Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.385
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272340, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35913942

RESUMO

Previous studies suggest a link between future thinking and prosocial behaviors. However, this association is not fully understood at state and trait level. The present study tested whether a brief future thinking induction promoted helping behavior in an unrelated task. In addition, the relation between mental time travel and prosocial behaviors in daily life was tested with questionnaire data. Forty-eight participants filled in questionnaires and were asked to think about the future for one minute or to name animals for one minute (control condition) before playing the Zurich Prosocial Game (a measure of helping behavior). Results revealed that participants in the future thinking condition helped significantly more than participants in the control condition. Moreover, questionnaire data showed that dispositional and positive orientation toward the future and the past was significantly associated with self-reported prosocial behaviors. The present findings suggest that thinking about the future in general has positive transfer effects on subsequent prosocial behavior and that people who think more about the past or future in a positive way engage more in prosocial behavior.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Comportamento Social , Comportamento de Ajuda , Humanos , Personalidade
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 863327, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35812503

RESUMO

Ecological systems theory suggests that for individuals, the three domains of community, family, and work are connected and transfer resources among each other. In the community, residents receive and give helping behavior from and to their neighbors. Neighboring behavior underlies interactions among residents in the community, thereby influencing the work and family domains. Building on ecological systems theory, the authors propose that the compatibility of receiving and giving helping behavior among working residents is related to their mental health. Additionally, the authors propose that this congruence effect functions through work-family interference and meaning in life. Using a two-stage field questionnaire survey, this study collected data from 220 full-time Chinese working residents. Using polynomial regression and response surface analysis, receiving-giving neighboring behavior fit was found to be positively associated with mental health. Furthermore, receiving-giving neighboring behavior fit enhances mental health by decreasing work-family interference and promoting meaning in life. When giving and receiving neighboring behavior are imbalanced, working residents have higher levels of mental health when they received more neighboring behavior than they gave, in comparison to the condition when they gave more neighboring behavior than they received. Work-family interference represents inter-role conflict in which pressures from the family and work domains are mutually incompatible. Including both work to family interference and family to work interference, work-family interferences reflect the stress that working residents experience in their family and work domains. By exploring the mediating role of work-family interference, this study shows how the spillover of the benefits of neighboring behavior into the family and work domains enhances working residents' mental health. This study highlights the importance of balancing receiving and giving neighboring behavior for maintaining mental health, thus contributing both theoretically and practically to ecological systems theory.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Ajuda , Saúde Mental , Emprego , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Cogn Sci ; 46(6): e13160, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35665955

RESUMO

A considerable body of research has documented the emergence of what appears to be instrumental helping behavior in early childhood. The current study tested the hypothesis that one basic psychological mechanism motivating this behavior is a preference for completing unfinished actions. To test this, a paradigm was implemented in which 2-year-olds (n = 34, 16 females/18 males, mostly White middle-class children) could continue an adult's action when the adult no longer wanted to complete the action. The results showed that children continued the adult's actions more often when the goal had been abandoned than when it had been reached (OR = 2.37). This supports the hypothesis that apparent helping behavior in 2-year-olds is motivated by a preference for completing unfinished actions.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Ajuda , Motivação , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Neuropsychologia ; 173: 108291, 2022 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35690115

RESUMO

Prosocial helping behavior is a highly valued social practice across societies, but the willingness to help others varies among persons. In our opinion, that willingness should be associated with the sensitivity to helping outcome at the individual level - that is, increasing as a function of positive outcome sensitivity but decreasing as a function of negative outcome sensitivity. To examine this possibility, we asked participants to make helping decisions in a series of hypothetical scenarios, which provided outcome feedback (positive/negative) of those decisions. Event-related potential (ERP) response to helping outcome was recorded, such that the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and P300 were supposed to reflect the sensitivity to negative outcome and positive outcome, respectively. After the formal task, participants were asked if they would like to donate money to a charity. Consistent with our hypothesis, we found that compared to those who were not willing to donate, the participants who donated money (22 of 41 individuals) showed a smaller FRN but a larger P300. Among these participants, the amount of donation was negatively correlated with FRN response to negative outcome, but positively correlated with P300 response to positive outcome. These findings support the importance of helping outcome sensitivity to prosocial behavior.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Eletroencefalografia , Altruísmo , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Comportamento de Ajuda , Humanos
6.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 78, 2022 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35331327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of problem gambling are wide-ranging, affecting many aspects of health and negatively impacting the person who gambles, their family and friends, and their community. People experiencing problem gambling have low rates of help-seeking and perceive many barriers to treatment, although evidence suggests that encouragement and support from friends and family can increase rates of help-seeking. Mental Health First Aid Australia's Conversations About Gambling course aims to teach members of the public evidence-based strategies for recognising and responding to signs of problem gambling in a person they know. METHODS: This research evaluated the effects of the Conversations About Gambling course on participants' knowledge, confidence, stigmatising attitudes, intended helping behaviour and actual helping behaviour towards a person experiencing problem gambling. Participants from Australia completed surveys before the course, immediately after the course and six months later. Changes over time (pre-course to post-course, and pre-course to 6-month follow-up) were assessed with linear mixed models. Descriptive statistics and content analyses of open-ended questions pertaining to participants' satisfaction with the course were also produced. RESULTS: Between 2018 and 2020, 166 participants were recruited into this study. At 6-month follow-up 87 participants (52.4%) provided data. Participants' knowledge about gambling and gambling problems, confidence, desire for social distance and intentions to help a person experiencing problem gambling significantly improved from pre-course to post-course, and from pre-course to 6-month follow-up. The quality of some actions taken to support a person they knew who was experiencing problem gambling also improved from pre-course to 6-month follow-up, in line with the teachings of the course. Participants perceived the course to be highly acceptable. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this initial evaluation of Mental Health First Aid Australia's Conversations About Gambling course suggest that it is an effective and acceptable educational intervention for those who wish to support a person experiencing problem gambling.


Assuntos
Jogo de Azar , Saúde Mental , Atitude , Primeiros Socorros , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Jogo de Azar/terapia , Comportamento de Ajuda , Humanos
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3843, 2022 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35264652

RESUMO

Virtual reality (VR) affords the study of the behaviour of people in social situations that would be logistically difficult or ethically problematic in reality. The laboratory-controlled setup makes it straightforward to collect multi-modal data and compare the responses across different experimental conditions. However, the scenario is typically fixed and the resulting data are usually analysed only once the VR experience has ended. Here we describe a method that allows adaptation of the environment to the behaviours of participants and where data is collected and processed during the experience. The goal was to examine the extent to which helping behaviour of participants towards the victim of a violent aggression might be encouraged, with the use of reinforcement learning (RL). In the scenario, a virtual human character represented as a supporter of the Arsenal Football Club, was attacked by another with the aggression escalating over time. (In some countries football is referred to as 'soccer', but we will use 'football' throughout). Each participant, a bystander in the scene, might intervene to help the victim or do nothing. By varying the extent to which some actions of the virtual characters during the scenario were determined by the RL we were able to examine whether the RL resulted in a greater number of helping interventions. Forty five participants took part in the study divided into three groups: with no RL, a medium level of RL, or full operation of the RL. The results show that the greater extent to which the RL operated the greater the number of interventions. We suggest that this methodology could be an alternative to full multi-factorial experimental designs, and more importantly as a way to produce adaptive VR scenarios that encourage participants towards a particular line of action.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Ajuda , Realidade Virtual , Agressão , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Reforço Psicológico
8.
Soc Sci Med ; 299: 114870, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35286848

RESUMO

RATIONAL: Overcoming the COVID-19 pandemic requires large-scale cooperation and behavior change on an unprecedented scale. Individuals can help reduce the burden of the pandemic by participating in behaviors that benefit people whose life circumstances make them especially vulnerable. OBJECTIVE: We tested the effect of reading narrative (i.e., story-like) as opposed to expository (i.e., factual recounting) messages on beliefs about protecting others in groups vulnerable during the pandemic through increased message transportation (i.e. immersing the reader into the story). Additionally, we examined if reading narratives, as opposed to expository messages, increased intentions to engage in prosocial behaviors that benefit these groups through increased transportation. METHODS: The study used a between-subjects design where participants either read narrative or expository messages about the experiences of people who were at greater exposure to SARS-CoV-2 due to social and political factors, namely people who were incarcerated or working in healthcare during the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: In line with pre-registered hypotheses, participants in the narrative (vs. expository) condition reported greater transportation into the message. We also observed indirect effects of narrative (vs. expository) messages, through increased message transportation, on: (1) beliefs that by physical distancing, one can protect vulnerable people (2) beliefs that members of the target groups (i.e., healthcare workers and people who are incarcerated), were vulnerable during the pandemic, (3) intentions to engage in prosocial behaviors that help family and friends, and (4) intentions to engage in prosocial behaviors that help members of vulnerable groups. CONCLUSION: Together these results suggest that narratives can be used to motivate prosocial action during the COVID-19 pandemic to the extent that the narratives elicit transportation.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Prisioneiros , Pessoal de Saúde , Comportamento de Ajuda , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3315, 2022 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35228625

RESUMO

Empathy, the understanding of the emotional state of others, can be examined across species using the Perception Action Model, where shared affect promotes an action by "Observers" to aid a distressed "Target". The anterior insula (AI) has garnered interest in empathic behavior due to its role integrating sensory and emotional information of self and other. In the following studies, the AI was inhibited pharmacologically and chemogenetically during targeted helping. We demonstrate the insula is active during, and is necessary for the maintenance of, targeted helping. Analysis of ultrasonic vocalizations revealed distress calls from Targets increased when Observers' helping was attenuated due to insula inhibition. Targets' elevated distress was directly correlated to Observers' diminished helping behavior, suggesting emotional transfer between Observer and Target is blunted following Observer AI inhibition. Finally, the AI may selectively blunt targeted helping, as social exploration did not change in a social reward place conditioning task. These studies help further establish the anterior insula as a critical node in the empathic brain during targeted helping, even in the absence of direct social contact.


Assuntos
Empatia , Comportamento de Ajuda , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Emoções/fisiologia , Masculino , Ratos
10.
Zoo Biol ; 41(4): 340-345, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35041215

RESUMO

White-crested Laughingthrushes have historically experienced high chick/fledgling mortality when breeding in human care. Over two breeding seasons at the National Aviary, we provided supplemental food to parent-reared White-crested Laughingthrush chicks to simulate the contributions of conspecific nest-helpers, which are known to assist with White-crested Laughingthrush chick-rearing in the wild. Chick survival increased when we provided this nest-helping assistance. In zoos where conspecific nest-helpers are not available, we recommend human assistance be provided in a manner similar to that described here, to ensure long-term sustainability of the species in human care. This technique may also be useful for enhancing captive assurance populations of other cooperatively breeding Asian songbird species.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Ajuda , Passeriformes , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Cruzamento , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos
11.
J Anim Ecol ; 91(1): 224-240, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34704272

RESUMO

The social environment in which individuals live affects their fitness and in turn population dynamics as a whole. Birds with facultative cooperative breeding can live in social groups with dominants, subordinate helpers that assist with the breeding of others, and subordinate non-helpers. Helping behaviour benefits dominants through increased reproductive rates and reduced extrinsic mortality, such that cooperative breeding might have evolved in response to unpredictable, harsh conditions affecting reproduction and/or survival of the dominants. Additionally, there may be different costs and benefits to both helpers and non-helpers, depending on the time-scale. For example, early-life costs might be compensated by later-life benefits. These differential effects are rarely analysed in the same study. We examined whether helping behaviour affects population persistence in a stochastic environment and whether there are direct fitness consequences of different life-history tactics adopted by helpers and non-helpers. We parameterised a matrix population model describing the population dynamics of female Seychelles warblers Acrocephalus sechellensis, birds that display facultative cooperative breeding. The stochastic density-dependent model is defined by a (st)age structure that includes life-history differences between helpers and non-helpers and thus can estimate the demographic mechanisms of direct benefits of helping behaviour. We found that population dynamics are strongly influenced by stochastic variation in the reproductive rates of the dominants, that helping behaviour promotes population persistence and that there are only early-life differences in the direct fitness of helpers and non-helpers. Through a matrix population model, we captured multiple demographic rates simultaneously and analysed their relative importance in determining population dynamics of these cooperative breeders. Disentangling early-life versus lifetime effects of individual tactics sheds new light on the costs and benefits of helping behaviour. For example, the finding that helpers and non-helpers have similar lifetime reproductive outputs and that differences in reproductive values between the two life-history tactics arise only in early life suggests that overall, helpers and non-helpers have a similar balance of costs and benefits when analysing direct benefits. We recommend analysing the consequence of different life-history tactics, during both early life and over the lifetime, as analyses of these different time frames may produce conflicting results.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Passeriformes , Animais , Feminino , Comportamento de Ajuda , Passeriformes/fisiologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Reprodução/fisiologia
12.
Infancy ; 27(1): 197-206, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34791778

RESUMO

Engaging with music fosters prosocial responding in infants and toddlers. In this pilot study, we examined whether music that expresses contrasting emotions (happy vs. sad) was associated with toddlers' helpfulness. Seventy-five 18-month-olds from Hong Kong China were randomly assigned to engage with music with an experimenter in one of two conditions: happy- or sad-sounding music. After the musical engagement task, toddlers from both conditions completed the same set of helping tasks. For instrumental (action-based) helping, toddlers were significantly more helpful after engaging with happy-sounding music than with sad-sounding music. Our initial findings suggest that cues linked to happy- and sad-sounding music influence toddlers' prosocial responses.


Assuntos
Música , Emoções , Felicidade , Comportamento de Ajuda , Humanos , Lactente , Projetos Piloto
13.
J Appl Psychol ; 107(2): 240-262, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844565

RESUMO

Gratitude plays an integral role in promoting helping behavior at work. Thus, cultivating employees' experiences of gratitude represents an important imperative in modern organizations that rely on teamwork and collaboration to achieve organizational goals. Yet, today's workplace presents a complex array of demands that make it difficult for employees to fully attend to and appreciate the various benefits they receive at work. As such, gratitude is difficult for employers to promote and for employees to experience. Despite these observations, the role of attention and awareness in facilitating employees' feelings of gratitude is largely overlooked in the extant literature. In this study, we examined whether one notable form of present moment attention, mindfulness, may promote helping behavior by stimulating the positive, other-oriented emotion of gratitude. Across two experimental studies, a semiweekly, multisource diary study, and a 10-day experience sampling investigation, we found converging evidence for a serial mediation model in which state mindfulness, via positive affect and perspective taking, prompts greater levels of gratitude, prosocial motivation, and, in turn, helping behavior at work. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our investigation, as well as avenues for the future research. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento de Ajuda , Atenção Plena , Emoções , Humanos , Motivação , Local de Trabalho
14.
Psychol Rep ; 125(2): 1121-1144, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593152

RESUMO

The objective of the current research was to examine the influence of targeted messages in increasing helping behaviors towards lonely individuals. Previous research on loneliness interventions typically focuses on the lonely individual and working to reduce feelings of loneliness. The current study expands on this research by targeting individuals around lonely others to notice and consider helping those who might be lonely. Five targeted messages, based on Latané and Darley's (1970) bystander intervention model, were utilized. These messages included a "notice" condition (increasing awareness of lonely others), an "assume responsibility" condition (awareness and responsibility towards helping lonely others), a "decide" condition (awareness, responsibility, and steps to reach out to lonely others), and two control conditions. Participants in the "decide" condition were significantly more likely to report feeling prepared to help lonely others in the future. Those in the "assume responsibility" and "decide" conditions also reported more awareness of lonely individuals during a one-week follow-up. Overall, findings indicate that it might be advantageous to approach reducing loneliness from the perspective of those around lonely individuals. Future research and implications of these findings are discussed.


Assuntos
Solidão , Estudantes , Emoções , Comportamento de Ajuda , Humanos
15.
Dev Sci ; 25(2): e13167, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383977

RESUMO

Childhood is marked by profound changes in prosocial behaviour. The underlying motivational mechanisms remain poorly understood. We investigated the development of altruistically motivated helping in middle childhood and the neurocognitive and -affective mechanisms driving this development. One-hundred and twenty seven 6-12 year-old children performed a novel gustatory costly helping task designed to measure altruistic motivations of helping behaviour. Neurocognitive and -affective mechanisms including emotion regulation, emotional clarity and attentional reorienting were assessed experimentally through an extensive task-battery while functional brain activity and connectivity were measured during an empathy for taste paradigm and during rest. Altruistically motivated helping increased with age. Out of all mechanisms probed for, only emotional clarity increased with age and accounted for altruistically motivated helping. This was associated with greater functional integration of the empathy-related network with fronto-parietal brain regions at rest. We isolate a highly specific neuroaffective mechanism as the crucial driver of altruistically motivated helping during child development.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Comportamento de Ajuda , Criança , Emoções , Empatia , Humanos , Motivação
16.
Curr Opin Psychol ; 44: 106-111, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610545

RESUMO

We review psychological approaches of helping behavior in the context of refugee immigration. Refugee migration, compared with nonrefugee migration, is characterized by greater forcedness and related perils. Taking into account perceptions of forcedness and perils, we examine potential helpers' responses at each of four successive stages toward helping people in perilous, distressing, or emergency situations: (1) noticing and recognizing distressing, help-demanding conditions; (2) taking responsibility; (3) knowing how to help; and (4) transfer of one's knowledge into action. In so doing, we discuss the role of different motives and functions of providing help (e.g. preserving refugees' dependency or facilitating their autonomy) and implications of unequal power relations between help providers and refugees.


Assuntos
Refugiados , Emigração e Imigração , Comportamento de Ajuda , Humanos , Refugiados/psicologia
17.
J Interpers Violence ; 37(7-8): NP5538-NP5565, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954942

RESUMO

RISE, a sexual violence prevention program for female college students in India, covers topics on gender, healthy relationships, sexual violence, and bystander education, and focuses on the teaching of knowledge, the promotion of positive attitudes as well as the support of effective behaviors to prevent sexual violence against women in India. However, it is yet unclear what impact this program has in preventing sexual violence. In this evaluation study, a total of N = 245 female college students based in New Delhi and aged 17 to 22 years were assigned to a training (N = 128) or a waitlist control group (N = 117). The prevention program was conducted by two Indian professionals of a non-governmental organization (NGO) in New Delhi within five sessions. Results indicated that students in the training group showed significant increases in awareness of gender stereotypes, the importance of communication in relationships, bystander efficacy as well as intentions to intervene as a bystander in situations of violence when compared to students in the control group right after the program (posttest) and six months later (follow-up). Additionally, the training group displayed a significant increase of knowledge in all four program areas (gender, healthy relationships, sexual violence, and bystander education). Our findings implicate that future sexual violence prevention programs in India need to address women as well as men to effectively tackle sexual violence. In this context, bystander education seems to be one of the most promising approaches by targeting whole communities and creating new social norms regarding helping behavior and the prevention of sexual violence.


Assuntos
Delitos Sexuais , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Comportamento de Ajuda , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Estudantes , Universidades , Violência/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 122(2): 222-243, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852972

RESUMO

In this research, we explored and demonstrated a relatively implicit and covert means of undermining envied targets-namely, helping them in a way that retains their future dependence, rather than in a way that increases their autonomy. In four studies, we varied our envy manipulations, measured the extent to which these manipulations trigger malicious motivations, and examined the consequences in terms of intended (Studies 1-2) and actual (Studies 3-4) helping behaviors. In Study 4, we also measured and tested the role of individual differences in terms of proneness to malicious versus benign envy. Taken together, our findings suggest that the extent to which envy toward superior versus neutral peers activates malicious motivations negatively impacts peoples' willingness to provide these superior peers with help, particularly with autonomous help. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Ciúme , Motivação , Comportamento de Ajuda , Humanos , Individualidade , Grupo Associado
19.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 214: 105278, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562633

RESUMO

By around 3 years of age, collaboration induces in young children a normative sense of "we" that creates a sense of obligation (e.g., commitment, fairness) toward their collaborative partner. The current study investigated whether this normative sense of we could be induced purely verbally in 3- and 4-year-old children. Children joined a puppet at a table to draw. In one condition the puppet repeatedly framed things as "we" are going to sit at the table, "we" are going to draw, and so forth, whereas in the other condition the pronoun used was always "you." Dependent measures gauged children's commitment, resource distribution, and helping behavior toward their partner. Results showed that both 3- and 4-year-olds felt a greater sense of commitment to their partner after "we"-framing than after "you"-framing. The 4-year-olds evidenced this commitment by showing a greater reluctance to abandon their partner for a more fun game compared with the 3-year-olds. The 3-year-olds did not share this reluctance, but when they did abandon their partner they more often took leave following we-framing by "announcing" their leaving. There were no effects of we-framing on children's sharing with their partner or helping behavior. These results suggest that verbal we-framing, as compared with you-framing, is an effective means of inducing in children a sense of shared agency and commitment with a partner.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Comportamento de Ajuda , Pré-Escolar , Emoções , Humanos , Jogos e Brinquedos
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948911

RESUMO

Although it is important to examine how creative performance can be achieved by facilitating knowledge sharing activities among its members, few studies have examined these relationships. Therefore, this study analyzed the effects of coworkers' helping behavior on knowledge sharing and creativity. It also attempted to demonstrate the moderating role of interactional justice as a situational variable that positively affects coworkers' helping behavior. Using data from 200 full-time supervisor-subordinate dyads in a large public institution located in South Korea, we performed multiple regression analysis and the bootstrapping method to test our hypotheses. The results of this study presented that coworkers' helping behavior encouraged individuals to share knowledge and increase their creative performance. Moreover, this study demonstrated that the positive effect of coworkers' helping behavior on employees' creativity through their knowledge sharing was stronger when interactional justice was high rather than low. Therefore, this research contributes to finding the critical factors that enable a company to gain a competitive advantage by providing the impact of coworkers' helping behavior and supervisors' interactional justice on knowledge sharing and creativity among employees.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Ajuda , Justiça Social , Criatividade , Emprego , Humanos , Conhecimento
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...