AssuntosConflitos Armados , Medicina na Literatura , Poesia como Assunto
AssuntosEnsaios Clínicos como Assunto , Neoplasias , Refugiados , Humanos , Conflitos Armados , Federação Russa , Ucrânia
AssuntosConflitos Armados , Guerra , Humanos
BACKGROUND: Armed conflict is on the rise in sub-Saharan Africa and affects public infrastructures, including health systems, although evidence on population health is sparse. We aimed to establish how these disruptions ultimately affect health service coverage. METHODS: We geospatially matched Demographic and Health Survey data with the Uppsala Conflict Data Program Georeferenced Events Dataset, covering 35 countries for the period from 1990 to 2020. We relied on linear probability models with fixed effects to capture the effect of nearby armed conflict (within 50 km of the survey cluster) on four service coverage indicators along the continuum of maternal and child health care. We also investigated effect heterogeneity by varying conflict intensity and duration, and sociodemographic status. FINDINGS: The estimated coefficients represent the decrease in the probability (in percentage points) of the child or their mother being covered by the respective health service following deadly conflicts within 50 km. Any nearby armed conflict was associated with reduced coverage for all examined health services, with the exception of early antenatal care: early antenatal care (-0·5 percentage points, 95% CI -1·1 to 0·1), facility-based delivery (-2·0, -2·5 to -1·4), timely childhood vaccination (-2·5, -3·1 to -1·9), and treatment of common childhood illnesses (-2·5, -3·5 to -1·4). For all four health services, the negative effects increased for high-intensity conflicts and were significant throughout. When examining conflict duration, we did not find negative effects on the treatment of common childhood illnesses in prolonged conflicts. The analysis on effect heterogeneity revealed that, except for timely childhood vaccination, the negative effects of armed conflict on health service coverage were more pronounced in urban settings. INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that health service coverage is significantly affected by contemporaneous conflict, but health systems can adapt to provide routine services, such as child curative services, in situations of prolonged conflict. Our analysis underlines the importance of studying health service coverage during conflict both at the finest possible scales and across different indicators, pointing at the need for differential policy interventions. FUNDING: None. TRANSLATIONS: For the French and Portuguese translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.
AssuntosServiços de Saúde da Criança , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , África Subsaariana , Mães , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Conflitos Armados
Destruction could open the door to management reforms.
AssuntosConflitos Armados , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Florestas , Ucrânia
INTRODUCTION: Conflict, fragility and political violence, that are taking place in many countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region have devastating effects on health. Digital health technologies can contribute to enhancing the quality, accessibility and availability of health care services in fragile and conflict-affected states of the MENA region. To inform future research, investments and policy processes, this scoping review aims to map out the evidence on digital health in fragile states in the MENA region. METHOD: We conducted a scoping review following the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) guidelines. We conducted descriptive analysis of the general characteristics of the included papers and thematic analysis of the key findings of included studies categorized by targeted primary users of different digital health intervention. RESULTS: Out of the 10,724 articles identified, we included 93 studies. The included studies mainly focused on digital health interventions targeting healthcare providers, clients and data services, while few studies focused on health systems or organizations managers. Most of the included studies were observational studies (49%). We identified no systematic reviews. Most of the studies were conducted in Lebanon (32%) followed by Afghanistan (13%) and Palestine (12%). The first authors were mainly affiliated with institutions from countries outside the MENA region (57%), mainly United Kingdom and United States. Digital health interventions provided a platform for training, supervision, and consultation for health care providers, continuing education for medical students, and disease self-management. The review also highlighted some implementation considerations for the adoption of digital health such as computer literacy, weak technological infrastructure, and privacy concerns. CONCLUSION: This review showed that digital health technologies can provide promising solutions in addressing health needs in fragile and conflict-affected states. However, rigorous evaluation of digital technologies in fragile settings and humanitarian crises are needed to inform their design and deployment.
AssuntosTecnologia Biomédica , Humanos , África do Norte , Conflitos Armados , Oriente Médio
BACKGROUND: Gender-based violence (GBV) is a common human right violence in conflict-affected communities. Women with GBV are prone to experience mental health problems such as post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety. However, there is a paucity of evidence as to what extent the problem is affecting internally displaced women (IDW) in Ethiopia. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of GBV and its associated factors among IDW in Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among IDW residing at three humanitarian sites from May to June 2022 in Northwest Ethiopia. Study participants were selected using a stratified simple random sampling technique from the three sites. GBV was assessed using a 6-item Assessment Screen to Identify Survivors Toolkit questionnaire for Gender-based violence (ASIST-GBV). Data were analyzed using binary logistic regression. All variables with a p-value of ≤ 0.05 in the multivariable analysis were defined to have a statistically significant association with GBV at a 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Of 424 approached candidates, 412 (97.2%) of them participated in the study. A one-year prevalence of GBV was 37.9% (95%CI = 33.2-42.6) among IDW in Northwest Ethiopia. The mean age of the participants was 31.3 (± 7.6) years. Young women, 18-24 years old (AOR = 3.52, 95%CI = 2.15-5.34, p ≤ 0.001) and 25-29 years old (AOR = 2.41, 95%CI = 1.57-3.24, p ≤ 0.001) had a statistically significant association with GBV. Moreover, having no social protection (AOR = 3.18, 95%CI = 2.65-6.22, p ≤ 0.001), being current alcohol user (AOR = 2.54, 95%CI = 1.22-4.78, p ≤ 0.001) and being single in marital status (AOR = 1.69, 95%CI = 1.18-2.87, p < 0.01) showed a statistical association with GBV. CONCLUSION: We found a high prevalence of GBV among IDW in Northwest Ethiopia which indicates that IDW are prone to GBV. We call for immediate action and special attention to young women in conflict-affected parts of Ethiopia. It is crucial to establish a system that ensures the safety, security, and well-being of women in humanitarian settings.
AssuntosViolência de Gênero , Refugiados , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Ansiedade , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Violência de Gênero/psicologia , Prevalência , Refugiados/psicologia , Conflitos Armados , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Depressão
India has been a part of 5 major wars since its independence in 1947 and hosts over 212,413 refugees from Sri Lanka, Tibet and Bangladesh. So, a wide spectrum of trauma survivors, both civilian and military, live in this country and require mental healthcare. We discuss the psychological impact of armed conflict and how the country and culture tint it uniquely. We not only explore the current scene but the resources available and what can be done to make such vulnerable parts of the Indian population feel safer.
The spectrum of victims of armed conflict in India and the impact on their mental health.The current deficient governmental and non-governmental psychosocial support available.Recommendations for optimum management of these trauma victims through programmes and individual therapy.
AssuntosRefugiados , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Emoções , Refugiados/psicologia , Conflitos Armados , Índia
2022 was a year of crises, not just one but multiple intersecting crises that caused traumatic stress in billions of people worldwide. COVID-19 is still not over. New wars have started, and the climate change impact is bigger than ever. Will the Anthropocene be an era of continued crises? This past year the European Journal of Psychotraumatology (EJPT) has again tried to contribute to how to prevent or treat the consequences of these major crises as well as other events and we will continue to do so the year to come. For instance, we will have special issues or collections addressing these big issues, such as climate change and traumatic stress, or early intervention after trauma or in times of conflict. In this editorial, we also present the past year's excellent journal metrics regarding reach, impact, and quality and the ESTSS EJPT award finalists for best paper of 2022 and look forward to 2023.
2022 was a year of multiple intersecting crises causing traumatic stress to billions of people around the world.European Journal of Psychotraumatology (EJPT) aims to contribute to how to understand, prevent or treat the consequences of these major crises.EJPT's editorial team again achieved excellent journal metrics regarding reach, impact, and quality in 2022.
AssuntosTranstornos de Estresse Traumático , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Mudança Climática , Conflitos Armados , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto
BACKGROUND: The decade-long Syrian armed conflict killed or injured more than 11% of the Syrian population. Head and neck injuries are the most frequent cause of war-related trauma, about half of which are brain injuries. Reports about Syrian brain trauma victims were published from neighboring countries; However, none are available from Syrian hospitals. This study aims to report war-related traumatic brain injuries from the Syrian capital. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study between 2014 and 2017 at Damascus Hospital, the largest public hospital in Damascus, Syria. Target patients were the victims of combat-related traumatic brain injuries who arrived alive and were admitted to the neurosurgery department or to another department but followed by the neurosurgery team. The collected data included the mechanism, type, and site of injury based on imaging findings; types of invasive interventions; intensive-care unit (ICU) admissions; as well as neurological status at admission and discharge including several severity scales. RESULTS: Our sample consisted of 195 patients; Ninety-six of them were male young adults, in addition to 40 females and 61 children. Injuries were caused by shrapnel in 127 (65%) cases, and by gunshots in the rest, and most of them (91%) were penetrating. Sixty-eight patients (35%) were admitted to the ICU, and 56 (29%) underwent surgery. Neurological impairment was reported in 49 patients (25%) at discharge, and the mortality rate during hospitalization was 33%. Mortality and neurological impairment associated significantly with higher values on clinical and imaging severity scores. CONCLUSIONS: This study captured the full spectrum of war-related brain injuries of civilians and armed personnel in Syria without the delay required to transport patients to neighboring countries. Although the clinical presentation of injuries at admission was not as severe as that in previous reports, the inadequate resources (i.e., ventilators and operation rooms) and the lack of previous experience with similar injuries might have resulted in the higher mortality rate. Clinical and imaging severity scales can provide a handy tool in identifying cases with low probability of survival especially with the shortage of personal and physical resources.
AssuntosLesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Lesões Relacionadas à Guerra , Criança , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Masculino , Lesões Relacionadas à Guerra/epidemiologia , Lesões Relacionadas à Guerra/cirurgia , Síria/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/epidemiologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/etiologia , Conflitos Armados
Objetivo: analizar la forma en que los sentimientos y la recuperación de la memoria colectiva, posibilitan la disminución de la fragilidad social y política de los integrantes de la Misión Médica, haciendo factible nuevas maneras de participación, mediante el desarrollo de capacidades deliberativas desde la perspectiva bioética. Metodología: estudio exploratorio con enfoque cualitativo, que toma en cuenta la subjetividad e intersubjetividad de los participantes. Con fuentes de información heterogénea: grupos focales, entrevistas semiestructuradas y cartillas de campo, se constituyó un marco de factores relevantes, que permitieron procesar la información, mediante relaciones y categorizaciones conceptuales,para su posterior triangulación. Resultados: los sentimientos con mayor impacto ético en Misión Médica: incertidumbre, inseguridad ante el trabajo, ansiedad por los hechos de violencia, tristeza, temor, miedo e impotencia; producen efectos emocionales relacionados con el principio de maleficencia. La resiliencia, ha impedido realizar ejercicios de memoria colectiva, a causa del negacionismo y temor a recordar los hechos más significativos, esto les ha impedido el acceso a los mecanismos de Justicia Restaurativa. La ausencia de capacidades para afrontar la situación compromete la autonomía individual, la salud laboral y genera carencias legales no resueltas. Conclusiones: los sentimientos colectivos en el ámbito público del personal sanitario prevalecen sobre los sentimientos individuales basados en vivencias, que afectan la capacidad de deliberación, esto implica promover ejercicios de memoria colectiva, sobre los hechos del conflicto, mediante el desarrollo de capacidades que fortalezcan la legitima defensade su autonomía y el desarrollo de un ejercicio profesional beneficiente, ante situaciones limítrofes de confrontación.(AU)
Objectiu: analitzar la manera com els sentiments i la recuperació de la memòria col·lectiva, possibiliten la disminució de la fragilitat social i política dels integrants de la Missió Mèdica, fent factible noves maneres de participació, mitjançant el desenvolupament de capacitats deliberatives des de la perspectiva bioètica. Metodologia: estudi exploratori amb enfocament qualitatiu, que té en compte la subjectivitat i la intersubjectivitat dels participants. Amb fonts d'informació heterogènia: grups focals, entrevistes semiestructurades i cartilles de camp, es va constituir un marc de factors rellevants, que van permetre processar la informació, mitjançant relacions i categoritzacions conceptuals, per triangular-les posteriorment. Resultats: els sentiments amb més impacte ètic a Missió Mèdica: incertesa, inseguretat davant la feina, ansietat pels fets de violència, tristesa, temor, por i impotència; produeixen efectes emocionals relacionats amb el principi de maleficència. La resiliència, ha impedit fer exercicis de memòria col·lectiva, a causa del negacionisme i temor de recordar els fets més significatius, això els ha impedit l'accés als mecanismes de Justícia Restaurativa. L'absència de capacitats per fer fronta la situació compromet l'autonomia individual, la salut laboral i genera mancances legals no resoltes. Conclusions: els sentiments col·lectius en l'àmbit públic del personal sanitari prevalen sobre els sentiments individuals basats en vivències, que afecten la capacitat de deliberació, això implica promoure exercicis de memòria col·lectiva, sobre els fets del conflicte, mitjançant el desenvolupament de capacitats que enforteixin la legítima defensa de la seva autonomia i el desenvolupament d'un exercici professional beneficient, davant de situacions limítrofes de confrontació.(AU)
Objective: to analyze the way in which feelings and the recovery of collective memory make it possible to reduce the social and political fragility of the members of the Medical Mission, making new ways of participation feasible, through the development ofdeliberative capacities from a bioethical perspective. Methodology: exploratory study with qualitative approach, which considers the subjectivity and intersubjectivity of the participants. With heterogeneous sources of information: focus groups, semi-structured interviews and field primers, a framework of relevant factors was constituted, which allowed processing the information, through conceptual relationships and categorizations, for its subsequent triangulation. Results: the feelings with the greatest ethical impact in Mission Medical: uncertainty, insecurity at work, anxiety due to acts of violence, sadness, fear, fear, and impotence; produce emotional effects related to the principle of maleficence. Resilience has prevented them from carrying out collective memory exercises, due to denial and fear of remembering the most significant events, which has prevented them from accessing Restorative Justice mechanisms. The absence of capacities to face the situation compromises individual autonomy, occupational health and generates unresolved legal shortcomings. Conclusions: collective feelings in the public sphere of health personnel prevail over individual feelings based on experiences, which affect the capacity for deliberation, this implies promoting exercises of historical memory on the facts of the conflict, through the development of capacities that strengthen the legitimate defense of their autonomy and the development of a beneficial professional exercise, in the face of borderline situations of confrontation.(AU)
AssuntosHumanos , Conflitos Armados , Emoções , Fragilidade , Missões Médicas , Resiliência Psicológica , Justiça Social , Direitos Humanos , Pessoal de Saúde , Colômbia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Temas Bioéticos
BACKGROUND: Undernutrition is defined as not consuming enough nutrients and energy to meet one's needs for maintaining good health. It is exacerbated by armed conflict. Individuals cannot stick to jobs because of a lack of safety during conflicts, which has an impact on families' ability to purchase food. However, there is a paucity of evidence on pooled evidence on the impact of armed conflict on childhood undernutrition among children aged 6 to 59 months in Africa. Therefore, this review aimed to examine the effects of armed conflict on the magnitude of undernutrition, particularly stunting, underweight, and wasting among children in Africa. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted using electronic databases (PubMed, Hinari, and Google Scholar database) to locate potential studies. Heterogeneity between studies was checked using Cochrane Q test statistics and I2 test statistics. Small-study effects were checked using Egger's statistical test at a 5% significance level. A random-effects model was employed to estimate the pooled prevalence and associated factors of undernutrition among children aged 6-59 months in Africa. RESULTS: Of a total of 585 articles retrieved from the databases, 12 studies met our inclusion criteria. The pooled prevalence of wasting, stunting, and being underweight among conflict-affected African countries was 20.25% (95%CI = 15.08-25.43), 34.18% (95% CI = 26.34-42.02), and 24.00% (95%CI = 16.35-31.65), respectively. The most consistent factors associated with childhood stunting, wasting, and being underweight in Africa were low mother's education, prolonged duration of armed conflict, and rural place of residence. CONCLUSION: The severity of malnutrition crises will be assisted by a better understanding of the variables associated with child malnutrition, which will improve the effectiveness of development and humanitarian responses. We urge that health planners, policymakers, and the general public prioritize children with acute malnutrition in Africa's conflict-affected areas. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42022367487.
AssuntosDesnutrição , Síndrome de Emaciação , Criança , Humanos , Magreza/epidemiologia , Magreza/etiologia , Síndrome de Emaciação/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Emaciação/complicações , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/complicações , África/epidemiologia , Conflitos Armados , Prevalência
It is well established that women's sexual and reproductive health (SRHR) is negatively affected by war. While global health research often emphasises infrastructure and systematic factors as key impediments to women's SRHR in war and postwar contexts, reports from different armed conflicts indicate that women's reproduction may be controlled both by state and other armed actors, limiting women's choices and access to maternal and reproductive health care even when these are available. In addition, it is important to examine and trace disparities in sexual reproductive health access and uptake within different types of wars, recognising gendered differences in war and postwar contexts. Adding feminist perspectives on war to global health research explanations of how war affects women's sexual and reproductive health might then contribute to further understanding the complexity of the different gendered effects war and armed conflicts have on women's sexual and reproductive health.
AssuntosSaúde Reprodutiva , Comportamento Sexual , Feminino , Humanos , Feminismo , Reprodução , Conflitos Armados
The last 4 decades of conflict in Afghanistan resulted in incalculable deaths, injuries, and millions of displacements. Although there are routine reports on casualties of the warfare, the information on its long-term psycho-social sequelae is somehow discounted. This study aimed to assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) probability and its associated factors among parents who live in Kandahar, the southern province of Afghanistan, and lost at least one child to armed conflict. We conducted a health-facility-based cross-sectional study involving 474 bereaved parents in Kandahar province from November/2020 to January/2021. The questionnaire was composed of sections on socio-demographic characteristics and mental and medical histories of the parent, features of the traumatic event and the time elapsed since then, age and gender of the lost child, and PCL-5. We performed multivariable logistic analysis to determine factors associated with PTSD probability in such parents. A staggering number of the parents (430; 90.72%) scored > 33 on PCL-5 denoting presence of probable PTSD. We noticed that several attributes of the bereaved parents (rural residence [AOR = 3.71 (95% CI 1.37-9.97)], older age [AOR = 2.41 (95% CI 1.03-5.57)], experiencing more than one traumatic event [AOR = 2.91 (95% CI 1.05-7.94)], pre-existing medical condition [AOR = 3.5 (95% CI 1.55-8.05)], and losing a < 5-years-old child [AOR = 2.38 (95% CI 1.16-4.70)] were significantly associated with PTSD probability. We assert that a very high number of bereaved parents are susceptible to probable PTSD. This finding signifies the eminent necessity of mental health services in such settings and provides implicit insights to relevant humanitarian assistance providers.
AssuntosTranstornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Afeganistão , Estudos Transversais , Pais , Conflitos Armados
War is an understudied and yet significant contributor to disease outbreaks, necessitating approaches incorporating conflicts into disease studies. We discuss mechanisms by which war affects disease dynamics, and supply an illustrative example. Lastly, we provide relevant data sources and pathways for incorporating metrics of armed conflict into disease ecology.
AssuntosConflitos Armados , Guerra , Ecologia
AssuntosConflitos Armados , Saúde Pública , Humanos , Federação Russa , Ucrânia
Civilian casualties from armed conflicts have increased, such that 90% of deaths from armed conflicts in the first decade of the 21st century have been civilians, a significant number of whom are children. The acute and chronic effects of armed conflict on child health and well-being are among the most significant children's rights violations of the 21st century. Children are increasingly exposed to armed conflict and targeted by governmental and non-governmental combatants. Despite International Human Rights and Humanitarian laws and multiple international declarations, conventions, treaties and courts, injury and death of children due to armed conflicts have worsened over the decades. It is critically important that a concerted effort be undertaken to address and rectify this issue. Toward this end, the Internal Society of Social Pediatrics and Chid Health (ISSOP) and others have called for a renewed commitment to children experiencing armed conflict with an immediate call to implement a new UN Humanitarian Response on Child Casualties in Armed Conflict.