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1.
Neuroimage ; 295: 120667, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38825216

RESUMO

Executive functions are essential for adaptive behavior. One executive function is the so-called 'interference control' or conflict monitoring another one is inhibitory control (i.e., action restraint and action cancelation). Recent evidence suggests an interplay of these processes, which is conceptually relevant given that newer conceptual frameworks imply that nominally different action/response control processes are explainable by a small set of cognitive and neurophysiological processes. The existence of such overarching neural principles has as yet not directly been examined. In the current study, we therefore use EEG tensor decomposition methods, to look into possible common neurophysiological signatures underlying conflict-modulated action restraint and action cancelation as mechanism underlying response inhibition. We show how conflicts differentially modulate action restraint and action cancelation processes and delineate common and distinct neural processes underlying this interplay. Concerning the spatial information modulations are similar in terms of an importance of processes reflected by parieto-occipital electrodes, suggesting that attentional selection processes play a role. Especially theta and alpha activity seem to play important roles. The data also show that tensor decomposition is sensitive to the manner of task implementation, thereby suggesting that switch probability/transitional probabilities should be taken into consideration when choosing tensor decomposition as analysis method. The study provides a blueprint of how to use tensor decomposition methods to delineate common and distinct neural mechanisms underlying action control functions using EEG data.


Assuntos
Conflito Psicológico , Eletroencefalografia , Função Executiva , Humanos , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Masculino , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Inibição Psicológica , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia
2.
BMJ Open Qual ; 13(2)2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aggression and negative activation in mental health inpatient units pose significant challenges for both patients and staff with severe physical and psychological ramifications. The Safewards model is an evidence-based conflict-containment framework including 10 strategies, such as 'Calm Down Methods'. As virtual reality (VR) scenarios have successfully enhanced anxiolytic and deactivating effects of therapeutic interventions, they are increasingly considered a means to enhance current models, like Safewards. OBJECTIVES: The present participatory design investigates the feasibility and user experience of integrating VR therapy as an add-on strategy to the Safewards model, gathering preliminary data and qualitative feedback from bedside staff in an adult inpatient mental health unit. METHODS: An exploratory within-subjects design combining qualitative observations, self-report questionnaires and semistructured interviews is employed with four nurse champions from the mental health unit at Michael Garron Hospital (Toronto, Canada). RESULTS: A chronological overview of the design process, adaptations and description of the user experience is reported. CONCLUSION: 'SafeVRwards' introduces VR as a promising conflic-containment strategy complementary to the Safewards model, which can be optimised for deployment through user-oriented refinements and enhanced customisation capacity driven by clinical staff input.


Assuntos
Realidade Virtual , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Unidade Hospitalar de Psiquiatria/normas , Adulto , Conflito Psicológico
3.
Nonlinear Dynamics Psychol Life Sci ; 28(3): 345-367, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38880499

RESUMO

Previous research has demonstrated that interpersonal dynamics are fractal, and that conflict is a key control parameter that drives fractal complexity. The present study aimed to extend this line of research to examine the putative fractal structure of conflict dynamics over time, and the role that this self-organizing fractal structure may play in the resilience of romantic relationships. An experience sampling methodology was used to assess levels of conflict, satisfaction, and commitment in the dating relationships of undergraduate students, three times per day for 30 days. Hypothesis 1 was supported, with conflict ratings over time generally conforming to an inverse power-law distribution (IPL) distribution. Hypothesis 2 was supported as well, with better IPL fits measured as variance accounted for (R2), predicting higher levels of satisfaction and commitment over the 30 days. Hypothesis 3 showed mixed support, with moderate network linkages (i.e., soft assembly) between conflict and satisfaction and commitment predicting higher IPL fits (the linkage of satisfaction and commitment did not predict IPL fit as predicted). Hypothesis 4 predicted that IPL fit would interact with mean conflict, buffering the impacts of conflict on mean satisfaction and commitment across the 30 days. This hypothesis was not supported; however, several statistical factors may have obscured the buffering effects of higher IPL fit and so results may be inconclusive. These methodological factors, and others, are discussed along with the potential theoretical and practical implications of the current results.


Assuntos
Conflito Psicológico , Relações Interpessoais , Satisfação Pessoal , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Feminino , Adulto , Fractais , Resiliência Psicológica , Corte , Adolescente
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(25): e38687, 2024 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38905396

RESUMO

Role conflict is defined as pressures resulting from multiple job requirements that are perceived as incompatible. The purpose of this population-based cross-sectional study was to explore the current situation and influencing factors of high-level role conflict among clinical teachers at 4 affiliated hospitals of 3 medical universities in southern China. A self-administered online questionnaire was used for data collection through an online survey platform. Chi-square tests were used to determine significant differences for categorical variables. Binary logistic regression analysis models were performed for exploring the influencing factors of role conflict in clinical teachers. A total of 208 clinical teachers successfully completed the questionnaires. Of the respondents, 41.3% reportedly had high-level role conflict, and 58.7% had low-level role conflict. The study found that primary, intermediate, and deputy senior professional title, having a leadership position in the department, and devoting a lot of time to teaching work were associated with an increasing risk of the occurrence of high-level role conflict (all P < .05). However, undertaking moderate or few/very few clinical teaching workloads, keeping clinical teachers informed of the teaching requirements, getting guidance and help from colleagues, and thinking of the teaching work as their obligation were significantly associated with decreasing risks of high-level role conflict (all P < .05). Teaching management departments in hospitals might carry out regular and systematic professional training for clinical teachers to effectively decrease role conflict and improve the quality of clinical teaching.


Assuntos
Docentes de Medicina , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Docentes de Medicina/psicologia , Docentes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Inquéritos e Questionários , Papel Profissional/psicologia , Conflito Psicológico , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Conflito de Papéis
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(23): e38394, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was motivated due to psychological exhaustion, demands, and conflict degenerating from the work environment and family responsibilities facing career female workers. These roles and expectations have posed serious dilemmas to female populations in workplaces. Leaving them untreated is risky and could lead to severe psychological disturbances. Based on these, this study investigated the effect of the occupation health model of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy on work-family conflict and work-deviant behavior among female workers in Tourism, Museum, Art Gallery and Exhibition Centers in Enugu State. METHODS: A randomized control design was used. A total of 119 female workers were randomized into intervention and control groups, measured at 3 points (pretest, posttest, and follow-up test), and the data collected were analyzed using repeated measure statistics. RESULTS: The finding showed that the intervention is significantly effective in reducing the work-family conflict and work deviance behavior among female workers in Tourism, Museum, and Art Gallery Exhibition Centers. Nonetheless, the findings show that the gender and time interaction effects did not significantly affect the work-family conflict and work deviance behavior scores of the workers. The follow-up stage improved the intervention's favorable impact on the reduction of work-family conflict and work-deviant behaviors. CONCLUSION: This suggest that occupation health model of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy has significant impact in reducing and changing female workers' perceptions of work-family conflict and work deviant behaviors.


Assuntos
Museus , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Turismo , Adulto Jovem , Conflito Psicológico , Saúde Ocupacional
6.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 86(4): 1259-1286, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38691237

RESUMO

Conflict-induced control refers to humans' ability to regulate attention in the processing of target information (e.g., the color of a word in the color-word Stroop task) based on experience with conflict created by distracting information (e.g., an incongruent color word), and to do so either in a proactive (preparatory) or a reactive (stimulus-driven) fashion. Interest in conflict-induced control has grown recently, as has the awareness that effects attributed to those processes might be affected by conflict-unrelated processes (e.g., the learning of stimulus-response associations). This awareness has resulted in the recommendation to move away from traditional interference paradigms with small stimulus/response sets and towards paradigms with larger sets (at least four targets, distractors, and responses), paradigms that allow better control of non-conflict processes. Using larger sets, however, is not always feasible. Doing so in the Stroop task, for example, would require either multiple arbitrary responses that are difficult for participants to learn (e.g., manual responses to colors) or non-arbitrary responses that can be difficult for researchers to collect (e.g., vocal responses in online experiments). Here, we present a spatial version of the Stroop task that solves many of those problems. In this task, participants respond to one of six directions indicated by an arrow, each requiring a specific, non-arbitrary manual response, while ignoring the location where the arrow is displayed. We illustrate the usefulness of this task by showing the results of two experiments in which evidence for proactive and reactive control was obtained while controlling for the impact of non-conflict processes.


Assuntos
Atenção , Percepção de Cores , Conflito Psicológico , Tempo de Reação , Teste de Stroop , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Orientação , Adulto , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Conscientização , Adolescente
7.
J Urol ; 212(2): 320-330, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38717916

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Because multiple management options exist for clinical T1 renal masses, patients may experience a state of uncertainty about the course of action to pursue (ie, decisional conflict). To better support patients, we examined patient, clinical, and decision-making factors associated with decisional conflict among patients newly diagnosed with clinical T1 renal masses suspicious for kidney cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From a prospective clinical trial, participants completed the Decisional Conflict Scale (DCS), scored 0 to 100 with < 25 associated with implementing decisions, at 2 time points during the initial decision-making period. The trial further characterized patient demographics, health status, tumor burden, and patient-centered communication, while a subcohort completed additional questionnaires on decision-making. Associations of patient, clinical, and decision-making factors with DCS scores were evaluated using generalized estimating equations to account for repeated measures per patient. RESULTS: Of 274 enrollees, 250 completed a DCS survey; 74% had masses ≤ 4 cm in size, while 11% had high-complexity tumors. Model-based estimated mean DCS score across both time points was 17.6 (95% CI 16.0-19.3), though 50% reported a DCS score ≥ 25 at least once. On multivariable analysis, DCS scores increased with age (+2.64, 95% CI 1.04-4.23), high- vs low-complexity tumors (+6.50, 95% CI 0.35-12.65), and cystic vs solid masses (+9.78, 95% CI 5.27-14.28). Among decision-making factors, DCS scores decreased with higher self-efficacy (-3.31, 95% CI -5.77 to -0.86]) and information-seeking behavior (-4.44, 95% CI -7.32 to -1.56). DCS scores decreased with higher patient-centered communication scores (-8.89, 95% CI -11.85 to -5.94). CONCLUSIONS: In addition to patient and clinical factors, decision-making factors and patient-centered communication relate with decisional conflict, highlighting potential avenues to better support patient decision-making for clinical T1 renal masses.


Assuntos
Conflito Psicológico , Tomada de Decisões , Neoplasias Renais , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias Renais/psicologia , Neoplasias Renais/terapia , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Inquéritos e Questionários , Participação do Paciente , Adulto
8.
Appl Ergon ; 119: 104317, 2024 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38820920

RESUMO

The role of task priority on task selection in multi-task management is unclear based on prior work, leading to a common finding of 'priority neglect'. However, properties such as urgency and conflict may influence whether operators weigh priority in their decision. We examined the role of instructed task prioritization, bolstered by more urgent and conflicting conditions, on how operators select among emergent, concurrent tasks when multitasking. Using the Multi-Attribute Task Battery (MATB) multitasking platform we tested both an auditory communications task and a manual tracking task as the priority tasks. Results showed that instructed priority significantly increased target task selection under the conflicting task conditions for both tasks. Urgency itself may modulate whether instructions to prioritize affect task selection choices when multitasking, and therefore counter to prior results instructions may yet be useful for helping operators select a higher priority task under conflict, a generalizable effect to be further explored.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Comportamento Multitarefa , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Comportamento de Escolha , Conflito Psicológico
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721999

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Older adult executive function varies widely due to brain and cognitive aging. Variance in older adult executive function is linked to increased response conflict from cognitive and brain aging. Cognitive reserve (CR) is a theoretical protective mechanism that lessens brain aging's impact on cognition and is associated with greater educational attainment. Recent work in rest-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) suggests CR proxies moderate the relationship between functional connectivity (FC) and cognitive performance. Brain network FC in "control networks," including the salience (SN), dorsal attention and frontoparietal networks, are associated with cognitive processes in older adults. CR is hypothesized to maintain cognitive processing in part through changes in how brain networks respond to cognitive demands. However, it is unclear how CR proxies like educational attainment are related to control network FC during performance when cognitive demands are increased relative to rest. Because CR is expressed more in those with higher education, we hypothesized stronger control network FC would relate to better performance, where this relationship would be strongest among the most educated. METHODS: We collected flanker task data during fMRI to assess the impact of a CR proxy (i.e., educational attainment) on response conflict among older adult subjects (n = 42, age = 65-80). RESULTS: Linear mixed-effects models showed more educated older adults with greater SN-FC had a smaller flanker effect (i.e., less influence of distractors; p < .001) during task performance. DISCUSSION: For the first time, we show that educational attainment moderates the relationship between task-state SN-FC and executive function among older adults.


Assuntos
Reserva Cognitiva , Escolaridade , Função Executiva , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Humanos , Masculino , Idoso , Feminino , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Reserva Cognitiva/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Conflito Psicológico , Envelhecimento Cognitivo/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Cognitivo/psicologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
10.
Cereb Cortex ; 34(5)2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38771238

RESUMO

Cognitive-control theories assume that the experience of response conflict can trigger control adjustments. However, while some approaches focus on adjustments that impact the selection of the present response (in trial N), other approaches focus on adjustments in the next upcoming trial (N + 1). We aimed to trace control adjustments over time by quantifying cortical noise by means of the fitting oscillations and one over f algorithm, a measure of aperiodic activity. As predicted, conflict trials increased the aperiodic exponent in a large sample of 171 healthy adults, thus indicating noise reduction. While this adjustment was visible in trial N already, it did not affect response selection before the next trial. This suggests that control adjustments do not affect ongoing response-selection processes but prepare the system for tighter control in the next trial. We interpret the findings in terms of a conflict-induced switch from metacontrol flexibility to metacontrol persistence, accompanied or even implemented by a reduction of cortical noise.


Assuntos
Cognição , Conflito Psicológico , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Cognição/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Adolescente
11.
Psychophysiology ; 61(8): e14587, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38600626

RESUMO

Cognitive processes deal with contradictory demands in social contexts. On the one hand, social interactions imply a demand for cooperation, which requires processing social signals, and on the other, demands for selective attention require ignoring irrelevant signals, to avoid overload. We created a task with a humanoid robot displaying irrelevant social signals, imposing conflicting demands on selective attention. Participants interacted with the robot as a team (high social demand; n = 23) or a passive co-actor (low social demand; n = 19). We observed that theta oscillations indexed conflict processing of social signals. Subsequently, alpha oscillations were sensitive to the conflicting social signals and the mode of interaction. These findings suggest that brains have distinct mechanisms for dealing with the complexity of social interaction and that these mechanisms are activated differently depending on the mode of the interaction. Thus, how we process environmental stimuli depends on the beliefs held regarding our social context.


Assuntos
Atenção , Conflito Psicológico , Comportamento Cooperativo , Interação Social , Humanos , Atenção/fisiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Ritmo Teta/fisiologia , Ritmo alfa/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Percepção Social , Relações Interpessoais , Robótica
12.
Psychophysiology ; 61(8): e14580, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615338

RESUMO

This article presents an experiment (N = 127 university students) testing whether the previously found impact of conflict primes on effort-related cardiac response is moderated by objective task difficulty. Recently, it has been shown that primed cognitive conflict increases cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP) reactivity-an index of effort intensity-during the performance of relatively easy tasks. This effect could be attributed to conflict-related negative affect. Consequently, as it has been shown for other types of negative affect, we expected conflict primes' effect to be task-context dependent and thus to be moderated by objective task difficulty. In a between-persons design, we manipulated conflict via embedded pictures of conflict-related vs. non-conflict-related Stroop items in a memory task. We expected primed conflict to increase effort in a relatively easy version of the task but to lead to disengagement when task difficulty was objectively high. PEP reactivity corroborated our predictions. Rather than always increasing effort, cognitive conflict's effect on resource mobilization was context-dependent and resulted in weak responses in a difficult task.


Assuntos
Conflito Psicológico , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Adulto , Cognição/fisiologia , Teste de Stroop , Adolescente , Eletrocardiografia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia
13.
Curr Opin Psychol ; 57: 101814, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626690

RESUMO

In this work, we propose that humor violates norms that can build consensus or escalate conflict in negotiations. Drawing on social identity theory, we propose that humor commits norm violations that are more likely to be perceived as benign among ingroup observers in negotiations, but perceived as offensive to outgroup observers in negotiations. We introduce the Comedy, Consensus, and Conflict Framework to shed light on the interpersonal effect of humor on negotiations. When humor is expressed to an ingroup observer, relative to neutral communication, humor is more likely to violate weak norms that govern social group membership resulting in the violation as being perceived as benign, which promotes cooperative behaviors in negotiations such as concessions and collaborative problem-solving. By contrast, when humor is expressed to an outgroup observer, relative to neutral communication, humor is more likely to violate strong norms that define social group membership resulting in the violation as being interpreted as offensive, which triggers competitive behaviors in negotiations such as aggressive offers and hardened positions. Furthermore, we suggest that humor not only generates appraisals of social identity threats, but also affective responses that influence negotiation behavior. Finally, we expand our theoretical model about humor to consider key relational factors that influence norm strength, which motivates whether negotiators appraise norm violations as offensive or benign.


Assuntos
Conflito Psicológico , Consenso , Negociação , Identificação Social , Humanos , Senso de Humor e Humor como Assunto , Relações Interpessoais , Processos Grupais
15.
J Perinat Med ; 52(5): 467-477, 2024 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38669584

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Decisional conflict and regret about prenatal genetic screening and diagnostic tests may have important consequences in the current pregnancy and for future reproductive decisions. Identifying mechanisms that reduce conflict associated with the decision to use or decline these options is necessary for optimal patient counseling. METHODS: We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a shared decision-making tool (NEST) at the beginning of prenatal care. Enrolled patients completed follow-up surveys at the time of testing (QTT) and in the second-third trimester (QFF), including the Decision Conflict Scale (DCS). Total DCS scores were analyzed using a multivariate linear mixed-effect model. RESULTS: Of the total number of participants (n=502) enrolled, 449 completed the QTT and QFF surveys. The mean age of participants was 31.6±3.8, with most parous at the time of study participation (n=321; 71.7 %). Both the NEST (the intervention) and control groups had lower median total DCS scores at QFF (NEST 13.3 [1.7, 25.0] vs. control 16.7 [1.7, 25.0]; p=0.24) compared to QTT (NEST 20.8 [5.0, 25.0] vs. control 18.3 [3.3, 26.7]; p=0.89). Participants exposed to NEST had lower decisional conflict at QFF compared to control (ß -3.889; [CI -7.341, -0.437]; p=0.027). CONCLUSIONS: Using a shared decision-making tool at the start of prenatal care decreased decisional conflict regarding prenatal genetic testing. Such interventions have the potential to provide an important form of decision-making support for patients facing the unique type of complex and preference-based choices about the use of prenatal genetic tests.


Assuntos
Conflito Psicológico , Testes Genéticos , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/psicologia , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/psicologia , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Tomada de Decisão Compartilhada , Tomada de Decisões
16.
Prog Neurobiol ; 236: 102613, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38631480

RESUMO

While medial frontal cortex (MFC) and subthalamic nucleus (STN) have been implicated in conflict monitoring and action inhibition, respectively, an integrated understanding of the spatiotemporal and spectral interaction of these nodes and how they interact with motor cortex (M1) to definitively modify motor behavior during conflict is lacking. We recorded neural signals intracranially across presupplementary motor area (preSMA), M1, STN, and globus pallidus internus (GPi), during a flanker task in 20 patients undergoing deep brain stimulation implantation surgery for Parkinson disease or dystonia. Conflict is associated with sequential and causal increases in local theta power from preSMA to STN to M1 with movement delays directly correlated with increased STN theta power, indicating preSMA is the MFC locus that monitors conflict and signals STN to implement a 'break.' Transmission of theta from STN-to-M1 subsequently results in a transient increase in M1-to-GPi beta flow immediately prior to movement, modulating the motor network to actuate the conflict-related action inhibition (i.e., delayed response). Action regulation during conflict relies on two distinct circuits, the conflict-related theta and movement-related beta networks, that are separated spatially, spectrally, and temporally, but which interact dynamically to mediate motor performance, highlighting complex parallel yet interacting networks regulating movement.


Assuntos
Conflito Psicológico , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda , Córtex Motor , Doença de Parkinson , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Núcleo Subtalâmico , Ritmo Teta , Humanos , Ritmo Teta/fisiologia , Núcleo Subtalâmico/fisiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Distonia/fisiopatologia
17.
Sleep Health ; 10(3): 308-315, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604936

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Couples' Sleep Conflict Scale, a new measure designed to identify the extent of conflict around sleep in romantic relationships. METHODS: Data from an individual sample (N = 158) and dyadic sample (N = 143 mixed-gender couples) in romantic relationships were used to examine the psychometric properties of the Couples' Sleep Conflict Scale, including internal consistency, convergent and divergent validity, and whether the factor structure differed between couples with concordant and discordant chronotypes. RESULTS: Results revealed that the Couples' Sleep Conflict Scale fit a 1-factor solution of 5 items, a summed or mean score can be used, and that it is reliable for both men and women. In addition, more relational sleep conflict was associated with both their own and their partners' poorer sleep hygiene, worse sleep quality, and more daytime sleepiness as well as more general relationship conflict, lower relationship satisfaction, and higher anxious and avoidant attachment. Finally, we found partial measurement invariance for factor loadings, intercepts, and latent variable variances between couples with concordant vs. discordant chronotypes. CONCLUSION: The Couples' Sleep Conflict Scale is a brief measure that can be used in both research and in health care settings to examine how sleep-related conflict can affect both sleep and relationship quality among couples.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Psicometria , Sono , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem , Conflito Psicológico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
J Neurosci ; 44(23)2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38631914

RESUMO

Foraging decisions involve assessing potential risks and prioritizing food sources, which can be challenging when confronted with changing and conflicting circumstances. A crucial aspect of this decision-making process is the ability to actively overcome defensive reactions to threats and focus on achieving specific goals. The ventral pallidum (VP) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) are two brain regions that play key roles in regulating behavior motivated by either rewards or threats. However, it is unclear whether these regions are necessary in decision-making processes involving competing motivational drives during conflict. Our aim was to investigate the requirements of the VP and BLA for foraging choices in conflicts involving overcoming defensive responses. Here, we used a novel foraging task and pharmacological techniques to inactivate either the VP or BLA or to disconnect these brain regions before conducting a conflict test in male rats. Our findings showed that BLA is necessary for making risky choices during conflicts, whereas VP is necessary for invigorating the drive to obtain food, regardless of the presence of conflict. Importantly, our research revealed that the connection between VP and BLA is critical in controlling risky food-seeking choices during conflict situations. This study provides a new perspective on the collaborative function of VP and BLA in driving behavior, aimed at achieving goals in the face of dangers.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo , Prosencéfalo Basal , Recompensa , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Prosencéfalo Basal/fisiologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Conflito Psicológico , Complexo Nuclear Basolateral da Amígdala/fisiologia , Assunção de Riscos , Ratos Long-Evans , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia
19.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 45(6): e26643, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38664992

RESUMO

Coping with distracting inputs during goal-directed behavior is a common challenge, especially when stopping ongoing responses. The neural basis for this remains debated. Our study explores this using a conflict-modulation Stop Signal task, integrating group independent component analysis (group-ICA), multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA), and EEG source localization analysis. Consistent with previous findings, we show that stopping performance is better in congruent (nonconflicting) trials than in incongruent (conflicting) trials. Conflict effects in incongruent trials compromise stopping more due to the need for the reconfiguration of stimulus-response (S-R) mappings. These cognitive dynamics are reflected by four independent neural activity patterns (ICA), each coding representational content (MVPA). It is shown that each component was equally important in predicting behavioral outcomes. The data support an emerging idea that perception-action integration in action-stopping involves multiple independent neural activity patterns. One pattern relates to the precuneus (BA 7) and is involved in attention and early S-R processes. Of note, three other independent neural activity patterns were associated with the insular cortex (BA13) in distinct time windows. These patterns reflect a role in early attentional selection but also show the reiterated processing of representational content relevant for stopping in different S-R mapping contexts. Moreover, the insular cortex's role in automatic versus complex response selection in relation to stopping processes is shown. Overall, the insular cortex is depicted as a brain hub, crucial for response selection and cancellation across both straightforward (automatic) and complex (conditional) S-R mappings, providing a neural basis for general cognitive accounts on action control.


Assuntos
Conflito Psicológico , Eletroencefalografia , Inibição Psicológica , Córtex Insular , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Córtex Insular/fisiologia , Córtex Insular/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Atenção/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem
20.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 126(3): 413-430, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38647441

RESUMO

Many important personal goals, such as health, career, finances, and social relationships, entail repeatedly performing the same (or similar) actions over time (e.g., to exercise daily or save money weekly). When pursuing such ongoing goals, people are likely to accumulate multiple experiences of goal conflict (e.g., multiple occasions when one failed to exercise or save as intended). How might these past experiences of goal conflict inform expectations about future goal pursuit? This research examines how the perceived relationship among past conflicts with a focal goal-in particular, perceived variety-shapes expectations. Perceived variety refers to the holistic assessment of differentiation (vs. similarity) among items in an assortment. Six studies demonstrate that perceiving greater variety among past conflicts with a focal goal decreases expectations of encountering conflict in the future. This occurs because perceiving greater variety makes the causes of past events seem collectively unstable (i.e., more temporary and one-off). Consequently, holding constant the number and content of past events, perceiving greater variety among past conflicts with a focal goal reduces expected goal conflict. Further, considering past events that prompt (i.e., motivate) less (vs. more) engagement in causal search (i.e., events that are less self-relevant, or positive) attenuates perceived variety's effects. The findings contribute to understanding of goal conflict, variety and similarity, and forecasting in goal pursuit. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Conflito Psicológico , Objetivos , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Motivação
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