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Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250931, 2024. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360206


The red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, 1964 (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae), an insect pest originating in Australia and which feeds only on Eucalyptus L'Hér. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) plants, has spread to several countries. The populations of this insect commonly reach high populations on Eucalyptus plants since its entry into Brazil, and also indicated an unrecorded behavioral. The objectives of this study were to describe a peculiar adaptation in the feeding habit of G. brimblecombei and to register the new habit. The oviposition and feeding by G. brimblecombei, commonly, on the leaves of Eucalyptus, started to occur, also, on lignified twigs. This suggests a not yet recorded adaptation of this insect to reduce insect × plant intraspecific competition.

O psilídeo de concha, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, 1964 (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae), um inseto praga originário da Austrália e que se alimenta apenas de plantas de Eucalyptus L'Hér. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), se espalhou por vários países. Esse inseto, geralmente, atinge grandes populações em plantas de Eucalyptus desde sua entrada no Brasil e, também, indicou um comportamento diferente. Os objetivos deste estudo foram descrever uma adaptação peculiar no hábito alimentar de G. brimblecombei e registrar o novo hábito. A oviposição e alimentação por G. brimblecombei, geralmente, nas folhas de Eucalyptus, passaram a ocorrer, também, em ramos lignificados. Isso sugere uma adaptação diferente desse inseto para reduzir a competição intraespecífica inseto × planta.

Animais , Oviposição , Comportamento , Eucalyptus/parasitologia , Hemípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 23(1): 1-10, ene.-abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-213088


Background: Diabetes self-management (DSM) is essential for patients to achieve better health outcomes. However, previous studies have demonstrated that the performance of DSM is not optimal. This study was designed to identify the significant determinants of self-management behavior in type 2 diabetes(T2DM) patients to improve DSM. Method: A convenient sampling method was employed in this study. Data were collected from a community health center from January to February 2021 in Nanjing city, China. A total of 431 patients completed the self-administered questionnaires. A structural equation model based on the theory of planned behavior(TPB) was adopted for analysis. Results: TPB model presents excellent goodness of fit of data. Attitude (β=0.161, P < 0.01), subjective norms (SN) (β=0.239, P < 0.001), and perceived behavior control (PBC) (β=0.197, P < 0.001) were strong predictors of intention. Intention (β=0.230, P < 0.001) and PBC (β=0.259, P < 0.001) had a direct effect on self-management behavior. The impact of attitude and SN on behavior was significantly mediated via behavioral intention. Conclusion: The application of TPB to self-management behavior in T2DM patients can significantly enhance our understanding of theory-based self-management behavior. This predictive model could potentially be a valuable tool and provide a feasible approach for formulating more targeted and population-specific DSM interventions in future research. (AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Autocontrole , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Autogestão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Comportamento , Análise de Classes Latentes
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 23(1): 1-10, ene.-abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-213092


The ability to empathize with another person's inner experience is believed to be a central element of our social interactions. Previous research has focused on cognitive (e.g., theory of mind) and emotional (e.g., emotional contagion) empathy, and less on behavioral factors (i.e., the ability to respond empathically). Recent studies suggest that the Default Mode Network (DMN) mediates individual variability in distinct empathy-related behaviors. However, little is known about DMN activity during actual empathic responses, understood in this study as the ability to communicate our understanding of the others’ experience back to them. This study used an empathy response paradigm with 28 participants (22-37 years old) to analyze the relationship between the quality of empathic responses to 14 empathy-eliciting vignettes and patterns of attenuation in the DMN. Overall, the results suggest that high levels of empathic response, are associated with sustained activation of the DMN when compared with lower levels of empathy. Our results demonstrate that the DMN becomes increasingly involved in empathy-related behavior, as our level of commitment to the other's experience increases. This study represents a first attempt to understand the relation between the capacity for responding in a supportive way to others’ needs and the intra-individual variability of the pattern of the DMN attenuation. Here we underline the critical role that the DMN plays in high-level social cognitive processes and corroborate the DMN role in different psychiatric disorders associated with a lack of empathy. (AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Comportamento , Emoções , Empatia , Universidades , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética
An. psicol ; 39(1): 119-126, Ene-Abr. 2023. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-213846


This study examined the role of social interest and empathy in helping and not helping adults during floods. Participants were split into two groups with helping behaviors (N=90) and without helping behaviors (N = 90) during floods from six cities, Khuzestan province, Iran. A demo-graphic questionnaire, the Social Interest Scale (SIS), and the Question-naire Measure of Empathic Tendency (QMET)) were used in this study. Analysis showed that people in the helping group had higher social interest than those in the control group. Also, individuals with helping behaviors had greater performance in susceptibility to emotional contagion, extreme emotional responsiveness, tendency to be moved by others' positive emo-tional experiences, tendency to be moved by others' negative emotional experiences, sympathetic tendency, willingness to be in contact with others who have problems, and the total score of empathy than persons in the control group.These findings can be combined with the emergency aid programs in natural disasters.(AU)

Este estudio examina el papel del interés social y la empatía en ayudar y no ayudar a los adultos durante las inundaciones. Los participantes se dividieron en dos grupos con comportamientos de ayuda (N = 90) y sin comportamientos de ayuda (N = 90) durante las inundaciones de seis ciudades, provincia de Juzestán, Irán. En este estudio se utilizaron un cuestionario demográfico, la Escala de Interés Social (SIS) y el Cuestionario de Medida de Tendencia Empática (QMET). El análisis mostró que las personas en el grupo de ayuda tenían mayor interés social y empatía que las del grupo de control. Este estudio describe cómo, en resumen, el interés social y la empatía contribuirían a ayudar a las personas afectadas por las inundaciones a salvar sus vidas y sus propiedades. Estos hallazgos se pueden combinar con los programas de ayuda de emergencia en desastres naturales y se convertirán en información pública.(AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Empatia , Inundações , Socorro de Urgência , Comportamento , Desastres Naturais , Psicologia , Psicologia Social , Irã (Geográfico) , Inquéritos e Questionários
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 15(1): 43-52, enero 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-214648


Background: Child-to-parent violence is a family issue that needs a systemic and integral approach for its evaluation. The main objective of this longitudinal study was to assess the moderating effects of adolescents’ borderline personality and psychopathic traits (grandiose-manipulative, callous-unemotional, and impulsive-irresponsible dimensions) in the predictive association between inadequate parental strategies (psychological aggression, corporal punishment, and ignoring misbehavior) and child-to-parent violence. Sex differences were analyzed. Method: The community sample comprised 671 adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years old (Mage = 13.39, SD = 1.15; 50.8% girls, 47.7% boys, and 1.5% non-binary), assessed twice, six months apart from each other. Results: Results showed slightly different patterns of violence towards fathers and mothers – ignoring misbehavior predicted aggression toward mothers, while psychological aggression predicted aggression toward fathers. Moderation analyses showed that the predictive association from ignoring misbehavior to both child-to-father violence (CFV) and child-to-mother violence (CMV) was only significant for adolescents who were high in the psychopathic trait of callous-unemotional, and the predictive association from psychological aggression to CFV was only significant in those adolescents who scored low in the borderline personality trait. Some sex specificities emerged. Conclusions: These findings support the relevance of working on parents’ discipline strategies and add the need to work on adolescents’ emotional regulation to prevent or deal with child-to-parent violence. (AU)

Antecedentes: La violencia filioparental (VFP) es una problemática familiar cuya evaluación requiere una perspectiva sistémica e integral. El objetivo principal de este estudio longitudinal fue evaluar los efectos moderadores de los rasgos límite y psicopáticos (dimensiones grandiosa-manipulativa, fría-insensible e impulsiva-irresponsable) en adolescentes en la relación predictiva entre estrategias inadecuadas parentales (agresión psicológica, castigo físico e ignorar el mal comportamiento) y la VFP. Se analizaron diferencias por sexo de los adolescentes. Método: La muestra comunitaria estuvo compuesta por 671 adolescentes, de edades comprendidas entre 12 y 17 años (Medad = 13.39, SD = 1.15; 50.8% chicas, 47.7% chicos y 1.5% no binarios), evaluadas en dos momentos con seis meses de diferencia. Resultados: Los resultados mostraron patrones ligeramente diferentes en la violencia hacia padres y madres: ignorar el mal comportamiento predijo la violencia hacia los madres, mientras que la agresión psicológica predijo la la violencia hacia los padres. Los análisis de moderación mostraron que la asociación predictiva entre ignorar el mal comportamiento y la violencia hacia ambos progenitores era significativa solo en adolescentes con rasgos elevados de frialdad emocional y que la relación predictiva entre agresión psicológica y violencia hacia el padre fue significativa solamente en adolescentes con bajos niveles de rasgos límite. Se observaron algunas especificidades según el sexo de los adolescentes. Conclusiones: Estos resultados abundan en la importancia de trabajar en las estrategias de disciplina parentales y en la regulación emocional de los adolescentes en la prevención de la VFP o en su intervención. (AU)

Humanos , Violência Doméstica , Personalidade , Adolescente , Comportamento
Neuroscientist ; 29(1): 8, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36694922
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e225272, jan.-dez. 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1354777


Aim: To compare the pre-clinical and clinical students` perceptions about the non-pharmacological behaviour management techniques in paediatric dentistry and to investigate the influence of the dental curriculum on the students` knowledge regarding this issue. Methods: A total of 283 students from the IV-and X-semester completed a questionnaire, consisted of 12 statements, describing the nonpharmacological behaviour management techniques for the treatment of paediatric dental patients. The acceptability rate was evaluated with a Likert scale ranging from 1 to 5. Results: The students from all courses demonstrated high acceptance for Reinforcement and Desensitization techniques and low for the Negative reinforcement and Physical restraint. The comparison between the perceptions of the pre-clinical and clinical students demonstrated a statistically significant increase in the acceptance of the physical restraint, along with Nonverbal communication, Modelling and Parental presence/absence (p<0.05). Conclusion: The results provide information about the students' knowledge and skills in behaviour management techniques together with some insights about how the educational process can modify the students` perceptions and views in dealing with paediatric dental patients

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estudantes de Odontologia , Comportamento , Inquéritos e Questionários , Odontopediatria , Métodos
Clín. salud ; 33(3): 109-115, nov. 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-212465


A redefinition of insight-type events is presented, an initial attempt to view insight in terms of behavior analysis in the clinical context and relevant variables are suggested for their study. This definition assumes the insight as a novel behavior that involves the search for solutions to psychological problems. Solving a problem is discovering an effective behavior pattern, based on the creation of verbal rules that help the client to reach the solution. In this problem-solving process, a new behavior emerges, explained through the solution of a transfer task. The theoretical proposal exposed allows a better understanding of this phenomenon, overcoming the problems of mentalist conceptions about the term of insight, and contributes to a better understanding of some relevant elements of change process. (AU)

Se presenta una redefinición del evento tipo insight, un intento inicial por explicar el insight en términos del análisis de la conducta en el contexto clínico, así como la propuesta de variables relevantes para su estudio. Esta definición asume el insight como una conducta novedosa que involucra la búsqueda de soluciones a problemas de carácter psicológico. Resolver un problema es descubrir un patrón de conducta efectivo, a partir de la creación de reglas verbales que ayudan al cliente a llegar a la solución. En este proceso de resolución de problemas, emerge una conducta novedosa explicada a través de la solución de una tarea de transferencia. La propuesta teórica expuesta permite una mejor comprensión del fenómeno, superando los problemas de concepciones mentalistas y contribuye a un mejor entendimiento de elementos relevantes del proceso de cambio. (AU)

Humanos , Comportamento , Análise do Comportamento Aplicada , Transferência Psicológica , Capacidade de Resposta ante Emergências , Psicoterapia
Indoor Air ; 32(10): e13136, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36305068


Appropriate knowledge and actions of residents in housing are expected to reduce health effects, defined as "living literacy." With the spread of COVID-19 and the diversification of lifestyles, a quantitative evaluation of a comprehensive model that includes living literacy in the housing environment is required. In this study, the author conducted two web-based surveys of approximately 2000 different households in Japan during the summer of 2020 and winter of 2021, and a statistical analysis based on the survey results. As a result, ventilation by opening windows was observed as a new resident behavior trend under COVID-19. In addition, structural equation modeling using the survey samples confirmed the certain relationship between living literacy and subjective evaluation of the indoor environment and health effects in both periods.

COVID-19 , Letramento em Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Modelos Teóricos , Humanos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Habitação , Japão/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Comportamento , Estações do Ano
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 20(4): 1-10, Oct.-Dec. 2022. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-213626


Introduction: There has been a considerable increase in the concurrent use of prescribed medicines and herbal products, but most users do not have any information about drug-herb interactions. Objective: Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of pharmacological advice by community pharmacists on promoting the rational use of prescribed medicines together with herbal products. Methods: The study was one group pretest-posttest experimental design, performed on a sample of 32 people who met the following criteria: aged ≥18 years, lived in an urbanized area, have NCDs such as diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, or cardiovascular disease, and have used prescribed medicines and herbal products concurrently. The participants were informed and practically advised on the rational use of herbal products simultaneously with prescribed medicines, the possibility of drug-herb interactions, and self-monitoring of possible adverse effects. Results: After implementing pharmacological advice, the participants showed a significant increase in knowledge of rational drug-herb use: from 5.8±1.8 to 8.4±1.6 out of a total of 10 (p<0.001), and their score in terms of appropriate behavior rose from 21.7±2.9 to 24.4±3.1 out of a total of 30 (p<0.001). Additionally, the number of patients with herb-drug interaction risk decreased statistically significantly (37.5% and 25.0%, p=0.031). Conclusion: Pharmacy-led advice on rational use of herbal products with prescribed NCD medicines is effective in terms of promoting increases in knowledge and appropriate behavior in these matters. This is a strategy for risk management of herb-drug interactions in NCD patients. (AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Interações Ervas-Drogas , Farmácias , Doença Crônica , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto , Conhecimento , Comportamento
An. psicol ; 38(3): 555-564, Oct-Dic. 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-208827


Underreport of symptoms and personality characteristics is a relevant problem for psychological assessment. Nevertheless, most of the studies in this field use simulation designs. This study aims at comparing underreport prevalence in real world samples of different contexts, using single-scale and multiple scale underreport indicators from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–2 (MMPI-2) to identify the best one and assess its implications on the clinical scales scores. Using a Differential Prevalence Group design, 1438 participants were assessed with the MMPI-2, grouped in three samples from two non-clinical contexts (community and organizational) and one clinical context. The organizational sample had the highest prevalence of underreporting. Overall, multiple scale indicator LKS ≥ T65 performed better at distinguishing these samples. Analysis of variance revealed that LKS ≥ T65 was also the only indicator in which participants doing underreport consistently varied from honest re-sponders in the clinical scales scores, while also having lower probability of producing both type I and II errors. The existence of underreport has clear implication on the clinical scales results. The multiple scale indicator is the most robust and should be used in the detection of underreporting. This is a relevant implication for psychological assessment in different contexts, mainly in the organizational context.(AU)

La minimización de síntomas es un problema relevante para la evaluación psicológica. La mayoría de los estudios utilizan diseños de simulación. Este estudio tiene como objetivo comparar la prevalencia de la minimización de síntomas y sus implicaciones, utilizando indicadores de escala única y de escala múltiple del Inventario Multifásico de Personalidad de Minnesota-2 (MMPI-2) en muestras reales. Utilizando un diseño de Grupo de Prevalencia Diferencial se evaluaron 1438 participantes, agrupados en tres muestras: dos no clínicas (comunitario y organizacional) y una muestra clínica. La muestra organizacional tuvo la mayor prevalencia de minimización de síntomas. En general, el indicador de escala múltiple LKS ≥ T65 proporcionó los mejores resultados. El análisis de la varianza reveló que el LKS ≥ T65 era también el único indicador de diferenciación, en las escalas clínicas, de los participantes que realizaban o no la minimización de síntomas, a la vez que tenía una menor probabilidad de producir errores tipo I y II. La presencia de minimización tiene una clara implicación en las puntuaciones clínicas. El indicador de escalas múltiples es el más robusto en la detección de la minimización de síntomas y es relevante para la evaluación en diferentes contextos, principalmente en lo organizacional.(AU)

Humanos , Saúde Mental , Testes de Personalidade , Psicopatologia , Depressão , Comportamento , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Psicologia , Psicologia Clínica , Psicologia Social , Medicina do Comportamento
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 96: e202210062-e202210062, Oct. 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-211611


En ciencias del comportamiento, la expresiónnudge (del inglés, empujón, codazo) se refiere a cualquier aspecto de la arquitectura dela decisión que altera predeciblemente la conducta de las personas en su propio beneficio sin prohibir o restringir de forma signifi-cativa sus opciones. Sus promotores invocan elpaternalismo libertario para justificarlo, lo que significa que se promueve el beneficiodel individuo sin contar con su autonomía, pero sin llegar al punto de coartar la libertad de elección cuando ésta es manifiesta. Eneste trabajo se analiza el papel de losnudges en el ámbito de las políticas de salud. Se lleva a cabo un análisis cognitivo de ellos yse distinguen losnudges clínicos (aquellos que tienen lugar en el seno de la relación sanitario-paciente) de losnudges salubristas(específicos de políticas de salud pública). Se analizan los aspectos éticos de ambas categorías para señalar algunas de sus virtudes ylos retos éticos que plantean. El estudio se centra, de manera particular, en losnudges salubristas, para considerar si es razonable, ycon qué límites, su implementación en crisis sanitarias (por ejemplo, pandemias), donde las políticas públicas se enfrentan al dilemaentre preservar la libertad a costa de la salud pública o, por el contrario, priorizar ésta hasta el punto de limitar aquélla. Se plantea sien este contexto se deberían permitir mayores restricciones de las libertades individuales (por ejemplo, mediante confinamientos ycuarentenas obligatorias, vacunación impuesta, etc.) o bien utilizarnudges como una salida intermedia y menos lesiva de derechosindividuales para promover medidas sanitarias.(AU)

In behavioral science, the term nudge refers to any aspect of decision architecture that predictably alters people’s behavior to impro-ve the chooser’s own welfare without forbidding or significantly restricting their choices. Its promoters invokelibertarian paternalism,which means, on the one hand, that the behavior of the individual is guided without counting on his autonomy, but, on the otherhand, that this form of influence does not reach the point of restricting freedom of choice when it is manifest. This paper analyzesthe role of nudges in the field of health policies. A cognitive analysis of these nudges is carried out and are distinguished the clinicalnudges (those that take place within the healthcare professional and patient relationship) from the public health nudges (specificto public health policies). The ethical aspects of both categories of nudge will be analyzed to point out some of their virtues and theethical challenges they face. This study focuses in particular on public health nudges, to consider whether it is reasonable, and withwhat limits, their implementation in health crises (for example, pandemics). Analyzing that public policies face the dilemma betweenpreserving freedom at the expense of health or, on the contrary, prioritize health to the point of limiting freedom. It is raised whe-ther in this context greater restrictions on individual freedoms should be allowed (for example, through mandatory lockdowns andquarantines, imposed vaccinations, forced tests) or whether to use nudges as an intermediate solution and less harmful to individualrights to promote health measures.(AU)

Humanos , Ciências do Comportamento , Direitos Civis , Liberdade , Pandemias , Recusa de Vacinação , Comportamento , Saúde Pública , Ética
Invest. educ. enferm ; 40(3): 145-160, 15 octubre de 2022. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1402190


Objective.To evaluate the effectiveness of the application of an educational program based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) in Adopting Preventive Behaviors from Self-Medication among Women in Iran. Methods. Interventional study with pre and post phases. 200 women referring to the health centers of Urmia were selected by simple random sampling, divided into two groups of treatment and control. Data collection instruments were researcher-devised questionnaire including the questionnaire of Knowledge of Self-medication, the Questionnaire of Preventive Behaviors from Self-medication, and the questionnaire of Health Belief Model. The questionnaires were assessed for expert validity and then, were checked for reliability. The educational intervention was conducted for the treatment group during four weeks four 45-minute sessions. Results.The average scores of knowledge, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action, self-efficiency, and post-intervention performance in have increased in treatment group, comparing to the control group, All findings were statistically significant (p<0.05). Furthermore, social media, doctors, and disbelief in self-medication were more effective in increasing awareness and encouraging to have proper medication, also, the highest self-medication was in taking pain-relievers, cold tablets and antibiotics, which showed significant decrease in treatment group after the intervention. Conclusion.The educational program based onHealth Belief Modelwas effective in reducing the self-medication among the studied women. Furthermore, it is recommended to use social media and doctors to improve the awareness and motivation among people. Thus, applying the educational programs and plans according to the Health Belief Model can be influential in reducing the self-medication.

Objetivo. Evaluar la eficacia de la aplicación de un programa educativo basado en el Modelo de Creencias sobre la Salud (MCS) en la adopción de conductas preventivas de la automedicación entre las mujeres de Irán. Métodos. Estudio de intervención con evaluación pre y post. Se seleccionaron 200 mujeres que acudieron a los centros de salud de Urmia, a quienes se asignaron a los dos grupos de estudio (tratamiento y control) mediante un muestreo aleatorio simple. Para la recolección de la información se utilizaron los cuestionarios sobre: Conocimientos acerca de la automedicación, conductas preventivas de la automedicación y el modelo de creencias sobre la salud. Se evaluó la validez de los cuestionarios por parte de los expertos y luego se comprobó su confiabilidad. La intervención educativa se llevó a cabo para el grupo de tratamiento durante cuatro semanas con 1 sesión semanal de 45 minutos de duración.Resultados.Las puntuaciones medias de los conocimientos, la susceptibilidad percibida, la gravedad percibida, los beneficios percibidos, las barreras percibidas, las señales para la acción, la autoeficacia y el rendimiento posterior a la intervención aumentaron en el grupo de tratamiento en comparación con el grupo de control, y todos los resultados fueron estadísticamente significativos (p<0.05). Además, los medios de comunicación social fueron eficaces para aumentar la concienciación y animar a tener una medicación adecuada. La mayor automedicación fue en la toma de analgésicos, pastillas para el resfriado y antibióticos, que mostró una disminución significativa en el grupo de tratamiento después de la intervención. Conclusión. El programa educativo basado en el Modelo de Creencias de Salud fue eficaz para reducir la automedicación entre las mujeres estudiadas. Además, se recomienda utilizar los medios de comunicación social para mejorar la concienciación y la motivación de las personas.

Objetivo. Avaliar a eficácia da aplicação de um programa educativo baseado no Modelo de Crenças em Saúde (HCM) na adoção de comportamentos preventivos de automedicação entre mulheres no Irã. Métodos. Estudo de intervenção com pré e pós avaliação. Duzentas mulheres que frequentavam os centros de saúde de Urmia foram selecionadas e alocadas nos dois grupos de estudo (tratamento e controle) por meio de amostragem aleatória simples. Para a coleta de informações, foram utilizados os questionários sobre: Conhecimento sobre automedicação, comportamentos preventivos de automedicação e o modelo de crenças sobre saúde. A validade dos questionários foi avaliada pelos especialistas e, em seguida, verificada sua confiabilidade. A intervenção educativa foi realizada para o grupo de tratamento durante quatro semanas com 1 sessão semanal com duração de 45 minutos. Resultados.Os escores médios de conhecimento, suscetibilidade percebida, gravidade percebida, benefícios percebidos, barreiras percebidas, pistas para ação, autoeficácia e desempenho pós-intervenção aumentaram no grupo de tratamento em comparação com o grupo de intervenção. controle, e todos os resultados foram estatisticamente significativos (p<0.05). Além disso, as mídias sociais foram eficazes na conscientização e no incentivo à medicação adequada. A maior automedicação foi em uso de analgésicos, antissépticos e antibióticos, que apresentou diminuição significativa no grupo de tratamento após a intervenção. Conclusão.O programa educativo baseado no Modelo de Crenças em Saúde foi eficaz na redução da automedicação entre as mulheres estudadas. Além disso, recomenda-se o uso das mídias sociais para melhorar a conscientização e a motivação das pessoas.

Feminino , Automedicação , Mulheres , Comportamento , Modelo de Crenças de Saúde
Pap. psicol ; 43(3): 225-234, Sept. 2022. ilus
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-212856


La psicología clínica requiere de constantes desarrollos científicos que lleven a una explicación de la complejidad de los trastornos mentales y sus bases causales. Las aproximaciones evolutivas han mostrado ser de particular poder heurístico para esta tarea. Entre ellas, la Teoría de Historia de Vida (THV) incorpora avances teóricos y empíricos novedosos y significativos. No obstante, existe la necesidad de incorporar investigación y aproximaciones evolutivas adicionales de interés. Por lo tanto, en este artículo se propondrá el potencial de integración al ampliar la causalidad evolutiva en conjunción con aproximaciones de sistemas psicobiológicos de conducta. Para esto se utilizará como ejemplo el Trastorno Límite de Personalidad, ampliando su comprensión como una interacción de causas próximas entre los sistemas psicobiológicos de estrés y apego, dentro del marco de causas últimas de THV. Finalmente, se demarcarán aspectos que nutren el campo clínico con implicaciones para la evaluación y los dominios de intervención.(AU)

Clinical psychology requires continuous research to encourage integrative explanations for the complexity of mental disorders and their underlying causes. Biological evolutionary approaches have shown particular heuristic power for this endeavor. Life history theory (LHT) is an evolutionary model that incorporates novel and significant theoretical and empirical advances. However, there is a growing need for the incorporation of other successful evolutionary approaches. Thus, the goal of the present paper is to propose potential integrative connections between evolutionary causal modes, behavior systems, and LHT. For this, borderline personality disorder is used as an example of a condition that can be understood as an interaction between stress and attachment psychobiological systems (proximate causes), within the framework of ultimate causes clarified by LHT. To conclude, we will outline several aspects that could enhance the clinical field with implications for assessment and intervention.(AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Traços de História de Vida , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline , Estresse Psicológico , Apego ao Objeto , Comportamento , Psicopatologia , Psicologia , Psicologia Clínica , Psicologia Social
Siglo cero (Madr.) ; 53(3): 53-74, septiembre 2022. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-210806


A lo largo de estos años, la Planificación Centrada en la Persona (PCP) se ha encontrado con obstáculos que han impedido atender y cubrir algunas de las necesidades de las personas con discapacidad intelectual y del desarrollo con problemas de conducta tanto en el ambiente familiar, profesional y personal (PCDI/PC). Por este motivo surge el presente estudio, detectar las necesidades que tienen PCDI/PC y, a su vez, las necesidades de los profesionales y familiares que afectan en la atención a las PCDI/PC mediante grupos de discusión con profesionales, familias y PCDI/PC que forman parte de Plena Inclusión Madrid. En total han participado 82 personas que se distribuyen en profesionales (sanitarios, educativos, laborales y sociales), familias y PCDI/PC y, en total, se han detectado 81 necesidades que afectan a estos tres grupos. Como conclusión, estas necesidades descubiertas están suponiendo un obstáculo para que la metodología PCP tenga efectividad en las PCDI/PC, por lo que sería interesante que en futuros trabajos se estudien dimensiones que ayuden a cubrirlas. (AU)

Throughout these years, Person Centered Planning (PCP) has encoun-tered obstacles that have prevented meeting some of the needs of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities with behavior problems both in the family, professional and personal environment. For this reason, the present study arises, to detect the needs of PCDI/PC, and in turn, the needs of professionals and family members that affect the care of PCDI/PC through discussion groups with professionals, families and PCDI/PC that are part of Plena Inclusión Madrid. In total, 82 people participated, divided into professionals (health, educational, work and social), families and PCDI/PC, and in total, 81 needs have been detected that affect these three groups. In conclusion, these discov-ered needs are posing an obstacle for the PCP methodology to be effective in PCDI/PC, so it would be interesting for future studies to study measures to help cover them. (AU)

Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual , Comportamento , Tomada de Decisões , Relações Interpessoais , Terapêutica , Diagnóstico
Trials ; 23(1): 653, 2022 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964061


BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the third most prevalent cancer in the American population. Furthermore, the prognosis is worse in African American as there is increased morbidity and mortality associated with it. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a new online method to educate the patient population regarding prostate cancer risk, diagnosis, treatments, and their decisions about whether to be screened for the early detection of prostate cancer. METHODS: Two hundred Black male patients are recruited from different clinical sites and randomized to either the control arm (usual care) or the intervention arm (educational program). We will compare the effectiveness of the intervention to see if patients are discussing the need of getting a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, and the possible benefits and harms that may result of having or not having the test, with their primary care providers. DISCUSSION: Shared decision-making (SDM) is the current standard in most cancer-screening guidelines and also a standard of person-centered care. However, there is a lack of evidence-based approaches to improve decision quality in clinical settings and an increased ambiguity of applying SDM for PSA-based screening among Black men in primary care. Our proposal to evaluate a decisional-aid intervention and measure the actual application of SDM during clinical encounters has a high potential to advance the translation path of implementing shared decision-making in clinical settings and provide evidence of the applicability of the guideline in general. INNOVATION AND OVERALL IMPACT: Given the 2018 USPSTF updated guidelines recommending shared decision-making about PSA-based screening, the increased risk of prostate cancer mortality in Black men, the challenges of evidence-based decision-making due to the underrepresentation of Blacks in major randomized clinical trials, and implicit racial bias among primary care providers, the time is ripe for interventions to improve shared decision-making about prostate cancer screening in Black men. In this study, we address communication and knowledge gaps between Black men and their primary care providers. The intervention, if proven effective, can be readily scaled across primary care practices across the U.S. and may be adapted to other types of cancer where guidelines have included shared decision-making as well. Early detection of prostate cancer may decrease mortality and morbidity in the long term.

Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias da Próstata , Comportamento , Tomada de Decisões , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Antígeno Prostático Específico , Neoplasias da Próstata/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Estados Unidos
Science ; 377(6606): 589, 2022 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35926020


Noninvasive, reversible stimulation of neural circuits can regulate behavior.

Comportamento , Encéfalo , Vias Neurais , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Animais , Comportamento/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Humanos , Vias Neurais/fisiologia
Curr Opin Neurobiol ; 73: 102559, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35654560