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1.
Codas ; 34(2): e20210026, 2022.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019079

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the association between the clinical evaluation and self-perception of deglutition with the motor disability scale in patients with Multiple Sclerosis. METHODS: It is a cross-sectional, prospective study that was conducted with individuals with Multiple Sclerosis treated by the Neuroimmunology outpatient clinic of a hospital in southern Brazil. We reviewed the electronic medical records of patients to extract the score from the last Expanded Disability Status Scale. After the analysis of the inclusion criteria, and in clinical consultation, two protocols were applied: one of self-perception for the risk of dysphagia, through the Brazilian equivalence instrument of the Eating Assessment Tool; and the clinical evaluation of swallowing, with food, through the scale Gugging Swallowing Screen. The data were analyzed through tables, descriptive statistics and the tests: Fisher's Exact Association Test and Chi-square Test to assess the association between the results of the applied scales. We considered a maximum significance level of 5% (p <0.05). RESULTS: It was possible to observe that there was a significant association between the scores of the Gugging Swallowing Screen scales with the Expanded Disability Status Scale of the patients. In addition, there was also a relation between the results of both protocols with the Expanded Disability Status Scale. CONCLUSION: The patients with Multiple Sclerosis in this study presented oropharyngeal dysphagia, what was confirmed by the association between the clinical evaluation of swallowing and the results of the instrument of self-perception of swallowing and the motor disability scale.


OBJETIVO: Investigar a associação entre a avaliação clínica e autopercepção da deglutição com a escala de incapacidade motora em pacientes com Esclerose Múltipla. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal, prospectivo realizado com indivíduos com Esclerose Múltipla atendidos pelo ambulatório de Neuroimunologia de um hospital do sul do Brasil. Realizamos a revisão dos prontuários eletrônicos dos pacientes para extração do escore da última Expanded Disability Status Scale. Após a análise dos critérios de inclusão, e em consulta clínica, foram aplicados dois protocolos, o de autopercepção para o risco de disfagia, através do instrumento de equivalência brasileira do Eating Assessment Tool e a avaliação clínica da deglutição, com alimentos, através da escala Gugging Swallowing Screen. Os dados foram analisados através de tabelas, estatísticas descritivas e pelos testes: Teste de Associação Exato de Fisher e Teste Qui-quadrado para avaliar a associação entre os resultados das escalas aplicadas. Consideramos um nível de significância máximo de 5% (p<0,05). RESULTADOS: Foi possível observar que houve associação significativa entre os escores das escalas Gugging Swallowing Screen com a Expanded Disability Status Scale dos pacientes. Além disso, também se observou relação entre os resultados de ambos protocolos com a Expanded Disability Status Scale. CONCLUSÃO: Os pacientes com Esclerose Múltipla deste estudo apresentaram disfagia orofaríngea. Houve associação entre os achados da avaliação clínica, do instrumento de autopercepção da deglutição e da escala de incapacidade motora em pacientes com esclerose múltipla.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição , Pessoas com Deficiência , Transtornos Motores , Esclerose Múltipla , Estudos Transversais , Deglutição , Transtornos de Deglutição/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Autoimagem
2.
Appetite ; 168: 105715, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582885

RESUMO

The need to examine the associations between emotion regulation and mental health and well-being among adolescents is increasingly recognized. Adolescence is a critical time characterized by increased vulnerability towards emotional struggles and difficulties, especially related with body image and eating behaviours. Thus, it seems particularly important to analyse the processes and mechanisms underlying the relationships between several risk factors (such as the lack of early affiliative memories) and body and eating-related difficulties, in this specific developmental phase. The current study intended to examine whether early affiliative memories are significantly associated with body and eating-related difficulties (i.e., body image shame and eating psychopathology severity), and whether this association is mediated by lower feelings of social safeness and increased levels of fears of receiving compassion from others. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 231 adolescent girls from the community, aged between 12 and 18, who completed self-report measures. Data were examined through descriptive and correlational statistics, and the adequacy of the model was performed via path analysis. Path analysis results revealed that fears of receiving compassion from others and low feelings of social safeness mediated the relationship between early affiliative memories and body and eating-related difficulties. The path model accounted for the variances in the following way: 27% of feelings of social safeness; 23% of fears of receiving compassion from others; 28% of body-image shame; and 54% of eating psychopathology severity, revealing a very good fit. These findings emphasize the relevance of assessing and working on potential processes underlying the adoption of disordered body and eating attitudes and behaviours, not only but especially in female adolescents with scarce recall of early affiliative experiences with close ones.


Assuntos
Empatia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Adolescente , Imagem Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Autoimagem , Vergonha
3.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 98: 104563, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aging society and climate changes pose significant challenges globally. Environmental volunteering solves these two problems by engaging older people in nature conservation as a possible model of productive aging. This review examines the current state of environmental volunteerism for older adults. METHODS: We systematically searched for articles in Medline, Embase, CENTRAL, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. Environmental volunteerism was defined as nature conservation activity without payment. There were 9 studies with a total of 328 participants. We conducted a narrative synthesis and meta-ethnography, which focused on types, benefits, motivations, and drawbacks of environmental volunteerism. RESULTS: Three types of volunteering were identified: greening, recycling, and project-oriented. Their shared factors included physical activity, social connection, and meaningful purpose. Environmental volunteerism associated with benefits in physical health, mental wellbeing, social capital, and personal empowerment with no apparent drawbacks. Retired people find a purpose to live, opportunities for socialization and physical activity, and increased self-esteem in the process. The motivations for initiation and continued engagement were found to be socialization, generativity, usefulness to others, and pro-environmental attitude. Among them, socialization was the most mentioned motivation, and generativity was the unique factor for older adults compared with the general population. CONCLUSION: Environmental volunteerism may be a positive model for older adults, society, and environment. Policymakers can encourage more older adults to engage in environmental volunteering with concerns of motivations, found by this study. Future studies can further strengthen the evidence and explore more types of environmental volunteerism.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Voluntários , Idoso , Humanos , Motivação , Aposentadoria , Autoimagem
4.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 98: 104556, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The activity theory posits that productive activities are beneficial to older people's well-being. This study examined how quality of life (QoL), globally and in its different dimensions, may be affected by stopping or initiating volunteering, and which psychosocial mechanisms might be at work in such associations. METHOD: This study used an explicative sequential mixed method design: analyses of 2011 and 2016 data from participants to the Lausanne cohort 65+ (n = 1,976, age 68-77 years in 2011) were followed by qualitative analyses of focus groups made of volunteers participating in the same cohort. Quantitative and qualitative results were then integrated to search for explanations of the former by the latter. RESULTS: Stopping (versus maintaining) volunteering was independently associated with higher odds of a decrease in global QoL and in the "self-esteem and recognition" and "autonomy" dimensions. Observed associations were mediated by the satisfaction of transmitting skills and knowledge, of witnessing the progress of the people being helped, and of feeling useful. Volunteering gave participants a sense of structure and taught them new skills. Initiating volunteering (versus not participating) was independently associated with lower odds of a decrease in the "material resources" dimension and experiencing financial problems was believed to hinder volunteering. CONCLUSION: Our findings show a positive impact of volunteering on the self-esteem and autonomy of older adults, suggesting that they should be supported in maintaining their volunteer activities. Further exploration of the relationship between material resources and opportunities to volunteer is needed.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Voluntários , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Satisfação Pessoal , Autoimagem
5.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 201, 2021 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34952639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the context of parenting has been incorporated into psychosocial pain research, very little attention has been paid to how parenting styles influence chronic pain in adolescents. The present study aimed to investigate the mediating role of self-esteem, emotional intelligence, and psychological distress in the association between parenting styles and chronic pain. METHOD: Seven hundred and thirty nine adolescents and their parents participated in this study. To identify adolescents with chronic pain, screening questions based on the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases were used. Baumrind parenting style questionnaire was used to assess the parenting style (permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parenting styles). The structural equation modelling (SEM) was carried out in M-Plus version 6 to evaluate the direct, indirect, and total effects of different parenting styles on chronic pain. RESULTS: The results in the SEM models revealed that only the indirect paths from authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles to pain through emotional intelligence (ßauthoritative = - 0.003, 95% CI = - 0.008 to - 0.003; ßauthoritarian = 0.001, 95% CI = 0.001 to 0.003) and psychological distress (ßauthoritative = - 0.010, 95% CI = - 0.021 to - 0.004; ßauthoritarian = 0.008, 95% CI = 0.004 to 0.016) were significant. Indirect paths from permissive style to pain and the mediating role of self-esteem were not significant. DISCUSSION: Emotional intelligence and psychological distress significantly mediated the effects of authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles on chronic pain. The current results support the notion that interventions targeting effective parent-adolescent communication may be an important part of chronic pain management in adolescents. Moreover, the results provide rationale for targeting emotional intelligence and psychological distress in adolescents by explicitly teaching effective communication skills, expressing opinions and minds, and emotion regulation strategies.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Poder Familiar , Adolescente , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Pais , Autoimagem
6.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 823, 2021 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34903212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the last two decades, there has been significant growth in public, political, and academic awareness of polygamy. Polygamous families have distinct household problems, usually stemming from jealousy between co-wives over the husband's affections and resources. This study aimed to ascertain the psychological impact of polygamous marriage on women and children worldwide. METHODS: A systematic search was performed in MEDLINE (PubMed), Scopus, CINAHL (EBSCOhost), Google Scholar, and ProQuest using search terms such as "marriage" and "polygamy." Studies published from the inception of the respective databases until April 2021 were retrieved to assess their eligibility for inclusion in this study. The Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist was used for data extraction and the quality assessment of the included studies. The generic inverse variance and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using RevMan software. RESULTS: There were 24 studies fulfilling the eligibility criteria, and 23 studies had a low risk of bias. The pooled meta-analysis showed women in polygamous marriages had a 2.25 (95% CI: 1.20, 4.20) higher chance of experiencing depression than in monogamous marriages. Children with polygamous parents had a significantly higher Global Severity Index with a mean difference of 0.21 (95% CI: 0.10, 0.33) than those with monogamous parents. CONCLUSIONS: The psychological impact of polygamous marriage on women and children was found to be relatively higher than monogamous marriage. Awareness of the proper practices for polygamy should be strengthened so that its adverse effects can be minimized. The agencies involved in polygamous practices should broaden and enhance their understanding of the correct practice of polygamy.


Assuntos
Relações Familiares/psicologia , Casamento/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Cônjuges/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Qualidade de Vida , Autoimagem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34942065

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the frequency of suicidal ideation and its correlation with other clinical variables in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.Methods: Fifty patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension who presented to the cardiology department between 2018 and 2019 and 50 healthy controls were included in the study. A sociodemographic and clinical data form was completed by both the patients and controls, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE), and Suicide Probability Scale (SPS) were administered. SPSS version 22 software was used in the statistical analysis.Results: The mean ± SD systolic pulmonary pressure of the patients was 47.48 ± 18.86 and the pulmonary artery pressure was 33.32 ± 19.69. BHS, BDI, and SPS total scores were statistically significantly higher in the patient group compared to the control group (P < .001, P = .001, P = .026, respectively). RSE scores were also higher in the patient group compared to the control group (P = .017).Conclusions: It is important to identify pulmonary arterial hypertension patients with intense feelings of hopelessness and depressive symptoms and to provide psychiatric treatment and psychotherapeutic interventions to improve their self-esteem.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar , Suicídio , Humanos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Autoimagem , Ideação Suicida
8.
Emotion ; 21(7): 1427-1437, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34928691

RESUMO

Individuals with social anxiety are sensitive to social hierarchies and tend to compare themselves unfavorably with others, perceiving themselves as inferior or lower in social rank. The current study explores patterns of change in these negative perceptions, and their associated emotional outcomes, in an online social context. Undergraduate students (N = 291) browsed the profiles of eight Instagram influencers and completed a measure of social comparison after viewing each profile, yielding multiple ratings of their own perceived social rank. Participants completed measures of affect and state self-esteem before and after the profile browsing task. Higher social anxiety predicted lower, and greater declines in, social rank self-perceptions during browsing. Higher social anxiety also predicted greater decreases in positive affect, increases in negative affect, and decreases in state self-esteem from the beginning to the end of the browsing task. Low baseline rank perceptions contributed to change in all three emotional variables. Decreases in rank perceptions contributed further to decreases in positive affect and appearance-related self-esteem. This study elaborates on cognitive-evolutionary theory, suggesting that the inferiority self-perceptions of socially anxious individuals translate to online social contexts, may be strengthened with increased exposure to such contexts, and may have a detrimental emotional impact. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Emoções , Humanos , Autoimagem , Meio Social , Percepção Social
9.
Dev Psychol ; 57(12): 2067-2081, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34928659

RESUMO

This replication study revisited conclusions from 2 previous investigations (Gauze, Bukowski, Aquan-Assee, & Sippola, 1996; van Aken & Asendorpf, 1997), which suggested that support from friends buffers against diminished self-esteem arising from poor quality relationships with mothers during the transition into adolescence. The aim of this replication study was to conduct an independent test of these findings with both concurrent and longitudinal data. Concurrent data for replication analyses were drawn from 4 projects, involving a total of 959 boys and 1,119 girls (ages 10 to 14) from Canada and the United States. Three samples reported participant ethnic descent: Africa (12.1%), Asia (5.6%), Europe (65.3%), Latin America (12.1%), and Native North America (0.9%). Child and mother reports of mother-child relationship quality assayed (a) maternal social support (in 3 data sets), and (b) family cohesion and adaptability (in 2 data sets). Main effects were replicated but hypothesized buffering effects were not. Maternal social support and friend social support were independently associated with adolescent self-esteem, concurrently, but not longitudinally. Family cohesion (but not adaptability) was associated with adolescent self-esteem, concurrently and longitudinally. Friend social support did not moderate associations between mother-child relationship quality and adolescent self-esteem, concurrently or longitudinally. The findings are consistent with a cumulative effects model wherein friends uniquely contribute to adolescent self-worth, over and above the contribution of mothers. The findings do not support claims that friends moderate associations between mother-child relationship quality and adolescent self-esteem. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Amigos , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães , Pais
10.
Dev Psychol ; 57(11): 1968-1980, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914457

RESUMO

This study examined how family context at age 18 (parent-adolescent conflict, parental support, parent education) predicted between-person variation in subjective well-being (SWB; depressive symptoms and self-esteem) trajectories from age 18 to 50 years. Timing of leaving home, getting married, and becoming a parent were explored as life transitions linking family context to within-person variation in SWB. The sample consisted of 604 participants residing in a western Canadian city at age 18 (50% female; 15% with non-White ethnic origin; 29% had at least one university-educated parent) and tracked for up to 32 years. Results of conditional latent curve models with structured residuals revealed that, amid a general increase in SWB from adolescence into midlife, those with lower parent-adolescent conflict and higher parent support had higher SWB at age 18, a between-person difference largely maintained to age 50. Parents' higher education also predicted higher self-esteem, sustained into midlife. Across analyses, transition timing inconsistently predicted within-person fluctuations in SWB, with on-time transitions associated with better than typical SWB. The most robust predictors of SWB at the within-person level were marital and parental status; getting married and becoming a parent were associated with better than typical SWB at ages 25, 43, and 50 years. Family context variables were generally not associated with transition timing, and there were no indirect associations from family context to within-person variation in SWB. Results suggest that family context influences one's well-being trajectory, but forming one's own family results in positive deviations from that path. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Casamento , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Canadá , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pais , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
11.
Dev Psychol ; 57(11): 1981-1990, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914458

RESUMO

Though Erikson recognized identity development as a lifelong project, most research on identity has focused on adolescents and emerging adults. Less is known about how the identity formed in adolescence is maintained and adapted across the adult life span. The purpose of the present paper is to provide a conceptual review and elaboration of Erikson's (1968) theory focused on identity integration, a construct that is particularly relevant to adult identity development. Identity integration describes the process of bringing together various aspects of one's self into a coherent whole, and the sense of self-continuity and wholeness that emerges as a result of these processes. Informed by the identity and life span development literatures, we present a conceptual framework that describes how identity integration is maintained across the adult life span, and how it is reestablished when changing life circumstances present threats to an individual's identity. These maintenance and reestablishment processes help to support adults' well-being and adaptation to major life transitions and stressful events. This conceptual framework is intended to facilitate research on identity integration in adulthood, a time of life that has been less often studied in the identity literature but that can involve identity dynamics that are just as critical as those in adolescence. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Modelos Psicológicos , Identificação Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Autoimagem
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948525

RESUMO

On the basis of the integrative concept of self-esteem discussed in sport-related literature, various studies refer to its importance in the context of sports activities. Self-esteem is often understood as a personality trait because it tends to be durable and stable. No accurate description is available regarding the types of sports in which subjects participated. The main purpose of the research was to identify and compare the levels of self-esteem and self-confidence of athletes practicing individual and team sports. The self-esteem and self-confidence levels were measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg 1979) and the Self-Confidence Test (Romek, 2000). All participants were males. Subjects were divided into two categories: 40 for individual sports and 40 for team sports. There were two evaluation periods: P1, the beginning of the preparation period, and P2, the beginning of the competition period. There were statistically significant differences for P1 (p < 0.002) and P2 (p < 0.003). The differences between the average values of the two periods were 5.8 points and 3.8 points, both favorable to the group of athletes who practiced individual sports. There were significant differences between the individual and team athletes in self-esteem level. Individual athletes presented a higher level of self-esteem.


Assuntos
Esportes , Esportes de Equipe , Atletas , Humanos , Masculino , Autoimagem
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948727

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to explore the experience of women who take care of their children in postpartum and who desire to be understood by society, with no judgements. For this purpose, a qualitative methodology was followed. In-depth interviews, discussion groups, and an online forum were used for data collection. The participants were Spanish women that had given birth in the past 6 months, and their partners. Healthcare specialists with experience in the topic were also included. Results showed three main categories: lack of priority, self-demand, and self-esteem changes. As a conclusion, the concept of motherhood needs to be redefined, as women feel that they are living under the pressure of being a "perfect mother". It is important that mothers allow themselves to fail in reaching the imposed requirements. Simple acceptance of motherhood boundaries could help in this transition.


Assuntos
Mães , Período Pós-Parto , Criança , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Autoimagem
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948781

RESUMO

Self-esteem, body image and eating attitudes are important characteristics regarding adolescent mental health. In our present work, we aimed to investigate these psychological items in adolescent boys and girls examining gender differences and correlations with the BMI-for-age and cardiorespiratory performance. 374 students (209 girls with an average age of 16.4 ± 1.08 years, and 165 boys with an average age of 16.5 ± 1.03 years) underwent investigation using the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, EAT-26 and BAT questionnaires. The BMI-for-age was calculated with BMI growth charts and the cardiorespiratory performance was measured with the 20 m shuttle run test. Our results showed that adolescent girls scored lower self-esteem and higher values for BAT and each scale of eating behaviors, such as uncontrolled eating, cognitive restraints and emotional eating compared to boys despite the fact, that obesity and overweight were more common among boys. No significant correlation was found between BMI and psychological test results in either boys or girls, however, subjective body shape and gender predicted self-esteem and BAT scores and the cognitive restraints in the eating attitudes. Uncontrolled and emotional eating were primarily influenced by gender, in which BMI played only a weaker role. Cardiorespiratory performance was positively associated with self-esteem and body image among boys, and it had a negative correlation regarding BMI in both genders.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Adolescente , Atitude , Índice de Massa Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade , Autoimagem , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(11): 1597-1602, 2021 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34898484

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 was declared a pandemic in March 2020, requiring a comprehensive response from all healthcare systems, including Mexico's. As medical residents' training did not involve epidemic response, we decided to evaluate their level of training on this subject, specifically self-perceived knowledge level and capacity to respond to epidemiological crises. METHODOLOGY: Medical residents from two hospitals belonging to PEMEX (Mexico's state-owned petroleum company) were included in a cross-sectional study. All participants answered a modified version of the survey developed by the University of Lovaina's Center for Research and Education in Emergency Care. Participants were analyzed according to their relevant "clinical" or "surgical" residency tracks. Data were analyzed using through Chi-square tests, t-tests, Mann-Whitney U tests, Kruskal-Wallis tests, and Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients with significance established at p < 0.05. RESULTS: Of a total of 94 resident participants in this study, 56.7% self-perceived themselves as being poorly prepared to confront the pandemic. Only 25.5% of the participants referred previous experience in medical responses to public health emergencies, and only 35.1% reported ever receiving education on this topic. CONCLUSIONS: Medical residents-who have been involved with caring for victims of the pandemic-are under the general perception that they are not prepared, experienced, or educated enough to respond to such a widespread massive public health emergency.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Competência Clínica , Internato e Residência , SARS-CoV-2 , Autoimagem , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar , México/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261108, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932579

RESUMO

This research examines the entrepreneurship gender gap by offering an additional novel explanation for the higher share of men in entrepreneurial activity focusing on intergenerational parental role. Participants (N = 1288) aged 18-81, including 259 actual entrepreneurs, completed questionnaires about entrepreneurship tendency, personality traits and socioeconomic background. The gender gap in actual entrepreneurship continues a significant difference in entrepreneurial tendency, which is developed in the first and the second stages of the entrepreneurial trajectory. When women reach the third stage of entrepreneurial development, the execution stage, they have already acquired a self-perception of an incapable and incommensurate entrepreneurial personality. The results indicate that role modeling behavioral channel significantly accounts for the gender gap in entrepreneurial personality. The results suggest that both parents contribute to women's' inferior perception of entrepreneurial personality and that their contribution affects all four aspects of the entrepreneurial tendency. It appears that the impact of fathers' role modeling is larger than that of mothers, and furthermore fathers transfer other entrepreneurial role models from their side in the family.


Assuntos
Empreendedorismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Intenção , Pais/psicologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959984

RESUMO

Earlier research indicates that physical education (PE) in school is associated with positive outcomes (e.g., healthy lifestyle, psychological well-being, and academic performance). Research assessing associations with resilience and thriving indicators, such as the 5Cs of Positive Youth Development (PYD; competence, confidence, character, caring, and connection) is limited and more so in the Norwegian context. The aim of the present study was to investigate associations between PE grade (reflecting students' effort in theoretical and practical aspects of the subject) and the 5Cs as well as healthy behaviors (physical activity (PA), fruit and vegetable consumption), using cross-sectional data collected from 220 high school students in Norway (Mage = 17.30 years old, SD = 1.12; 52% males). Results from structural equation modelling indicated positive associations between PE grade and four of the 5Cs (competence, confidence, caring, and connection; standardized coefficient: 0.22-0.60, p < 0.05) while in logistic regressions, a unit increase in PE grade was associated with higher likelihood of engaging in PA and vegetable consumption (OR = 1.94; 95% CI = 1.18-3.18 and OR = 1.68; 95% CI = 1.08-2.63, respectively). These significant findings suggest the need for policies and programs that can support effective planning and implementation of PE curriculum. However, further research is needed to probe into the role of PE on youth health and development with representative samples and longitudinal designs.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Educação Física e Treinamento , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Caráter , Estudos Transversais , Empatia , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Competência Mental/psicologia , Noruega , Instituições Acadêmicas , Autoimagem , Comportamento Social , Verduras
18.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261294, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34972115

RESUMO

This study investigates the impact of a theatre-based vocal empowerment program on the vocal and language characteristics and the self-perceptions of young bilingual Egyptian women. The program used applied theatre, a dramatic practice that promotes civic action by utilizing improvisational techniques to engage participants in exploring solutions to self-identified community concerns. These techniques supported participants' pursuit of vocal empowerment: the ability to comfortably express their intended content with a clear audible voice, accompanied by the belief that what they had to say was worthwhile. The program was implemented in Alexandria and Aswan, two Egyptian cities in different regions of the country, with distinct socio-economic profiles. Thirty-six young women from Aswan and nineteen from Alexandria participated. The program was facilitated in Arabic, for 90 minutes per day over twelve consecutive days in 2018. Participants in both groups spoke Arabic as a home language and studied English in school settings but differed in their educational experiences and English proficiency. The vocal and language characteristics of each participant were tested in Arabic and English pre- and post- program using a spontaneous speech task and a reading aloud task. Their self-perceptions were evaluated through a vocal self-perception survey. Results indicated that participants responded differently in each city. In Alexandria, participants showed significant improvement in language skills (e.g., mean length of utterance). In contrast, participants in Aswan showed a significant change in fundamental frequency. Overall, the self-surveys indicated that all participants experienced an increased sense of confidence, a stronger belief in self-authorship, and an increased desire to voice their opinions clearly in public; however, there were subtle differences between the groups. In analyzing these results, we conclude that to design effective vocal empowerment outreach programs internationally, it is necessary to consider participants' cultural backgrounds, language diversity, and socio-economic status.


Assuntos
Empoderamento , Idioma , Voz/fisiologia , Adolescente , Análise de Variância , Egito , Feminino , Humanos , Leitura , Autoimagem , Fala/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
19.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 29: e53845, jan.-dez. 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224571

RESUMO

Objetivo: avaliar o impacto de um programa psicoeducacional nos níveis de autoeficácia, autoestima e sintomas ansiosos e depressivos em estudantes no início da graduação em enfermagem. Método: pesquisa multicêntrica, quase experimental, do tipo tempo-série, desenvolvida em duas instituições de ensino superior públicas, com 82 estudantes, no período de setembro de 2018 a maio de 2019. O programa psicoeducacional foi elaborado com base no construto da autoeficácia, baseando-se nas atividades de enfermagem da intervenção "Fortalecimento da autoestima", proposta pela Nursing Interventions Classification. Os desfechos avaliados foram: autoeficácia, mensurada pela Escala de Autoeficácia Geral e Percebida; autoestima, mensurada pela Escala de Autoestima de Rosenberg; sintomas ansiosos e depressivos, avaliados pela Escala Hospitalar de Ansiedade e Depressão. Resultados: a intervenção psicoeducacional teve efeito positivo na percepção de autoeficácia geral dos estudantes. A autoestima e os sintomas ansiosos e depressivos não foram influenciados. Conclusão: os níveis de autoeficácia foram positivamente impactados pelo programa implementado.


Objective: to evaluate the impact of a psychoeducational program on the levels of self-efficacy, self-esteem, and anxious and depressive symptoms in students starting their undergraduate nursing program. Method: this quasi-experimental, multicenter, time-series type study was conducted with 82 students at two public institutions of higher education, from September 2018 to May 2019. Based on the self-efficacy construct, the psychoeducational program contemplated nursing activities of the "Strengthening self-esteem" intervention proposed by the Nursing Interventions Classification. The outcomes evaluated were self-efficacy, on the General and Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale; self-esteem, on the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; and anxious and depressive symptoms, on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results: the psychoeducational intervention had a positive effect on the students' perception of general self-efficacy. Self-esteem and anxious and depressive symptoms were not influenced. Conclusion: the program impacted levels of self-efficacy positively.


Objetivo: evaluar el impacto de un programa psicoeducativo en los niveles de autoeficacia, autoestima y síntomas ansiosos y depresivos en estudiantes al inicio de sus estudios universitarios en enfermería. Método: investigación multicéntrica, cuasi-experimental, tipo serie temporal, desarrollada en dos instituciones públicas de educación superior, con 82 estudiantes, de septiembre de 2018 a mayo de 2019. El programa psicoeducativo se desarrolló con base en el constructo de autoeficacia y las actividades de enfermería de la intervención "Fortalecimiento de la autoestima", propuesta por la Nursing Interventions Classification. Los resultados evaluados fueron: autoeficacia, medida por la Escala de Autoeficacia General y Percibida; autoestima, medida por la Escala de Autoestima de Rosenberg; síntomas de ansiedad y depresión, evaluados por la Escala Hospitalaria de Ansiedad y Depresión. Resultados: la intervención psicoeducativa tuvo un efecto positivo sobre la percepción de autoeficacia general de los estudiantes. La autoestima y los síntomas de ansiedad y depresión no se vieron afectados. Conclusión: los niveles de autoeficacia fueron impactados positivamente por el programa implementado.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Percepção , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Educação em Enfermagem/métodos , Ansiedade , Autoimagem , Saúde Mental , Depressão , Promoção da Saúde
20.
Vínculo ; 18(3): 25-33, set.-dez. 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1347944

RESUMO

O presente artigo visa a compartilhar uma experiência de trabalho com um grupo operativo que ocorre em um serviço público de saúde mental, a saber, um Centro de Atenção Psicossocial (CAPS). Esse grupo é composto por sujeitos que apresentam quadros psicopatológicos considerados graves e que estão em situação de vulnerabilidade social. Partindo disso, pretende-se, neste escrito, realizar uma análise dos aspectos considerados avanços e ganhos conquistados ao longo do desenvolvimento do grupo, bem como abordar os desafios de sustentar um coletivo como esse em uma instituição de saúde da rede pública. Abordar-se-á, assim, as particularidades do processo grupal com os usuários da saúde mental, fomentando uma reflexão sobre as possibilidades de obter alguma melhora, apesar da gravidade dos sintomas. Tal experiência revela a potência que um trabalho grupal tem para resgatar e favorecer singularidades, elevar a autoestima e devolver o direito à voz a sujeitos que, por muito tempo, foram silenciados e escamoteados por diagnósticos de transtorno mental. Grupos operativos enriquecem o cotidiano dos pacientes e fortalecem a união, promovendo identificações e aprendizagens que, por sua vez, possibilitam mudanças e transformações.


This article aims to share a work experience with an operative group that takes place in a public mental health service, namely, a Psychosocial Care Center. That group is composed of subjects who have psychopathological conditions considered severe and who are in a situation of social vulnerability. Based on this understanding, it is intended, in this writing, to carry out an analysis of the aspects considered advances and gains achieved during the development of the group, as well as to discuss the challenges of sustaining a collective such as this in a public health institution. Thus, the particularities of the group process with mental health users will be approached, promoting a reflection on the possibilities of obtaining some improvement, despite the severity of the symptoms. Such experience reveals the power that group work has to rescue and favor singularities, raise self-esteem and give back the right to voice to subjects who, for a long time, were silenced and concealed by diagnoses of mental disorder. Operative groups enrich the patients' daily lives and strengthen the union, promoting identifications and learning that, in turn, enable changes and transformations.


Este artículo tiene como objetivo compartir una experiencia laboral con un grupo operativo que tiene lugar en un servicio público de salud mental, a saber, un Centro de Atención Psicosocial. Ese grupo está compuesto por sujetos que tienen condiciones psicopatológicas consideradas graves y que se encuentran en una situación de vulnerabilidad social. En base a esta comprensión, se pretende, en este escrito, producir un análisis de los aspectos considerados avances y logros alcanzados durante el desarrollo del grupo, así como discutir los desafíos de mantener un colectivo como este en una institución de salud pública. Así, se abordarán las particularidades del proceso grupal con usuarios de salud mental, promoviendo una reflexión sobre las posibilidades de obtener alguna mejora, a pesar de la gravedad de los síntomas. Tal experiencia revela el poder que tiene un trabajo grupal para rescatar y favorecer las singularidades, elevar la autoestima y devolver el derecho de voz a los sujetos que, durante mucho tiempo, fueron silenciados y abrumados por los diagnósticos de trastorno mental. Los grupos operativos enriquecen la vida cotidiana de los pacientes y fortalecen la unión, promoviendo identificaciones y aprendiendo que, a su vez, permiten cambios y transformaciones.


Assuntos
Humanos , Autoimagem , Poder Psicológico , Vulnerabilidade Social , Reabilitação Psiquiátrica , Processos Grupais , Transtornos Mentais , Serviços de Saúde Mental
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