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1.
SMAD, Rev. eletrônica saúde mental alcool drog ; 17(4): 14-22, out.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1347837

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: este estudo teve como objetivo investigar os níveis de Burnout e possíveis fatores predisponentes entre militares do Exército Brasileiro que estavam servindo na Amazônia Brasileira. MÉTODO: a amostra foi composta por 122 militares (oficiais e sargentos) voluntários com idade média de 36,80 ± 6,69 anos, 53 empregados nas missões operacionais (segurança nas fronteiras, patrulha, exercícios de defesa externa e interna) e 69 empregados nas missões administrativas (logística interna). Foram selecionados oficiais (29) e sargentos (93) servindo em Porto Velho, noroeste do Brasil. Eles responderam a um questionário sociodemográfico e ao Maslach Burnout Inventory, validado para o Brasil. RESULTADOS: os resultados mostraram que os níveis de esgotamento nos militares do Exército que servem na região são altos. As principais condições sociodemográficas, trabalhistas, físicas e sociais associadas a níveis significativamente mais altos de esgotamento no presente estudo foram: redução do tempo de serviço, estilo de vida sedentário, trabalho extra, menor hierarquia e morar longe dos familiares. CONCLUSÃO: a interação entre os dois instrumentos constatou que os militares que atuam na área operacional, entre 6 e 10 anos de serviço, solteiros, que exercem pouca atividade física e cujos familiares moram longe foram os que possuíam o maiores níveis de Burnout.


OBJECTIVE: this study aimed to investigate the Burnout levels and possible predisposing factors among Brazilian Army military who were serving in the Brazilian Amazon. METHOD: the sample consisted of 122 volunteer military (officers and sergeants) with a mean age of 36.80 ± 6.69 years, 53 were employed in the operational missions (border security, patrol, external and internal defense exercises) and 69 personnel who were employed in the administrative missions (internal logistics). Officers (29) and sergeants (93) were selected who served in Porto Velho, northwestern Brazil. They answered to a sociodemographic questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory, validated for Brazil. RESULTS: scores showed that the levels of burnout in Army military who serve in the region are high. The main sociodemographic, labor, physical and social conditions that were associated with significantly higher levels of Burnout in this study were: reduced length of service, sedentary lifestyle, extra work, lower hierarchical rank and living away from relatives. CONCLUSION: the interaction between the two instruments found that the military working in the operational area, warrant officers, sergeants, between 6 and 10 years in service, single, who do little physical activity and whose relatives live far away were the ones who had the highest Burnout levels.


OBJETIVO: este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar los niveles de agotamiento y posibles factores predisponentes entre los militares (oficiales y sargentos) del ejército brasileño que estaban sirviendo en la Amazonía brasileña. MÉTODO: la muestra consistió en 122 militares voluntarios con una edad promedio de 36.80 ± 6.69 años, 53 soldados fueron empleados en las misiones operativas (seguridad fronteriza, patrulla, ejercicios de defensa externa e interna) y 69 militares que fueron empleados en las misiones administrativas (logística interna). Se seleccionaron oficiales (29) y sargentos (93) que sirvieron en Porto Velho, en el noroeste de Brasil. Respondieron a un cuestionario sociodemográfico y al Maslach Burnout Inventory, validado para Brasil. RESULTADOS: los puntajes mostraron que los niveles de agotamiento en los militares del Ejército que sirven en la región son altos. Las principales condiciones sociodemográficas, laborales, físicas y sociales que se asociaron con niveles significativamente más altos de agotamiento en el presente estudio fueron: reducción de la duración del servicio, estilo de vida sedentario, trabajo extra, rango jerárquico más bajo y vivir lejos de los familiares. CONCLUSIÓN: la interacción entre los dos instrumentos encontró que los militares que trabajan en el área operativa, los suboficiales, los sargentos, entre 6 y 10 años en servicio, solteros, que realizan poca actividad física y cuyos familiares viven lejos fueron los que tenían el niveles de agotamiento más altos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Condições Sociais , Exercício Físico , Incidência , Causalidade , Ecossistema Amazônico , Esgotamento Psicológico , Militares , Categorias de Trabalhadores
2.
Med Lav ; 112(5): 346-359, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Burnout is a multidimensional syndrome associated with intense working conditions and negative psychosocial factors in physicians. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of living and working conditions of physicians on burnout level and sleep quality in Turkey. METHODS: In this internet-based questionnaire study, 1053 physicians [General Practitioners (n=233); Basic Medical Sciences (n=26); Internal Medical Sciences (n=530), and Surgery Sciences (n=264)] were included in the study, filling the forms consisting of study conditions, Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questions. RESULTS: Negative occupational factors such as physicians having a night shift, high number of patients who are cared for daily, short examination period, low financial gain, exposure to violence, and mobbing were associated with poor sleep quality and burnout. Factors such as being subjected to violence, mobbing, and age are predictive of increasing burnout in women. Working on night shifts or being on-call were associated with all aspects of burnout. The proportion of those with poor sleep quality was significantly higher in those working night shifts (74.6%) than those working daytime shifts (67.2%) and those who were exposed to violence (75.1%) compared to those who were not exposed to violence (43.2%) (p=0.013, p<0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Impaired sleep quality, violence, mobbing, young age, excessive night shifts, short examination period, and low income may play a role in physician burnout. Our study data suggest that it is important to improve physicians' unfavorable working conditions and to prevent violence against burnout.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Médicos , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/etiologia , Esgotamento Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Sono , Condições Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 24: e210048, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730710

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: to estimate the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in residents of the Greater Vitória region living in subnormal and non-subnormal agglomerates, and to compare sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of total residents (infected and not infected with SARS-CoV-2) between them. METHODS: Population-based prevalence study conducted by serological testing in 2020, with a study unit in households in Greater Vitória, grouped into census tracts classified as sub-normal agglomerates and non-sub-normal agglomerates. The two groups were compared in terms of prevalence and associated factors. The significance level adopted was 5%. RESULTS: The prevalence found in the sub-normal clusters was 12.05% (95%CI 9.59-14.50), and in the non-sub-normal clusters 10.23% (95%CI 7.97-12.50) this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.273). Comparing the sociodemographic characteristics, more people who declare themselves to be of mixed race were found in the sub-normal clusters, a higher percentage of illiterates and people with only elementary education, greater number of residents per household, longer stay in public transportation, sharing a bathroom with another household, fewer bedrooms per residence and higher frequency of irregular water supply when compared to non-sub-normal clusters (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The epidemiological characteristics of sub-normal clusters' residents show the social inequalities that can hinder control measures in a pandemic situation.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Anticorpos Antivirais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Áreas de Pobreza , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Condições Sociais
5.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 599570, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744565

RESUMO

Objectives: Our study evaluated the impact of a wide range of characteristics of large administrative regions on the individual level of cigarette smoking in the Russian adult population. Methods: The pool of participants included 20,303 individuals aged 25-64 years. We applied 64 characteristics of the 12 Russian regions under study for 2010-2014. Using principal component analysis, we deduced five evidence-based composite indices of the regions. We applied the generalized estimating equation to determine associations between the regional indices and the individual level of smoking. Results: The increased Industrial index in the region is associated with the probability of smoking (odds ratio = 1.15; 95% confidence interval = 1.06-1.24). The other indices show associations with smoking only in separate gender and educational groups. Surprisingly, it was found that the Economic index has no associations with the probability of smoking. Conclusion: We evaluated the key associations of the territorial indices with the individual probability of smoking, as well as the mutual influence between the territorial indices and individual factors.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Condições Sociais , Adulto , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Condições Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(18)2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577457

RESUMO

Wrist-worn consumer-grade activity trackers are popular devices, developed mainly for personal use. This study aimed to explore the validity, reliability and sensitivity to change of movement behaviors metrics from three activity trackers (Polar Vantage M, Garmin Vivoactive 4s and Garmin Vivosport) in controlled and free-living conditions when worn by older adults. Participants (n = 28; 74 ± 5 years) underwent a videotaped laboratory protocol while wearing all three trackers. On a separate occasion, participants (n = 17 for each of the trackers) wore one (randomly assigned) tracker and a research-grade activity monitor ActiGraph wGT3X-BT simultaneously for six consecutive days. Both Garmin trackers showed excellent performance for step counts, with a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) below 20% and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,1) above 0.90 (p < 0.05). The MAPE for sleep time was within 10% for all the trackers tested, while it was far beyond 20% for all other movement behaviors metrics. The results suggested that all three trackers could be used for measuring sleep time with a high level of accuracy, and both Garmin trackers could also be used for step counts. All other output metrics should be used with caution. The results provided in this study could be used to guide choice on activity trackers aiming for different purposes-individual use, longitudinal monitoring or in clinical trial setting.


Assuntos
Monitores de Aptidão Física , Condições Sociais , Idoso , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sono , Punho
8.
J Environ Manage ; 299: 113568, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479153

RESUMO

After the Paris Climate Conference (Conference of the Paris COP: 21), many countries started progressing towards carbon neutrality. In doing so, the present study aims to assess the role of eco-innovation and globalization in mitigating CO2 emissions in the case of the USA. The study applied Quantile Autoregressive Distributed Lag (QARDL) approach to estimate the short-run and long-run relationship among the selected variables. According to the empirical results, gross domestic product (GDP) positively influences the level of CO2 emissions for the USA economy at all quantiles. However, GDP square is negatively associated with CO2 emissions in the USA; therefore, our study supports the existence of EKC for the USA. Further, eco-innovation is the mitigating factor of CO2 emissions in our empirical analysis. Our study proved that globalization is the stimulating factor of CO2 emissions in the US economy. The empirical estimates of the Granger causality test show the bidirectional causality from GDP, eco-innovations, and globalization to GDP for the USA economy. To mitigate CO2 emissions, the study provides useful insights for policymakers in the USA economy.


Assuntos
Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Internacionalidade , Condições Sociais , Estados Unidos
9.
J Environ Manage ; 299: 113633, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492439

RESUMO

This study aims to examine the nexus between green growth and carbon neutrality targets in the context of the USA while observing the role of ecological innovation, environmental taxes, and green energy. For this purpose, data were collected from 1970 to 2015 for all the variables of interest. This research utilized the quantile autoregressive distributed lag (QARDL) method due to its various benefits, such as depicting the causality patterns based on different quantiles for different variables like green growth, ecological innovation, environmental taxes, and renewable energy. The findings through the QARDL method showed that the error correction coefficient was significant and negative with the expected negative sign for the different quantiles. The findings showed a significant and negative impact of green growth, square of green growth, ecological innovation, and environmental taxes in determining the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for the USA's economy under the long-run estimation. Meanwhile, the outcome for the short-term estimation confirmed that the past and lagged values of CO2 emission were significantly and negatively linked with the current and lagged values of CO2 emission. On the other hand, it was found that green growth and square of green growth, ecological innovation, environmental taxes, and renewable energy played their vital role in reducing haze pollution like PM2.5. Besides, this research also covers the limitations and policy implications.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Energia Renovável , Dióxido de Carbono , Condições Sociais , Impostos
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501800

RESUMO

Despite growing attention to living conditions as a social determinant of health, few studies have focused on its diverse impacts on self-rated health. Using data from the China Family Panel Study in 2018, this study used logistic regression analysis to examine how living conditions affect self-rated health in China, finding that people cooking with sanitary water and clean fuel were more likely to report good health, and that homeownership was associated with higher self-rated health. The self-rated health of people living in high-quality housing was lower than that of people living in ordinary housing, and people living in tidy homes were more likely to report good health. The findings suggest that the link between multiple living conditions and self-rated health is dynamic. Public health policies and housing subsidy programs should therefore be designed based on a comprehensive account of not only housing grade or income status, but also whole dwelling conditions.


Assuntos
Habitação , Condições Sociais , China , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Política Pública
11.
Z Gerontol Geriatr ; 54(Suppl 2): 76-84, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study "Quality of life and well-being of the very old in North Rhine-Westphalia NRW80+" aims at giving a representative picture of the quality of life (QoL) in this population. Conceptually, QoL research has rarely considered the values of older individuals themselves and societal values, and their relevance for successful life conduct. Empirically, comparisons of different age groups over the age of 80 years are rare and hampered by quickly decreasing numbers of individuals in oldest age groups in the population of very old individuals. STUDY DESIGN AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK: This paper describes the population of the NRW80+ study and different age groups of very old individuals with respect to biographical background. Furthermore, using the challenges and potentials model of QoL in very old age (CHAPO), key aspects of QoL in late life are discussed and the importance of normative stipulations of what constitutes a successful life conduct are highlighted. In the NRW80+ study older age groups (i.e., 85-89 years, 90+ years) were deliberately overrepresented in the survey sample to enable robust cross-group comparison. Individuals willing to participate in the study but unable to participate in the interview themselves for health reasons were included by means of proxy interviews. The total sample included 1863 individuals and 176 individuals were represented by proxy interviews. Pronounced differences were observed between age groups 80-84 years (born 1933-1937, N = 1012), 85-89 years (born 1928-1932, N = 573), and 90 years or older (*born before 1927, N = 278) with respect to education, employment and the timing of major life events (e.g., childbirth). CONCLUSION: Different life courses and resulting living conditions should be considered when discussing QoL disparities in very old age.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Condições Sociais , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Emprego , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
J Health Soc Behav ; 62(3): 436-453, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528488

RESUMO

Research on biological embedding of the social environment has been expedited by increased availability of biomarkers. Recently, this arsenal of measures has been expanded to include epigenetic clocks that indicate in years the extent to which an individual is older or younger than their chronological age. These measures of biological aging, especially GrimAge, are robust predictors of both illness and time to death. Importantly for sociologists, several studies have linked social conditions to these indices of aging. The present study extends this research using longitudinal data from a sample of 223 black women participating in the Family and Community Health Study. We find that changes in income and living arrangements over an 11-year period predict changes in speed of biological aging. These results provide further support for the idea that epigenetic aging is a mechanism whereby social conditions become biologically embedded. The utility of epigenetic clocks for sociological studies of health are discussed.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Condições Sociais , Envelhecimento/genética , Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica , Feminino , Humanos
13.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 184, 2021 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic inequalities in health behaviors have been attributed to both structural and individual factors, but untangling the complex, dynamic pathways through which these factors influence inequalities requires more empirical research. This study examined whether and how two factors, material conditions and time orientation, sequentially impact socioeconomic inequalities in health behaviors. METHODS: Dutch adults 25 and older self-reported highest attained educational level, a measure of socioeconomic position (SEP); material conditions (financial strain, housing tenure, income); time orientation; health behaviors including smoking and sports participation; and health behavior-related outcomes including body mass index (BMI) and self-assessed health in three surveys (2004, 2011, 2014) of the longitudinal GLOBE (Dutch acronym for "Health and Living Conditions of the Population of Eindhoven and surroundings") study. Two hypothesized pathways were investigated during a ten-year time period using sequential mediation analysis, an approach that enabled correct temporal ordering and control for confounders such as baseline health behavior. RESULTS: Educational level was negatively associated with BMI, positively associated with sports participation and self-assessed health, and not associated with smoking in the mediation models. For smoking, sports participation, and self-assessed health, a pathway from educational level to the outcome mediated by time orientation followed by material conditions was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Time orientation followed by material conditions may play a role in determining socioeconomic inequalities in certain health behavior-related outcomes, providing empirical support for the interplay between structural and individual factors in socioeconomic inequalities in health behavior. Smoking may be determined by prior smoking behavior regardless of SEP, potentially due to its addictive nature. While intervening on time orientation in adulthood may be challenging, the results from this study suggest that policy interventions targeted at material conditions may be more effective in reducing socioeconomic inequalities in certain health behaviors when they account for time orientation.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Renda , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Estudos Prospectivos , Condições Sociais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256261, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415929

RESUMO

Evidence suggests that non-binary people have poorer mental and physical health outcomes, compared with people who identify within the gender binomial (man/woman). Research on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health has been conducted worldwide in the last few months. It has however overlooked gender diversity. The aim of our study was to explore social and health-related factors associated with mental health (anxiety and depression) among people who do not identify with the man/woman binomial during COVID-19 lockdown in Spain. A cross-sectional study with online survey, aimed at the population residing in Spain during lockdown, was conducted. Data were collected between the 8th of April until the 28th of May 2020, the time period when lockdown was implemented in Spain. Mental health was measured using the Generalised Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scale for anxiety, and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) for depression. The survey included the question: Which sex do you identify with? The options "Man", "Woman", "Non-binary" and "I do not identify" were given. People who answered one of the last two options were selected for this study. Multivariate regression logistic models were constructed to evaluate the associations between sociodemographic, social and health-related factors, anxiety and depression. Out of the 7125 people who participated in the survey, 72 (1%) identified as non-binary or to not identify with another category. People who do not identify with the man/woman binomial (non-binary/I do not identify) presented high proportions of anxiety (41.7%) and depression (30.6%). Poorer mental health was associated with social-employment variables (e.g., not working before the pandemic) and health-related variables (e.g., poor or regular self-rated health). These findings suggest that social inequities, already experienced by non-binary communities before the pandemic, may deepen due to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , Condições Sociais , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
Front Public Health ; 9: 694191, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368060

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic had huge impacts on the global world, with both a negative impact on society and economy but a positive one on nature. But this universal effect resulted in different infection rates from country to country. We analyzed the relationship between the pandemic and ecological, economic, and social conditions. All of these data were collected in 140 countries at six time points. Correlations were studied using univariate and multivariate regression models. The world was interpreted as a single global ecosystem consisting of ecosystem units representing countries. We first studied 140 countries around the world together, and infection rates were related to per capita GDP, Ecological Footprint, median age, urban population, and Biological Capacity, globally. We then ranked the 140 countries according to infection rates. We created four groups with 35 countries each. In the first group of countries, the infection rate was very high and correlated with the Ecological Footprint (consumption) and GDP per capita (production). This group is dominated by developed countries, and their ecological conditions have proved to be particularly significant. In country groups 2, 3, and 4, infection rates were high, medium, and low, respectively, and were mainly related to median age and urban population. In the scientific discussion, we have interpreted why infection rates are very high in developed countries. Sustainable ecosystems are balanced, unlike the ecosystems of developed countries. The resilience and the health of both natural ecosystems and humans are closely linked to the world of microbial communities, the microbiomes of the biosphere. It is clear that both the economy and society need to be in harmony with nature, creating sustainable ecosystems in developed countries as well.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ecossistema , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Condições Sociais
16.
J Environ Manage ; 299: 113525, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438310

RESUMO

After the Paris Climate Conference (Conference of the Paris COP21), emerging countries also start succeeding in carbon neutrality targets. In doing so, environmental sustainability has become a vital concern over the past few decades. To control the pollution from combustion gases and to mitigate the destructive effects of carbon emission on environmental quality, governments and policymakers need to consider the important factors that decrease the net carbon emission level, such as eco-innovation and environmental taxes. The literature on the environmental taxes and eco-innovation to control carbon emission is scant. Therefore, this study fills the knowledge gap by evaluating the dynamic effect of eco-innovation and environmental taxes on the carbon neutrality target in emerging seven (E7) economies from 1995 to 2018 and other control variables. The study uses advanced panel data econometric tools to handle various issues such as cross-section dependence structural break and slope heterogeneity for empirical analysis. The study uses the second-generation panel unit root test, Westerlund's cointegration tests, CS-ARDL long-run and CS-ARDL short-run analysis, AMG, and CCEMG for robustness check. The study's outcomes confirm that eco-innovation and environmental taxes play a major role in carbon abatement and Environmental Kuznet Curve (EKC) presence found in E7 countries.


Assuntos
Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Dióxido de Carbono , Condições Sociais , Impostos
17.
J Environ Manage ; 299: 113545, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455352

RESUMO

This study explores the ecological ambitions of banks by studying the coincidence of economic realities with environmental management strategies. We address this question by studying the environmental performance of US banks and its impact on their tail risk as US is not committed to carbon neutrality in COP 21. We proxy economic reality with tail risk of banks and employ a novel extreme value theory to measure this. We use Asset4 ESG data for environmental performance score and test our hypothesis with a sample of 256 US banks. The results indicate that the US banks are ecologically ambitious and their environmental strategies are likely to reduce their tail risk. This provides evidence that better environmental strategies do coincide with the economic realities. We test the consistency of our results by using alternate proxies for tail risk and find our results robust. Our results are also not driven by endogeneity concerns. Finally, our additional results show that the nature of relationship differs with corporate governance levels, CSR committee existence, institutional ownership presence and crisis period.


Assuntos
Carbono , Organizações , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Propriedade , Condições Sociais
18.
J Environ Manage ; 298: 113463, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426223

RESUMO

The current research assesses the impact of political risk on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in Brazil while controlling the role of financial development, GDP growth, trade openness, and technological innovation. In doing so, the quarterly dataset from 1990 to 2018 is utilized with Bayer and Hanck cointegration, dynamic ordinary least square (DOLS) and canonical correlation regression (CCR), and frequency-domain causality tests. The cointegration test revealed a long-run association amongst the variables of interest. Furthermore, the outcomes from the DOLS and CCR revealed that increasing financial development, technological innovation, trade openness, and real growth increase CO2 emissions while a better political environment reduces environmental pollution.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Brasil , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Condições Sociais
19.
Comput Biol Med ; 135: 104633, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346318

RESUMO

This paper introduces methods to estimate aspects of physical activity and sedentary behavior from three-axis accelerometer data collected with a wrist-worn device at a sampling rate of 32 [Hz] on adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in free-living conditions. In particular, we present two methods able to detect and grade activity based on its intensity and individual fitness as sedentary, mild, moderate or vigorous, and a method that performs activity classification in a supervised learning framework to predict specific user behaviors. Population results for activity level grading show multi-class average accuracy of 99.99%, precision of 98.0 ± 2.2%, recall of 97.9 ± 3.5% and F1 score of 0.9 ± 0.0. As for the specific behavior prediction, our best performing classifier, gave population multi-class average accuracy of 92.43 ± 10.32%, precision of 92.94 ± 9.80%, recall of 92.20 ± 10.16% and F1 score of 92.56 ± 9.94%. Our investigation showed that physical activity and sedentary behavior can be detected, graded and classified with good accuracy and precision from three-axial accelerometer data collected in free-living conditions on people with T1D. This is particularly significant in the context of automated glucose control systems for diabetes, in that the methods we propose have the potential to inform changes in treatment parameters in response to the intensity of physical activity, allowing patients to meet their glycemic targets.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Acelerometria , Adulto , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Comportamento Sedentário , Condições Sociais , Punho
20.
Appetite ; 167: 105653, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418505

RESUMO

Personalized weight management strategies are gaining interest. However, knowledge is limited regarding eating habits and association with energy intake, and current technologies limit assessment in free-living situations. We assessed associations between eating behavior and time of day with energy intake using a wearable camera under free-living conditions and explored if obesity modifies the associations. Sixteen participants (50% with obesity) recorded free-living eating behaviors using a wearable fish-eye camera for 14 days. Videos were viewed by trained annotators who confirmed number of bites, eating speed, and time of day for each eating episode. Energy intake was determined by a trained dietitian performing 24-h diet recalls. Greater number of bites, reduced eating speed, and increased BMI significantly predicted higher energy intake among all participants (P < 0.05, each). There were no significant interactions between obesity and number of bites, eating speed, or time of day (p > 0.05). Greater number of bites and reduced eating speed were significantly associated with higher energy intake in participants without obesity. Results show that under free-living conditions, more bites and slower eating speed predicted higher energy intake when examining consumption of foods with beverages. Obesity did not modify these associations. Findings highlight how eating behaviors can impact energy balance and can inform weight management interventions using wearable technology.


Assuntos
Condições Sociais , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Animais , Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos
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