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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e225272, jan.-dez. 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1354777

RESUMO

Aim: To compare the pre-clinical and clinical students` perceptions about the non-pharmacological behaviour management techniques in paediatric dentistry and to investigate the influence of the dental curriculum on the students` knowledge regarding this issue. Methods: A total of 283 students from the IV-and X-semester completed a questionnaire, consisted of 12 statements, describing the nonpharmacological behaviour management techniques for the treatment of paediatric dental patients. The acceptability rate was evaluated with a Likert scale ranging from 1 to 5. Results: The students from all courses demonstrated high acceptance for Reinforcement and Desensitization techniques and low for the Negative reinforcement and Physical restraint. The comparison between the perceptions of the pre-clinical and clinical students demonstrated a statistically significant increase in the acceptance of the physical restraint, along with Nonverbal communication, Modelling and Parental presence/absence (p<0.05). Conclusion: The results provide information about the students' knowledge and skills in behaviour management techniques together with some insights about how the educational process can modify the students` perceptions and views in dealing with paediatric dental patients


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estudantes de Odontologia , Comportamento , Inquéritos e Questionários , Odontopediatria , Métodos
2.
Sci Data ; 9(1): 261, 2022 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35654857

RESUMO

We conducted a field study at a K-12 private school in the suburbs of Melbourne, Australia. The data capture contained two elements: First, a 5-month longitudinal field study In-Gauge using two outdoor weather stations, as well as indoor weather stations in 17 classrooms and temperature sensors on the vents of occupant-controlled room air-conditioners; these were collated into individual datasets for each classroom at a 5-minute logging frequency, including additional data on occupant presence. The dataset was used to derive predictive models of how occupants operate room air-conditioning units. Second, we tracked 23 students and 6 teachers in a 4-week cross-sectional study En-Gage, using wearable sensors to log physiological data, as well as daily surveys to query the occupants' thermal comfort, learning engagement, emotions and seating behaviours. Overall, the combined dataset could be used to analyse the relationships between indoor/outdoor climates and students' behaviours/mental states on campus, which provide opportunities for the future design of intelligent feedback systems to benefit both students and staff.


Assuntos
Comportamento , Emoções , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Ar Condicionado , Clima , Estudos Transversais , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Humanos
4.
Invest. educ. enferm ; 40(2): 149-160, 15 de junio 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1379630

RESUMO

Objective. To identify the knowledge of teachers about suicidal behavior in adolescents. Methods. Qualitative exploratory-descriptive study conducted in a state school in the municipality of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Twelve teachers participated in the study. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews analyzed using Bardin's Content Analysis. Results. Three categories were built: "Warning signs of suicide", related to the signs identified by the professionals; "Risk factors for suicide", which indicate the reasons that may lead adolescents to present this type of behavior; and "Difficulties in dealing with the behaviors", referring to the behaviors adopted by adolescents and the difficulties of teachers before the theme. Conclusion. It was possible to identify that teachers recognize some signs of suicidal behavior, as well as some risk factors. Nonetheless, it is necessary to qualify them to approach the subject, since they feel insecure to act in more critical moments, thus generating mainly feelings of sadness, guilt and powerlessness.


Objetivo. Identificar el conocimiento de los profesores sobre el comportamiento suicida en adolescentes. Métodos. Estudio exploratorio-descriptivo y cualitativo realizado en una escuela pública del municipio de Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil. Doce profesores participaron en el estudio. Los datos se recogieron mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas, que fueron analizadas utilizando el Análisis de Contenido de Bardin. Resultados. Se construyeron tres categorías: "Señales de alerta de suicidio", relacionada con las señales identificadas por los profesionales; "Factores de riesgo de suicidio", que indican las razones que pueden llevar a los adolescentes a presentar este tipo de comportamiento; y "Dificultades para lidiar con los comportamientos", relativa a las conductas adoptadas por los adolescentes y a las dificultades de los profesionales frente al tema. Conclusión. Se pudo identificar que los profesores reconocen algunas señales de comportamiento suicida, así como algunos factores de riesgo. Sin embargo, es necesario cualificarlas para el abordaje del problema, pues se sienten inseguros para actuar en los momentos más críticos, generando principalmente sentimientos de tristeza, culpa e impotencia.


Objetivo. Identificar o conhecimento de professores sobre comportamento suicida em adolescentes. Métodos. Estudo exploratório-descritivo, qualitativo, realizado em uma escola estadual no município de Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil. Participaram no estudo 12 professores. Os dados foram coletados mediante entrevistas semiestruturadas analisadas por meio da Análise de Conteúdo de Bardin. Resultados. Foram construídas três categorias: "Sinais de alerta para o suicídio", relacionada com os sinais identificados pelos profissionais; "Fatores de risco para o suicídio", que apontam os motivos que podem levar os adolescentes a apresentarem este tipo de comportamento; e, "Dificuldades em lidar com os comportamentos" referentes às condutas adotadas pelos adolescentes e as dificuldades dos professores frente ao tema. Conclusão. Foi possível identificar que os professores reconhecem alguns sinais de comportamento suicida assim como alguns fatores de risco. Porém, é preciso qualificá-los para a abordagem ao assunto, visto que se sentem inseguros para agir em momentos mais críticos, gerando principalmente sentimentos de tristeza, culpa e impotência.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Suicídio , Comportamento , Saúde Mental , Fatores de Risco , Saúde do Adolescente , Educação , Conhecimento , Tristeza , Culpa
5.
Curr Opin Neurobiol ; 73: 102559, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35654560
7.
Elife ; 112022 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35608164

RESUMO

In humans, ageing is characterized by decreased brain signal variability and increased behavioral variability. To understand how reduced brain variability segregates with increased behavioral variability, we investigated the association between reaction time variability, evoked brain responses and ongoing brain signal dynamics, in young (N=36) and older adults (N=39). We studied the electroencephalogram (EEG) and pupil size fluctuations to characterize the cortical and arousal responses elicited by a cued go/no-go task. Evoked responses were strongly modulated by slow (<2 Hz) fluctuations of the ongoing signals, which presented reduced power in the older participants. Although variability of the evoked responses was lower in the older participants, once we adjusted for the effect of the ongoing signal fluctuations, evoked responses were equally variable in both groups. Moreover, the modulation of the evoked responses caused by the ongoing signal fluctuations had no impact on reaction time, thereby explaining why although ongoing brain signal variability is decreased in older individuals, behavioral variability is not. Finally, we showed that adjusting for the effect of the ongoing signal was critical to unmask the link between neural responses and behavior as well as the link between task-related evoked EEG and pupil responses.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Encéfalo , Potenciais Evocados , Idoso , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Comportamento/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Humanos , Pupila/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8637, 2022 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35606459

RESUMO

Spontaneous touching of one's own face (sFST) is an everyday behavior that occurs primarily in cognitively and emotionally demanding situations, regardless of a persons' age or gender. Recently, sFST have sparked scientific interest since they are associated with self-inoculation and transmission of respiratory diseases. Several studies addressed the need to reduce sFST behaviors without discussing the underlying functions of this spontaneous behavior. In addition, the question of why this behavior occurs very frequently in some individuals (high self-touching individuals, HT) but less frequently in others (low self-touching individuals, LT) has not yet been addressed. For the first time, we distinguished between HT and LT and investigated the behavioral consequences of sFST suppression in these two groups. For this purpose, we examined performance outcomes of 49 participants depending on sFST behaviors during a haptic working memory task. In addition, we assessed personality traits of HT and LT using the Freiburg Personality Inventory (FPI-R). The results of our study reveal that suppressing sFST in HT is negatively related to memory performance outcomes. Moreover, HT show tendencies to differ from LT in certain personality traits. Our results highlight the relevance of distinguishing between HT and LT in future studies of sFST.


Assuntos
Comportamento , Face , Memória de Curto Prazo , Personalidade , Tato , Cognição , Humanos , Memória , Percepção do Tato
9.
An. psicol ; 38(2): 355-364, may. 2022. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-202896

RESUMO

Deben resolverse los deberes diarios, las tareas, las diversas situaciones y las decisiones. Sin embargo, con frecuencia postergamos las actividades críticas para más tarde debido a una sobrecarga de información de diversas fuentes, un número excesivo de tareas, el ritmo de vida rápido, etc. El comportamiento de procrastinación impide el desarrollo de todas las organizaciones. El objetivo principal es identificar las posibles diferencias en la procrastinación y el uso adecuado de la policronicidad en un contexto transcultural. Se consideró una muestra de 281 empleados de industrias manufactureras en Pakistán. Las hipótesis propuestas en este estudio fueron probadas mediante la técnica de Modelado de Ecuaciones Estructurales (SEM). Los hallazgos indicaron que la policronicidad aumentó el comportamiento de procrastinación, el papel de la influencia de la mediación de conflictos. Además, la autonomía laboral actúa como un moderador negativo de la influencia de la policronicidad en el papel de los sucesos de conflicto, debilitando así todo el proceso de mediación entre la policronicidad y la conducta procrastinadora individual. Finalmente, los resultados se utilizan para mostrar las implicaciones teóricas y prácticas del modelo.(AU)


Daily duties, tasks, various situations, and decisions must be re-solved. However, it is frequently the case that we defer critical activities till later due to an overload of information from many sources, an excessive number of duties, the quick pace of life, and so on. Procrastination behav-ior impedes the development of every organization. The main objective is to identify possible differences in procrastination and the proper use of polychronicity in a cross-cultural context. A sample of 281 employees of manufacturing industries in Pakistan was considered. A study proposed hypotheses were tested through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) technique. The findings indicated that polychronicity increased procrasti-nating behavior, the role of conflict mediation influence. Furthermore, job autonomy acts as a negative moderator of polychronicity influence on the role of conflict occurrences, therefore weakening the entire mediating pro-cess between polychronicity and individual procrastinating behaviour. Fi-nally, the results are used to show the model's theoretical and practical im-plications.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Ciências da Saúde , Comportamento , Engajamento no Trabalho , Procrastinação , Comportamento Multitarefa , Conflito Psicológico , Autonomia Pessoal
10.
Science ; 376(6596): 938-939, 2022 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35617385

RESUMO

Gut bacteria influence the brain and behavior, but causation in humans remains unclear.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Comportamento , Encéfalo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Vida Livre de Germes , Humanos , Camundongos
11.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 93: 183-191, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35533541

RESUMO

The so-called 'missing heritability problem' is often characterized by behavior geneticists as a numerical discrepancy between alternative kinds of heritability. For example, while 'traditional heritability' derived from twin and family studies indicates that approximately ∼50% of variation in intelligence is attributable to genetics, 'SNP heritability' derived from genome-wide association studies indicates that only ∼10% of variation in intelligence is attributable to genetics. This 40% gap in variance accounted for by alternative kinds of heritability is frequently referred to as what's "missing." Philosophers have picked up on this reading, suggesting that "dissolving" the missing heritability problem is merely a matter of closing the numerical gap between traditional and molecular kinds of heritability. We argue that this framing of the problem undervalues the severity of the many challenges to scientific understanding of the "heritability" of human behavior. On our view, resolving the numerical discrepancies between alternative kinds of heritability will do little to advance scientific explanation and understanding of behavior genetics. Thus, we propose a new conceptual framework of the missing heritability problem that comprises three independent methodological and explanatory challenges: the numerical gap, the prediction gap, and the mechanism gap.


Assuntos
Comportamento , Medicina do Comportamento , Genética Comportamental , Padrões de Herança , Comportamento/fisiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Padrões de Herança/genética , Gêmeos/genética
12.
ABCS health sci ; 47: e022213, 06 abr. 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372693

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Qualified nursing services can be manifested through the provision of nursing care based on nurses' caring behavior. Therefore, a nurse's caring behavior can affect patient satisfaction which can contribute to a nurse's attitudes, and the specific baseline is emotional intelligence. As one of the clinical indicators for nursing care quality, it is associated directly with patient's satisfaction towards nurses´ caring behavior, because it is conceptualized and measurable. OBJECTIVE: To identify the association of nurses' emotional intelligence and their caring behavior throughout nursing practice hospitalization in Ambun Suri ward Dr. Achmad Mochtar Hospital, Bukittinggi, Indonesia. METHODS: This is descriptive-analytic research with a cross-sectional approach involving 69 nurses. The instruments for this study were self-report questionnaires of professional caring behavior items. Data were categorized to specific criteria and measured with descriptive statistics. RESULTS: The statistical analysis revealed 44.9% of nurses had a deficient caring attitude while high emotional intelligence reached out of 53.7% during nurses' caring behavior. A significant emotional intelligence association with caring behavior was found (p=0.001). CONCLUSION: The study findings may be recommended to the hospital ward headship throughout the functions of direction and supervision strive for nurses´ emotional intelligence development, including of nurses' touching and listening abilities, explaining and talking intonation, technical and expression amongst therapeutic processes, environmental management, and family involvement. Those should be improved from various nurses' emotional intelligence educational workshops and training for decent caring behavior enhancement.


INTRODUÇÃO: Serviços de enfermagem qualificados podem se manifestar por meio da prestação de cuidados de enfermagem com base no comportamento de cuidar do enfermeiro. Portanto, o comportamento de cuidado do enfermeiro pode afetar a satisfação do paciente, o que pode contribuir para as atitudes do enfermeiro, e a linha de base específica é a inteligência emocional. Como um dos indicadores clínicos de qualidade da assistência de enfermagem, está diretamente associado à satisfação do paciente com o comportamento de cuidar do enfermeiro, pois é conceituado e mensurável. OBJETIVO: Identificar a associação da inteligência emocional dos enfermeiros e seu comportamento de cuidar durante a internação de enfermagem na enfermaria do Hospital Dr. Achmad Mochtar de Ambun Suri, Bukittinggi, Indonésia. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa descritivo-analítica de corte transversal envolvendo 69 enfermeiros. Os instrumentos para este estudo foram questionários de itens de comportamento de cuidado profissional e autorrelato. RESULTADOS: A análise estatística revelou que 44,9% dos enfermeiros tinham uma atitude de cuidado deficiente, ao passo que foi afirmada uma inteligência emocional elevada alcançada em 53,7% durante o comportamento de cuidado dos enfermeiros. Ele teve uma associação significativa da inteligência emocional com o comportamento de cuidado com uma probabilidade significativa de 0,001. CONCLUSÃO: Os achados do estudo podem ser recomendados à chefia de enfermaria em todas as funções de direção e supervisão que buscam o desenvolvimento da inteligência emocional do enfermeiro, incluindo habilidades de toque e escuta do enfermeiro, explicação e entonação da fala, técnica e expressão entre processos terapêuticos, gestão ambiental e envolvimento da família.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Inteligência Emocional , Indonésia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Cuidados de Enfermagem , Prática Profissional , Comportamento
13.
Nat Rev Neurosci ; 23(6): 321, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35440775
14.
Rev. psicol. deport ; 31(1): 148-157, mar. 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-206025

RESUMO

Football is the game of presence of mind with quality athleticism hence, the effects of psychological factors on the personality of football players cause vigorous results which ultimately affect the players’ actions and performances on the ground. It is the personality of the football players that plays a vital role in their consistent performances and building their careers in a highlighted way. According to the current study, active learning and adaptive behavior are the two major psychological factors which affect the confidence and personality of football players, particularly in China. To accomplish the objectives of the current study, a quantitative research approach was adopted. Hence, a survey was conducted to collect the primary data from the 450 football players who were the respondents of the current study, aimed to perform data analysis. The results revealed that an increase in active learning and adaptive behavior; causes an increase in the players’ confidence and personality. Hence, the current study helps the players and responsible authorities to make players’ personalities object-oriented.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Comportamento , Personalidade , Futebol , Atletas , Psicologia do Esporte
15.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(1): 13-21, Jan-Abr. 2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362662

RESUMO

O objetivo desse artigo é relatar os resultados de um programa de exercícios para indivíduos adultos com deficiências cognitivas e transtornos, utilizando diferentes exergames como ferramentas pedagógicas. A intervenção foi realizada com a participação de 26 indivíduos adultos com deficiências cognitivas e transtornos com idades entre 25 e 59 anos. A pesquisa de abordagem qualitativa, de cunho exploratória, a qual foram utilizados a entrevista semiestruturada e o diário de campo como instrumentos de pesquisa. Para interação com os exergames, foram utilizados os consoles Xbox 360 com Kinect, Xbox One com Kinect e Nintendo Wii U. As intervenções foram realizadas no Exergame Lab Brazil, na Escola Superior de Educação Física da UFPel, por um período de duas horas, uma vez por semana, totalizando 25 encontros. A utilização de Exergames tem grande potencial, tanto nos aspectos relacionados à viabilidade, por ser uma tecnologia de baixo custo e de fácil implementação, quanto nos resultados esperados. O Just Dance e o Kinect Sports foram os games que mais contribuíram nesta pesquisa. Os participantes da pesquisa ganharam independência e socialização, bem como melhoraram as habilidades específicas em cada game. Além disso, a possibilidade de utilização dos Exergames em casa também poderá auxiliar pais e responsáveis a melhorar aspectos da vida diária de adultos com deficiências cognitivas e transtornos.


The purpose of this article is to report the results of an exercise program for adults with cognitive disabilities and disorders using different exergames as pedagogical tools. The intervention was carried out with the participation of 26 individuals with cognitive disabilities and disorders aged between 25 and 59 years old. The exploratory, qualitative research used a semi-structured interview and a field diary as research instruments. The Xbox 360 with Kinect, Xbox One with Kinect and Nintendo Wii U consoles were used for the interactions with the exergames. The interventions were carried out at Exergame Lab Brazil, at the Physical Education School at UFPel, for a period of two hours, once a week, totaling 25 meetings. The use of Exergames presents great potential, both in relation to feasibility, since it is a low-cost, easy-to-implement technology, and in terms of expected results. Just Dance and Kinect Sports were the games that contributed most to this research. Research participants gained independence and socialization, as well as the improvement of specific skills in each game. In addition, the possibility of using Exergames at home can also help parents and guardians to improve aspects of the daily life of adults with cognitive disabilities and disorders.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Inclusão Digital , Promoção da Saúde , Socialização , Síndrome , Ensino , Comportamento , Exercício Físico , Intervenção Educacional Precoce , Jogos de Vídeo , Terapia por Exercício/educação , Realidade Virtual , Transtornos Mentais/terapia
16.
Bioessays ; 44(5): e2200034, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35253258

RESUMO

Over the arc of his career, E. O. Wilson first embraced, then popularized, and finally rejected an extreme genetical hereditarian view of human nature. The controversy that ensued during the period of popularization (largely in the 1970s and 1980s) obscured the fact that empirical and theoretical research during this time undercut the assumptions necessary for this view. By the end of his career, Wilson accepted the fact that individual/kin selection models were insufficient to explain human behavior and society, and he began conducting research based upon multilevel (group) selection, an idea he had previously scorned.


Assuntos
Comportamento , Seleção Genética , Humanos
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2339, 2022 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35165309

RESUMO

Can our brain perceive a sense of ownership towards an independent supernumerary limb; one that can be moved independently of any other limb and provides its own independent movement feedback? Following the rubber-hand illusion experiment, a plethora of studies have shown that the human representation of "self" is very plastic. But previous studies have almost exclusively investigated ownership towards "substitute" artificial limbs, which are controlled by the movements of a real limb and/or limbs from which non-visual sensory feedback is provided on an existing limb. Here, to investigate whether the human brain can own an independent artificial limb, we first developed a novel independent robotic "sixth finger." We allowed participants to train using the finger and examined whether it induced changes in the body representation using behavioral as well as cognitive measures. Our results suggest that unlike a substitute artificial limb (like in the rubber hand experiment), it is more difficult for humans to perceive a sense of ownership towards an independent limb. However, ownership does seem possible, as we observed clear tendencies of changes in the body representation that correlated with the cognitive reports of the sense of ownership. Our results provide the first evidence to show that an independent supernumerary limb can be embodied by humans.


Assuntos
Membros Artificiais/psicologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Extremidades/fisiologia , Adulto , Comportamento/fisiologia , Dedos/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Robótica/normas , Adulto Jovem
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2041, 2022 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35132101

RESUMO

Theta oscillations (~ 4-12 Hz) are dynamically modulated by speed and direction in freely moving animals. However, due to the paucity of electrophysiological recordings of freely moving humans, this mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we combined mobile-EEG with fully immersive virtual-reality to investigate theta dynamics in 22 healthy adults (aged 18-29 years old) freely navigating a T-maze to find rewards. Our results revealed three dynamic periods of theta modulation: (1) theta power increases coincided with the participants' decision-making period; (2) theta power increased for fast and leftward trials as subjects approached the goal location; and (3) feedback onset evoked two phase-locked theta bursts over the right temporal and frontal-midline channels. These results suggest that recording scalp EEG in freely moving humans navigating a simple virtual T-maze can be utilized as a powerful translational model by which to map theta dynamics during "real-life" goal-directed behavior in both health and disease.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Recompensa , Couro Cabeludo/fisiologia , Navegação Espacial/fisiologia , Ritmo Teta/fisiologia , Realidade Virtual , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2896, 2022 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35190579

RESUMO

Methods on modelling the human brain as a Complex System have increased remarkably in the literature as researchers seek to understand the underlying foundations behind cognition, behaviour, and perception. Computational methods, especially Graph Theory-based methods, have recently contributed significantly in understanding the wiring connectivity of the brain, modelling it as a set of nodes connected by edges. Therefore, the brain's spatiotemporal dynamics can be holistically studied by considering a network, which consists of many neurons, represented by nodes. Various models have been proposed for modelling such neurons. A recently proposed method in training such networks, called full-Force, produces networks that perform tasks with fewer neurons and greater noise robustness than previous least-squares approaches (i.e. FORCE method). In this paper, the first direct applicability of a variant of the full-Force method to biologically-motivated Spiking RNNs (SRNNs) is demonstrated. The SRNN is a graph consisting of modules. Each module is modelled as a Small-World Network (SWN), which is a specific type of a biologically-plausible graph. So, the first direct applicability of a variant of the full-Force method to modular SWNs is demonstrated, evaluated through regression and information theoretic metrics. For the first time, the aforementioned method is applied to spiking neuron models and trained on various real-life Electroencephalography (EEG) signals. To the best of the authors' knowledge, all the contributions of this paper are novel. Results show that trained SRNNs match EEG signals almost perfectly, while network dynamics can mimic the target dynamics. This demonstrates that the holistic setup of the network model and the neuron model which are both more biologically plausible than previous work, can be tuned into real biological signal dynamics.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Modelos Neurológicos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Comportamento , Cognição/fisiologia , Humanos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Percepção
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2285, 2022 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35145138

RESUMO

Disrupting memory reconsolidation provides an opportunity to abruptly reduce the behavioural expression of fear memories with long-lasting effects. The success of a reconsolidation intervention is, however, not guaranteed as it strongly depends on the destabilization of the memory. Identifying the necessary conditions to trigger destabilization remains one of the critical challenges in the field. We aimed to replicate a study from our lab, showing that the occurrence of a prediction error (PE) during reactivation is necessary but not sufficient for destabilization. We tested the effectiveness of a reactivation procedure consisting of a single PE, compared to two control groups receiving no or multiple PEs. All participants received propranolol immediately after reactivation and were tested for fear retention 24 h later. In contrast to the original results, we found no evidence for a reconsolidation effect in the single PE group, but a straightforward interpretation of these results is complicated by the lack of differential fear retention in the control groups. Our results corroborate other failed reconsolidation studies and exemplify the complexity of experimentally investigating this process in humans. Thorough investigation of the interaction between learning and memory reactivation is essential to understand the inconsistencies in the literature and to improve reconsolidation interventions.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Medo/psicologia , Consolidação da Memória/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento/efeitos dos fármacos , Extinção Psicológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Extinção Psicológica/fisiologia , Medo/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Consolidação da Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Propranolol/farmacologia , Retenção Psicológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Retenção Psicológica/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
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