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1.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 498, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36456542

RESUMO

Early regression (ER) is often reported in autistic children with a prototypical phenotype and has been proposed as a possible pathognomonic sign present in most autistic children. Despite the uncertainties attached to its definition and report, using ER to anchor the autism phenotype could help identify the signs that best contribute to an autism diagnosis. We extracted retrospective data from 1547 autistic children between the ages of 6 and 18 years from the Simons Simplex collection. Logistic regression identified the atypicalities associated with a history of ER. Stepwise variable selection using logistic regression analysis followed by a bootstrap procedure of 1000 iterations identified the cluster of atypicalities best associated with ER. Linear and logistic regressions measured the association between combinations of atypicalities within the identified cluster and adaptative behaviors, diagnostic areas of severity, and other categories. Seven atypicalities significantly increased the likelihood of having experienced ER (OR = 1.73-2.13). Four ("hand leading-ever", "pronominal reversal-ever", "never shakes head at age 4-5" and "stereotypic use of objects or interest in parts of objects-ever"), when grouped together, best characterized the phenotype of verbal autistic children with ER. This clustering of signs was associated with certain persistent language difficulties, higher summary scores on a diagnostic scale for autism, and greater odds of receiving an "autistic disorder" diagnosis instead of another pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) diagnosis. These results raise questions about using language as a clinical specifier, defining cross-sectional signs independent of their relationship with an early developmental trajectory, and relying on polythetic criteria or equivalent weighted autistic atypicalities.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Humanos , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Comportamento Estereotipado
2.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(12)2022 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36585047

RESUMO

The aim of the work has been to report on the effects of vibrostimulation, administered through wearable technology, on stereotyped behaviour of a child in middle childhood, with autism, intellectual disability and severe behaviour in the 'stereotypic behaviour' subscale of the Restricted and Repetitive Behaviour Revised Scale. He received vibrostimulation (210 Hz, 2.8 µm), with a continuous pattern of vibration: three vibrations of 700 ms, each separated by a rest period of 500 ms and a pause of 8000 ms. Vibration was delivered bilaterally by two devices, repeating the vibration pattern for 3 min. The measures were repeated four times alternately, with the device turned off and on. The outcome measure was frequency of stereotyed behaviour, which was evaluated for 3 min with and without vibrostimulation. The results and observations, over 3 min of stimulation, showed the disappearance of stereotyped movements during vibrostimulation and better precision in intentional hand movements. Subjectively, the child enjoyed vibrostimulation.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico , Deficiência Intelectual , Masculino , Criança , Humanos , Transtorno Autístico/complicações , Transtorno Autístico/terapia , Comportamento Estereotipado/fisiologia , Movimento , Vibração/uso terapêutico
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16748, 2022 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36220825

RESUMO

Japan has a large gender gap; thus, this study examined whether Japanese 4- to 7-year-old children exhibit a "brilliance = males" stereotype and whether parental attitudes toward gender roles were related to children's stereotypes. We also explored whether the children exhibited such stereotypes in response to various stimuli. We showed children photos (Study 1) and stick figures (Study 2) of men, women, boys, and girls, asking them to attribute traits (smart or nice) to each. Study 1 revealed overwhelming in-group positivity in girls, whereas the results for boys were rather mixed. In Study 2, girls generally attributed nice to their own gender compared to boys. However, "brilliance = males" stereotypical responses were observed from 7 years of age, when boys began to be more likely to attribute smartness to their own gender compared to girls. The new data in Study 3 replicated results of Study 1 and parts of the results of Study 2. Moreover, merging the Study 3 data with that of Studies 1 and 2 confirmed their findings. Furthermore, it replicated the "brilliance = males" stereotype among 7-year-olds in the stick figure task. Parental attitudes toward gender roles were unrelated to children's gender stereotypes. The results indicated that Japanese children may acquire "brilliance = males" stereotypes later than American children (6-years-old). Furthermore, the results were clearer when children were presented with stick figure stimuli.


Assuntos
Transtorno de Movimento Estereotipado , Estereotipagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Comportamento Estereotipado , Estados Unidos
4.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1983): 20221311, 2022 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36168756

RESUMO

Behavioural needs are highly motivated actions critical to a species survival and reproduction. Prolonged restriction of these behaviours can lead to stereotypic behaviours (SB) in captive animals, and this is particularly common in ungulate species. While risk factors for SB have been suggested for some ungulates, no study has integrated these findings to identify which aspects of ungulates' wild behavioural biology and captive husbandry are potential drivers for SB across this clade. We collated SB data from 15 236 individuals across 38 ungulate species from 95 sources, and determined species wild/free-ranging behaviour from 559 additional studies. Bayesian-phylogenetic statistical methods showed that ungulate behavioural needs relating to foraging and mating are particularly affected by captive environments, with promiscuous and browsing species showing the greatest prevalence of SB. Concentrate-only diets and lack of ad libitum feed substrates were also associated with high SB prevalence. This study identifies which ungulates are better suited to captive environments and which species require targeted husbandry, enrichment and breeding protocols in order to meet their behavioural needs. Our approach of applying Bayesian-phylogenetic inference to factors influencing SB within a clade can be used to identify other intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors of reduced animal health and welfare.


Assuntos
Mamíferos , Comportamento Estereotipado , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Filogenia , Fatores de Risco
5.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 82 Suppl 3: 2-6, 2022 Aug 30.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054849

RESUMO

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social cognition and communication, restricted interests, and stereotyped behaviors. It is often associated with sensory dysfunctions, other neurodevelopmental disorders, neuropsychiatric disorders, epilepsy and/or sleep disorders. This condition will accompany people throughout their lives, with variations in its evolution. In the last ten years, only 1% of all autism research focused on developing post-secondary education programs and training in adult health services. Taking into account this dichotomy of interests, we must think about the different stages of life, such as early intervention, school inclusion, bullying, associated mental and medical disorders, lack of group belonging, job opportunities and the aging. Only by becoming aware of each of them can we achieve a better quality of life for people with autism and their families.


El autismo es un trastorno del neurodesarrollo de base neurobiológica caracterizado por déficits en la cognición social y la comunicación, intereses restringidos y conductas estereotipadas. Muchas veces está asociado a disfunciones sensoriales, otros trastornos del neurodesarrollo, trastornos neuropsiquiátricos, epilepsia y/o trastornos de sueño. Esta condición acompañará a las personas a lo largo de toda la vida, con variaciones en su evolución. En los últimos diez años solo el 1% de todas las investigaciones en autismo se centraron en desarrollar programas de educación post secundaria, y formación de servicios de salud para adultos. Teniendo en cuenta esta dicotomía de intereses es que debemos pensar en las diferentes etapas de la vida, cómo el abordaje temprano, la inclusión escolar, el hostigamiento, los trastornos mentales y médicos asociados, la falta de grupo de pertenencia, las oportunidades laborales y el envejecimiento. Solamente tomando conciencia de cada una de ellas podremos lograr una mejor calidad de vida de las personas con autismo y sus familias.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico , Epilepsia , Adulto , Envelhecimento , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Comportamento Estereotipado
6.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271396, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921291

RESUMO

Implicit math = male stereotypes have been found in early childhood and are linked to girls' disproportionate disengagement from math-related activities and later careers. Yet, little is known about how malleable children's automatic stereotypes are, especially in response to brief interventions. In a sample of 336 six- to eleven-year-olds, we experimentally tested whether exposure to a brief story vignette intervention with either stereotypical, neutral, or counter-stereotypical content (three conditions: math = boy vs. neutral vs. math = girl) could change implicit math-gender stereotypes. Results suggested that children's implicit math = male stereotypes were indeed responsive to brief stories that either reinforced or countered the widespread math = male stereotype. Children exposed to the counter-stereotypical stories showed significantly lower (and non-significant) stereotypes compared to children exposed to the stereotypical stories. Critically, exposure to stories that perpetuated math = male stereotypes significantly increased math-gender stereotypes over and above baseline, underscoring that implicit gender biases that are readily formed during this period in childhood and even brief exposure to stereotypical content can strengthen them. As a secondary question, we also examined whether changes in stereotypes might also lead to changes in implicit math self-concept. Evidence for effects on implicit self-concept were not statistically significant.


Assuntos
Autoimagem , Estereotipagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , Matemática , Comportamento Estereotipado
7.
Physiol Behav ; 255: 113933, 2022 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35905805

RESUMO

Energy drinks pose consumer and environmental risks. One of the few organisms suitable for investigating both risks are planarians, which display mammalian-like behavioral effects during drug exposure and reside in aquatic environments. We investigated effects of Monster Energy® (0.001 - 10%) on planarian behaviors using established assays. For acute exposure, only higher concentrations reduced motility (>1%) and caused stereotypies (>1%). Lower concentrations (0.1-1%) enhanced light avoidance, a measure of defensive responding. In place conditioning experiments conducted with low concentrations (0.0001%-0.1%), planarians avoided the energy drink-paired side. These results suggest that Monster Energy® causes aversive effects in aquatic life such as planarians.


Assuntos
Bebidas Energéticas , Planárias , Animais , Mamíferos , Comportamento Estereotipado
8.
Behav Pharmacol ; 33(4): 282-290, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35621170

RESUMO

Obsessive-compulsive disorder is varyingly associated with cognitive impairment, that is, deficits in spatial working memory, although it seems unlikely that this is generalised across all domains of functioning. Further, it is unclear whether symptoms will respond to potentially novel, non-serotonergic drugs that have shown promise as so-called cognitive enhancers. Here, we studied low (Norm-N; n = 31) and compulsive-like high (Comp-H; n = 34) stereotypical deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii) to establish (1) whether there is a relationship between stereotypical intensity and working memory ability as measured by spontaneous T-maze arm alternation and (2) if and how stereotypy and its association with changes in working memory, would respond to the known anti-compulsive agent, escitalopram, and the proposed cognitive enhancer, levetiracetam. After assessing the stereotypical and alternation behaviour of all animals at baseline, they were divided into three socially housed drug exposure groups, that is, water control (n = 11 per phenotype), escitalopram 50 mg/kg/d (n = 11 per phenotype) and levetiracetam 75 mg/kg/d (Norm-N: n = 9; Comp-H: n = 12). Drugs were administered for 28 days before stereotypy and alternation assessment were repeated. The present data indicate a weak negative relationship between stereotypical intensity and spontaneous alternation. While levetiracetam increased the time spent engaging in normal rodent activity by Comp-H, but not Norm-N animals, neither of the interventions affected the expression of Comp-H behaviour or the alternation behaviour of deer mice. In conclusion, this work points to some degree of cognitive involvement in Comp-H expression, which should be explored to further our understanding of compulsive-like stereotypy.


Assuntos
Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo , Peromyscus , Animais , Escitalopram , Levetiracetam/farmacologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/metabolismo , Comportamento Estereotipado
9.
Infant Behav Dev ; 67: 101721, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Executive functions (EFs) and restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) have been studied mainly in older individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), while little is known about the relationship between EFs and RRBs in toddlers. AIMS: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between EFs and RRBs of toddlers with ASD symptoms. In addition, we tested whether EFs were predictive of RRBs in toddlers. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were collected from parents of forty-five toddlers under 36 months old. The modified checklist for autism in toddlers (M-CHAT), the Gilliam autism rating scale (GARS-2), the behavior rating inventory of executive functioning-preschool version (BRIEF-P), and the repetitive behavior scale- revised (RBS-R) administered to parents. RESULTS: We found significant associations between EFs and (1) stereotyped behaviors, (2) self-injurious behaviors, (3) ritualistic behaviors, (4) sameness behaviors, (5) restricted behaviors, (6) compulsive behaviors, and (7) repetitive behaviors total score. Increases in EFs differences predicted an increase in RRBs. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate a link between EFs and RRBs. Future research on RRBs in ASD may benefit from focusing on specific EFs rather than general categories.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Idoso , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Função Executiva , Humanos , Lactente , Comportamento Estereotipado
10.
Brain Res Bull ; 185: 86-90, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35472566

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Assess the impact the force-plate actometer, invented by Stephen C. Fowler, has had on behavioral neuroscience so far and what may be possible for future progress. METHODS: The web service Scopus was queried on April 28, 2021 for articles that cited the Journal of Neuroscience Methods paper titled "A force-plate actometer for quantitating rodent behaviors: illustrative data on locomotion, rotation, spatial patterning, stereotypies, and tremor" resulting in 134 articles. Articles were coded by the author for type (e.g., research, review, book chapter), phenomenon (e.g., stress, addiction), intervention (e.g., pharmacological), and measure (e.g., distance traveled, tremor). CONCLUSIONS: Of the 134 citations, 116 were research articles, 10 were review articles, 7 were book chapters and one was an advertisement. The force-plate actometer has been used to study a variety of phenomena and its measurement capabilities were expanded. While primarily used for rats and mice, other species have been used.


Assuntos
Neurociências , Tremor , Animais , Bibliometria , Locomoção , Camundongos , Ratos , Comportamento Estereotipado
11.
Behav Brain Res ; 428: 113883, 2022 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35398232

RESUMO

The ameliorating effect of risperidone on apomorphine-induced stereotyped behavior and inhibition of auditory sensory gating was investigated using rhesus monkeys. The total duration of the stereotyped behavior observed in the control group was 43.7 ± 23.0 s (n = 3) between 10 and 25 min after vehicle administration, whereas the duration in the apomorphine-treated (0.1 or 0.15 mg/kg i.m., n = 3) group was observed to be significantly prolonged to 413.0 ± 150.6 s. Administration of 0.01, 0.03, 0.1 mg/kg of risperidone 60 min before apomorphine, significantly reduced the duration of this apomorphine-induced stereotyped behavior to 327 ± 104.9 s (n = 3), 8.3 ± 4.2 s (n = 3), and 0.0 ± × 0.0 s (n = 3, t-test: p < 0.05), respectively. Next, the auditory sensory gating test/conditioning (T/C) ratio was used as a bio-marker. The T/C ratio was 0.598 ± 0.0802 in the vehicle-administered control group (n = 4) and was significantly increased to 2.098 ± 0.254 (n = 4) by apomorphine (0.15 mg/kg, i.m.). Administering of risperidone (0.1 mg/kg, s.c.) 30 min before apomorphine treatment significantly restricted the T/C ratio to 0.571 ± 0.0886 (n = 4), compared to the T/C ratio in the vehicle-administered control group. The above results demonstrate, not only behaviorally but also electrophysiologically, the ameliorating effect of risperidone on the induction of schizophrenia-like symptoms by apomorphine in non-human primates.


Assuntos
Apomorfina , Comportamento Estereotipado , Animais , Apomorfina/farmacologia , Macaca mulatta , Risperidona/farmacologia , Filtro Sensorial
12.
Am J Primatol ; 84(6): e23380, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35383995

RESUMO

Across captive settings, nonhuman primates may develop an array of abnormal behaviors including stereotypic and self-injurious behavior. Abnormal behavior can indicate a state of poor welfare, since it is often associated with a suboptimal environment. However, this may not always be the case as some behaviors can develop independently of any psychological distress, be triggered in environments known to promote welfare, and be part of an animal's coping mechanism. Furthermore, not all animals develop abnormal behavior, which has led researchers to assess risk factors that differentiate individuals in the display of these behaviors. Intrinsic risk factors that have been identified include the animal's species and genetics, age, sex, temperament, and clinical condition, while environmental risk factors include variables such as the animal's rearing, housing condition, husbandry procedures, and research experiences. To identify specific triggers and at-risk animals, the expression of abnormal behavior in captive nonhuman primates should be routinely addressed in a consistent manner by appropriately trained staff. Which behaviors to assess, what assessment methods to use, which primates to monitor, and the aims of data collection should all be identified before proceeding to an intervention and/or treatment. This article provides guidance for this process, by presenting an overview of known triggers and risk factors that should be considered, steps to design a comprehensive evaluation plan, and strategies that might be used for prevention or treatment. It also outlines the tools and processes for assessing and evaluating behavior in an appendix. This process will lead to a better understanding of abnormal behavior in captive primate colonies and ultimately to improved welfare.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Abrigo para Animais , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Primatas/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Estereotipado
13.
Zoo Biol ; 41(4): 292-307, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35255158

RESUMO

Animal welfare is a growing public concern that has the potential to undermine the social license of zoos and aquariums. The lack of consensus on how animal welfare is defined across such a diverse sector combined with and a widespread belief that commercial priorities such as entertaining visitors conflicts with animal welfare, hinders efforts to effectively address this fundamental issue for the sector. Data derived from an audit of habitats across a major North American wildlife attraction revealed that holistic animal welfare assessments undertaken by animal carers embracing three principal constructs of animal welfare, correlated strongly with visitor perceptions of animal happiness. Visitor assessments of animal happiness also correlated with animal carer assessments of social, behavioural and locomotor opportunities and inversely with the prevalence of stereotypic behaviours, supporting the proposition that folk conceptions of animal welfare are more accurate than may have previously been considered to be the case. However, the holistic animal welfare assessment inversely correlated with assessments of a habitat's capacity to safeguard welfare as determined by the facility's veterinary staff, supporting the proposition that tensions exist between physical and psychological components of captive animal welfare provisioning. This further underlines the importance of clarity on how animal welfare is conceived when developing institutional animal welfare strategies. Finally, the data also showed that both holistic animal welfare assessments and visitor perceptions of animal happiness strongly correlated with the level of enjoyment experienced by visitors, challenging the belief that animal welfare competes with the commercial priorities of zoos and aquariums. The audit supports the case that maintaining high animal welfare is a commercial imperative as well as a moral obligation for zoos and aquariums and underlines the necessity to utilize conceptions of animal welfare that acknowledge the centrality of the affective states of animals in maintaining those standards.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais de Zoológico , Animais , Resolução de Problemas , Comportamento Estereotipado
14.
J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci ; 61(2): 149-158, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35140007

RESUMO

Mongolian gerbils can develop stereotypic behaviors, including corner digging. At our institution, gerbils also engage in repetitive corner jumping, which we sought to characterize as a potentially novel stereotypy in gerbils. We then attempted to mitigate this behavior by mimicking the natural habitat by adding intracage environmental complexity. Seventeen gerbil breeding pairs were video recorded in their home cages during the light cycle. Repetitive corner jumping and digging were compared between different times of day to assess when the behaviors occurred and whether they were temporally associated. To determine whether we could reduce the incidence of stereotypic behaviors, we tested a straight tube or 1 of 3 angled opaque tubes in different orientations, which were fitted to the gerbils' preexisting opaque nesting box. Behavior was assessed at baseline and at 1, 4, 8, and 12 wk to evaluate opaque tube placement as an intervention. In addition, breeding efficiency, valuated as the number of gerbil pups born and weaned per breeder pair, was compared with pre- and poststudy data. The number of corner jumps was highest at the end of the light cycle and the majority were associated with corner digging. After placement of the enrichment tubes, an initial increase in corner digging behavior was observed and persisted throughout the study period. The opaque tubes were not associated with significant changes in corner jumping. After adjusting for age, the addition of opaque tubing to gerbil breeding cages was not associated with significant changes in breeding efficiency. The addition of opaque tubing did not effectively address concerns about stereotypic behaviors and was associated with a chronic increase in stereotypic corner digging among breeding gerbil pairs.


Assuntos
Fotoperíodo , Comportamento Estereotipado , Animais , Gerbillinae , Desmame
15.
J Appl Behav Anal ; 55(2): 584-602, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35141963

RESUMO

Slaton and Hanley (2016) compared the effects of multiple and chained schedules on stereotypy and item engagement for 2 individuals who exhibited automatically maintained motor stereotypy. Contingent access to motor stereotypy (i.e., chained schedules) was more effective than time-based access (i.e., multiple schedules) at reducing motor stereotypy, increasing item engagement, and establishing stimulus control for both participants. We systematically replicated Slaton and Hanley with 2 participants by a) targeting vocal stereotypy, b) including response interruption and redirection as a treatment component across conditions, c) conducting sessions in the natural environment with teaching assistants as change agents, and d) conducting an analysis of the effective treatment component(s). Chained schedules were more effective for 1 participant, whereas both treatments were effective for the other participant. The component analysis showed that different components were necessary for effective treatment for each participant.


Assuntos
Transtorno de Movimento Estereotipado , Voz , Terapia Comportamental , Humanos , Comportamento Estereotipado/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Autism Res ; 15(5): 861-869, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35178885

RESUMO

The current study aimed to explore the factor structure of a broad range of restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRB) within the autism spectrum. Exploratory structural equation modeling was conducted using individual item-level data from the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO). DISCO is a comprehensive semi-structured interview used by clinicians to elicit information from caregivers about the individual's profile of development and behavior. Data from a sample of 226 individuals with a clinical diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (189 males; Mage  = 11.82 years, SDage  = 7.87) were analyzed. The six-factor structure provided the most optimal and interpretable fit (comparative fit index = 0.944, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.923, root mean square error of approximation = 0.018). Derived factors were interpreted as repetitive motor behaviors (RMB), unusual sensory and object focused interests (USOI), sensory sensitivity (SS), insistence on sameness (IS), circumscribed interests (CI) and stereotyped language (SL). Age was significantly negatively associated with RMB, USOI and SL but not with SS, IS or CI factor scores. None of the factors were associated with sex. ASD individuals with intellectual disability (ID) had the highest RMB, USOI, SS and SL scores while those without ID had the highest IS and CI scores. Our findings provide preliminary evidence for the utility of the DISCO as a comprehensive measure of several distinct RRB domains in both research and clinical contexts. Importantly, the current investigation highlights crucial areas for measurement development. LAY SUMMARY: The diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO) is a detailed caregiver report clinical interview designed to capture a wide range of key features associated with autism spectrum disorder, including restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRB). This paper provides initial evidence that the DISCO is a promising measure for assessing a wide range of RRB including repetitive motor behaviors, insistence on sameness, circumscribed interests, unusual interests in sensory stimuli, sensory sensitivity and stereotypic language.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Transtornos da Comunicação , Deficiência Intelectual , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Criança , Transtornos da Comunicação/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Comportamento Estereotipado
17.
J Therm Biol ; 104: 103190, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35180968

RESUMO

Enclosure environments for captive giraffes can be improved by promoting species-specific behaviors and extending foraging behavior. To date, however, the effects of climatic (temperature-humidity index, THI) and environmental factors (landscaping trees) on the enrichment of captive settings have not been studied. Therefore, the present study explored the effects of browsing enrichment on the licking behavior of captive giraffes. From May 2019 to February 2020, three giraffes in the Kyoto City Zoo, Japan, were observed for 270 h over two consecutive seasons (pre- and post-deciduous). Overall, branch foraging behavior and licking behavior were weakly and negatively correlated. In the pre-deciduous period, THI was significantly and negatively correlated with giraffe activity, and some individuals exhibited significantly reduced foraging behavior. Therefore, browsing enrichment under extreme heat may not improve giraffe rearing environments. Moreover, in the post-deciduous period, with decreased availability of leaves on landscaping trees, the non-branch foraging behavior of giraffes was significantly increased, with a corresponding significant increase in licking behavior. Therefore, landscaping trees affect the foraging behavior of captive giraffes.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Girafas/fisiologia , Comportamento Estereotipado/fisiologia , Árvores/fisiologia , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/fisiologia , Animais de Zoológico/psicologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Girafas/psicologia , Umidade , Japão , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
18.
Mol Psychiatry ; 27(3): 1515-1526, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35058566

RESUMO

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disabling condition that often begins in childhood. Genetic studies in OCD have pointed to SLC1A1, which encodes the neuronal glutamate transporter EAAT3, with evidence suggesting that increased expression contributes to risk. In mice, midbrain Slc1a1 expression supports repetitive behavior in response to dopaminergic agonists, aligning with neuroimaging and pharmacologic challenge studies that have implicated the dopaminergic system in OCD. These findings suggest that Slc1a1 may contribute to compulsive behavior through altered dopaminergic transmission; however, this theory has not been mechanistically tested. To examine the developmental impact of Slc1a1 overexpression on compulsive-like behaviors, we, therefore, generated a novel mouse model to perform targeted, reversible overexpression of Slc1a1 in dopaminergic neurons. Mice with life-long overexpression of Slc1a1 showed a significant increase in amphetamine (AMPH)-induced stereotypy and hyperlocomotion. Single-unit recordings demonstrated that Slc1a1 overexpression was associated with increased firing of dopaminergic neurons. Furthermore, dLight1.1 fiber photometry showed that these behavioral abnormalities were associated with increased dorsal striatum dopamine release. In contrast, no impact of overexpression was observed on anxiety-like behaviors or SKF-38393-induced grooming. Importantly, overexpression solely in adulthood failed to recapitulate these behavioral phenotypes, suggesting that overexpression during development is necessary to generate AMPH-induced phenotypes. However, doxycycline-induced reversal of Slc1a1/EAAT3 overexpression in adulthood normalized both the increased dopaminergic firing and AMPH-induced responses. These data indicate that the pathologic effects of Slc1a1/EAAT3 overexpression on dopaminergic neurotransmission and AMPH-induced stereotyped behavior are developmentally mediated, and support normalization of EAAT3 activity as a potential treatment target for basal ganglia-mediated repetitive behaviors.


Assuntos
Transportador 3 de Aminoácido Excitatório , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo , Animais , Comportamento Compulsivo , Dopamina/metabolismo , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Transportador 3 de Aminoácido Excitatório/genética , Transportador 3 de Aminoácido Excitatório/metabolismo , Camundongos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/genética , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/metabolismo , Comportamento Estereotipado
19.
Behav Brain Res ; 422: 113748, 2022 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35038463

RESUMO

Repetitive motor behaviors are repetitive and invariant movements with no apparent function, and are common in several neurological and neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, the neuropathology associated with the expression of these abnormal stereotypic movements is not well understood, and effective treatments are lacking. The ketogenic diet (KD) has been used for almost a century to treat intractable epilepsy and, more recently, disorders associated with inflexibility of behavioral routines. Here, we show a novel application for KD to reduce an abnormal repetitive circling behavior in a rodent model. We then explore potential mediation through the striatum, as dysregulation of cortico-basal ganglia circuitry has previously been implicated in repetitive motor behavior. In Experiments 1 and 2, adult FVB mice were assessed for levels of repetitive circling across a 3-week baseline period. Mice were then switched to KD and repetitive circling was assessed for an additional 3 weeks. In Experiment 1, time on KD was associated with reduced repetitive behavior. In Experiment 2, we replicated these benefits of KD and assessed dendritic spine density in the striatum as one potential mechanism for reducing repetitive behavior, which yielded no differences. In Experiment 3, adult female circling mice were given a single administration of a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist (L-741,646) that was associated with reduced repetitive behavior over time. Future research will explore the relationship between KD and dopamine within basal ganglia nuclei that may be influencing the benefits of KD on repetitive behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Sintomas Comportamentais/dietoterapia , Sintomas Comportamentais/tratamento farmacológico , Dieta Cetogênica , Antagonistas dos Receptores de Dopamina D2/farmacologia , Comportamento Estereotipado , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Antagonistas dos Receptores de Dopamina D2/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Comportamento Estereotipado/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Estereotipado/fisiologia
20.
Physiol Behav ; 247: 113708, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35063425

RESUMO

Ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic in human and veterinary clinic, as well as an abuse drug that acts on several neurotransmitter systems. The use of alternative animal models, such as zebrafish, is emerging to study the effects of drugs on neurobehavioral responses. Here, we evaluated the effects of ketamine on memory consolidation (acute protocol), as well as on anxiety-, aggressive-like behavior, and whole-body cortisol levels in adult zebrafish after a repeated exposure. For the acute protocol, fish were tested in the inhibitory avoidance task (training and testing with a 24-hour interval). Immediately after the training session, fish were exposed to ketamine (0, 2, 20, or 40 mg/L) for 20 min. The exploratory activity was also measured 24 h after acute exposure to exclude the influence of impaired locomotion on memory performance. For the repeated exposure, animals were exposed to the same concentrations of ketamine for 20 min (7 days). After the last exposure (24 h later), anxiety- and aggression-like behaviors were quantified in the novel tank and mirror-induced aggression tests, respectively, as well as whole-body cortisol levels measurements were performed. The highest ketamine concentration tested (40 mg/L) acutely induced a slight memory impairment in the inhibitory avoidance task without changing locomotion and anxiety-like behaviors. Although locomotion, anxiety-, aggressive-like behaviors, and whole-body cortisol levels did not change after repeated exposure, 40 mg/L ketamine increased circling behavior. Overall, our data reinforce that ketamine acutely affects multiple behavioral domains in zebrafish, in which repeated ketamine exposure elicits stereotyped behavior, without changing locomotion, aggression, and anxiety/stress-related parameters.


Assuntos
Ketamina , Consolidação da Memória , Agressão/fisiologia , Animais , Ansiedade/induzido quimicamente , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/farmacologia , Ketamina/toxicidade , Comportamento Estereotipado , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia
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