dimorphism, which is common, has wide-reaching implications for the assembly and dynamics of natural communities.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Ecossistema , Feminino , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Dinâmica Populacional
12.
Nature ; 603(7902): 661-666, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35296863

RESUMO

Competitive interactions have a vital role in the ecology of most animal species1-3 and powerfully influence the behaviour of groups4,5. To succeed, individuals must exert effort based on not only the resources available but also the social rank and behaviour of other group members2,6,7. The single-cellular mechanisms that precisely drive competitive interactions or the behaviour of social groups, however, remain poorly understood. Here we developed a naturalistic group paradigm in which large cohorts of mice competitively foraged for food as we wirelessly tracked neuronal activities across thousands of unique interactions. By following the collective behaviour of the groups, we found neurons in the anterior cingulate that adaptively represented the social rank of the animals in relation to others. Although social rank was closely behaviourally linked to success, these cells disambiguated the relative rank of the mice from their competitive behaviour, and incorporated information about the resources available, the environment, and past success of the mice to influence their decisions. Using multiclass models, we show how these neurons tracked other individuals within the group and accurately predicted upcoming success. Using neuromodulation techniques, we also show how the neurons conditionally influenced competitive effort-increasing the effort of the animals only when they were more dominant to their groupmates and decreasing it when they were subordinate-effects that were not observed in other frontal lobe areas. Together, these findings reveal cingulate neurons that serve to adaptively drive competitive interactions and a putative process that could intermediate the social and economic behaviour of groups.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo , Ecologia , Animais , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Alimentos , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Camundongos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Comportamento Social
13.
Neural Netw ; 150: 364-376, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35358886

RESUMO

In a competitive game scenario, a set of agents have to learn decisions that maximize their goals and minimize their adversaries' goals at the same time. Besides dealing with the increased dynamics of the scenarios due to the opponents' actions, they usually have to understand how to overcome the opponent's strategies. Most of the common solutions, usually based on continual learning or centralized multi-agent experiences, however, do not allow the development of personalized strategies to face individual opponents. In this paper, we propose a novel model composed of three neural layers that learn a representation of a competitive game, learn how to map the strategy of specific opponents, and how to disrupt them. The entire model is trained online, using a composed loss based on a contrastive optimization, to learn competitive and multiplayer games. We evaluate our model on a pokemon duel scenario and the four-player competitive Chef's Hat card game. Our experiments demonstrate that our model achieves better performance when playing against offline, online, and competitive-specific models, in particular when playing against the same opponent multiple times. We also present a discussion on the impact of our model, in particular on how well it deals with on specific strategy learning for each of the two scenarios.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo , Reforço Psicológico , Aprendizagem
14.
Nature ; 602(7896): 223-228, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35140384

RESUMO

Many potential applications of artificial intelligence involve making real-time decisions in physical systems while interacting with humans. Automobile racing represents an extreme example of these conditions; drivers must execute complex tactical manoeuvres to pass or block opponents while operating their vehicles at their traction limits1. Racing simulations, such as the PlayStation game Gran Turismo, faithfully reproduce the non-linear control challenges of real race cars while also encapsulating the complex multi-agent interactions. Here we describe how we trained agents for Gran Turismo that can compete with the world's best e-sports drivers. We combine state-of-the-art, model-free, deep reinforcement learning algorithms with mixed-scenario training to learn an integrated control policy that combines exceptional speed with impressive tactics. In addition, we construct a reward function that enables the agent to be competitive while adhering to racing's important, but under-specified, sportsmanship rules. We demonstrate the capabilities of our agent, Gran Turismo Sophy, by winning a head-to-head competition against four of the world's best Gran Turismo drivers. By describing how we trained championship-level racers, we demonstrate the possibilities and challenges of using these techniques to control complex dynamical systems in domains where agents must respect imprecisely defined human norms.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Aprendizado Profundo , Reforço Psicológico , Esportes , Jogos de Vídeo , Condução de Veículo/normas , Comportamento Competitivo , Humanos , Recompensa , Esportes/normas
15.
J Nurs Educ ; 61(2): 112, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35112943
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35162444

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to investigate the relative and chronological age among taekwondo world medal winners (by gender, Olympic 4-year period, Olympic weight category; N = 740), and to study the behaviour of multiple medallists (N = 156) to monitor changes in weight categories and wins over time. The observed birth quartile distribution for the heavyweight category was significantly skewed (p = 0.01). Female athletes (22.2 ± 3.5 years) achieve success at a significantly younger age (p = 0.01) than their male counterparts (23.6 ± 3.3 years). In the weight categories, female flyweights were significantly younger than those welterweights (p = 0.03) and heavyweight (p = 0.01); female featherweights were significantly younger than those heavyweights (p = 0.03). Male flyweights and featherweights were significantly younger than those welterweights and heavyweights (p = 0.01). When a taekwondo athlete won a medal several times, he/she did so within the same Olympic weight category group and won two medals in his/her career (p = 0.01). Multiple medallists of the lighter and heavier groups did not differ in the number of medals won but in the time span in which they won medals (p = 0.02). The resources deployed by stakeholders to achieve success in these competitions highlight an extremely competitive environment. In this sense, the information provided by this study can be relevant and translated into key elements.


Assuntos
Distinções e Prêmios , Artes Marciais , Logro , Adulto , Atletas , Comportamento Competitivo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Sports Sci ; 40(8): 908-919, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35139755

RESUMO

Characterising a team's game style is a performance analysis approach that captures game events, and groups them into profiles using clustering techniques to identify the consistent (and winning) strategies a team implements. The aim of this study was to identify the game styles of international hockey teams. Video footage from the 2019 Pro League tournament (n = 74 female and n = 57 male matches) were analysed retrospectively using a notational analysis system in SportsCode™. Variables were arranged into six game style categories (established attack game actions, counter attack game actions, established attack success, counter attack success, set pieces, tempo) and two game style types identified per category using a k-means clustering algorithm. Decision trees were used to identify the influence of extrinsic and intrinsic match factors on the probability of a team playing a particular game style. Opposition and other reference team game style categories were shown to be more important in predicting a game style category than contextual factors. Examination of team profiles highlights how different strategies are successful for different teams such as high-intensity attack or absorbing pressure and counter attacking. This performance analysis process provides practical insights into the holistic performance of international hockey teams.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Hóquei , Logro , Comportamento Competitivo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263229, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130280

RESUMO

Evaluation of tourism competitiveness is useful for measuring the level of regional tourism development. It is of great importance to understand the advantages and disadvantages of tourism development correctly and formulate corresponding development strategies. To investigate tourism competitiveness, this paper established an evaluation index system, including tourism development competitiveness, tourism resource competitiveness, and tourism-support competitiveness, for 14 prefectures and cities in Xinjiang in China. The characteristics and laws of spatial differentiation were analyzed. Factor analysis was applied to examine the spatial differentiation of regional tourism competitiveness. The results showed an obvious spatial differentiation in tourism competitiveness among the 14 prefectures and cities. In terms of development competitiveness, Yili and Urumqi constituted the spatial center, followed by Changji, Altay, and Ba Prefecture. As the provincial capital, Urumqi has political, economic, cultural, transportation, and geographic advantages, but its competitiveness is not prominent in terms of monopoly and efficiency. In terms of resource competitiveness, Yili is the core attraction, while Urumqi, Kashgar, Altay, and Ba Prefecture are dominant attractions. With respect to supporting competitiveness, Bo Prefecture has high value, followed by Urumqi City and Aksu. Hetian and Ke Prefecture have the lowest values. The comprehensive competitiveness of tourism is centered on Yili. Urumqi and Bo Prefecture are subcenters, and Changji, Altay, Ba Prefecture, Aksu, and Kashgar are characterized as multi-polar competition areas. Using the KMO and Bartlett's sphericity tests, the cumulative contribution variance of the eigenvalues of the eight factors extracted by the maximum variance rotation method was found to be 92.714%. Socio-economic conditions, tourism resources, infrastructure construction, regional cultural influence, ecological environment carrying capacity, tertiary industry development, tourism service level, and living security system are the main driving factors affecting the spatial differentiation of tourism competitiveness in Xinjiang. Analyzing the spatial evolution characteristics and the driving factors of the regional tourism competitiveness in Xinjiang, this paper seeks to promote the optimal allocation of tourism production factors in the macro regional system, and provide theoretical guidance and an empirical basis for the comprehensive and harmonic development of regional tourism.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Turismo , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/estatística & dados numéricos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , Geografia , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Industrial/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento Industrial/tendências , Modelos Teóricos , Análise Espacial
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1864, 2022 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35115617

RESUMO

This study aimed to verify the effects of congested fixture and matches' participation on internal and external workload indexes in professional Brazilian soccer players. Rate of perceived exertion-based training load (sRPE), distance- and accelerometry-based measures were daily monitored over 119 training sessions and 33 matches performed by 29 male outfield players. Weeks were classified as congested (n = 11, two or more matches within a 7-day period) and regular (n = 10, one match or less within a 7-day period). The players were divided based on the matches' participation: (1) players who played ≥ 60 min (G1); (2) players who played < 60 min (G2); (3) players who did not participate of the match (G3). The findings showed that independent of the levels of participation during the matches, regular weeks presented greater acute, monotony, and strain indices for internal and external workload measures than congested weeks. The G1 presented the highest values for most of the workload indices in both regular and congested weeks, except for monotony indices (internal and external load) that G2 showed greater values than G1 and G3. Coaches and practitioners should plan the training "doses" to reduce disparities of these different match's participation and congested schedule weeks.


Assuntos
Atletas , Comportamento Competitivo , Condicionamento Físico Humano , Futebol , Carga de Trabalho , Acelerometria , Adulto , Brasil , Humanos , Masculino , Esforço Físico , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
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