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1.
Arch Virol ; 168(1): 7, 2022 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36542124

RESUMO

A number of viruses have recently been discovered in all major fungal phyla using high-throughput sequencing. However, basal fungi remain among the least-explored organisms with respect to the presence of mycoviruses. In this study, we characterized two mycoviruses coinfecting the basal fungus Conidiobolus adiaeretus, which we have named "Conidiobolus adiaeretus totivirus 1" (CaTV1) and "Conidiobolus adiaeretus totivirus 2" (CaTV2). Due to their similar sizes, the genomic RNAs of these two viruses comigrated as a single band in 1.5% agarose gel electrophoresis but could be distinguished and characterized by next-generation sequencing and RT-PCR. Like those of other totiviruses, the genomes of both CaTV1 and CaTV2 have two discontinuous open reading frames: ORF1 and ORF2, encoding a putative capsid protein and a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), respectively. The RdRps of CaTV1 and CaTV2 have 62.73% and 63.76% amino acid sequence identity, respectively, to Wuhan insect virus 26 and have 62.15% amino acid sequence identity to each other. A maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree based on RdRp amino acid sequences showed that both CaTV1 and CaTV2 clustered in a clade with members of the genus Totivirus. Therefore, we propose that CaTV1 and CaTV2 are two new members of the genus Totivirus in the family Totiviridae.


Assuntos
Conidiobolus , Micovírus , Totivirus , Totivirus/genética , Filogenia , Conidiobolus/genética , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Genoma Viral , RNA Viral/genética , RNA de Cadeia Dupla , Micovírus/genética
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13641, 2022 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35948615

RESUMO

Mycoses are a global problem that affects humans and animals. In the present study, the entomopathogenic soil fungus Conidiobolus coronatus (Entomophthorales), infecting in tropics also humans, sheep and horses, was cultivated with the addition of insect cuticular compounds (CCs) previously detected in the cuticle of C. coronatus-resistant fly species (C10-C30 fatty alcohols, butyl oleate, butyl stearate, glycerol oleate, squalene, tocopherol acetate). Our findings indicate that CCs have diversified and complex effects on the growth and sporulation of C. coronatus and its ability to infect the larvae of Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera). The CCs affected protein content and cuticle-degrading enzymes (CDEs) activity in the conidia. Some CCs inhibited fungal growth (0.1% C10), decreased sporulation (C12, C16, C24, C28, C30, butyl stearate, squalene), virulence (C12, C14, butyl oleate, butyl stearate) and protein content (C18). They also reduced conidial CDE activity: elastase (C24, butyl oleate, butyl stearate, squalene, tocopherol acetate), chitobiosidase (C12, C14, C20) and lipase (C12, C18, C26, squalene, tocopherol acetate). Several CCs enhanced sporulation (C14, C18, C22, C26, C30), virulence (C18, C26, squalene), conidial protein content (C16, C24, C30, squalene) and CDE activity: elastase (C10, C16, C18), NAGase (C16, C20), chitobiosidase (C16) and lipase (C10, C14, C16, C20, butyl oleate). Our findings indicate that C. coronatus colonies grown on media supplemented with CCs employ various compensation strategies: colonies grown with C16 alcohol demonstrated reduced sporulation but greater conidial protein accumulation and increased elastase, NAGase, chitobiosidase and lipase activity, thus preserving high virulence. Also, colonies supplemented with C18 alcohol demonstrated high virulence and enhanced sporulation and elastase activity but slightly decreased conidial protein content. CCs that inhibit the activity of lipases and proteases show promise in the fight against conidiobolomycosis.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Zigomicose , Acetilglucosaminidase/metabolismo , Animais , Conidiobolus , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Cavalos , Humanos , Insetos/metabolismo , Lipase/metabolismo , Ácido Oleico/metabolismo , Ácido Oleico/farmacologia , Elastase Pancreática/metabolismo , Ovinos , Esporos Fúngicos/metabolismo , Esqualeno/metabolismo , alfa-Tocoferol/metabolismo
3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 122: 710-711, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35803472

RESUMO

Entomophthoramycosis can be found in subtropical and tropical regions. This case illustrates common clinical features of conidiobolomycosis. Although this disease is not common, physicians working in these regions should be familiar with the clinical manifestations to enable early diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Conidiobolus , Zigomicose , Humanos , Tela Subcutânea , Zigomicose/diagnóstico , Zigomicose/tratamento farmacológico
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(9)2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35563592

RESUMO

The food flavour additive octanoic acid (C8:0) is also a metabolite of the entomopathogenic fungus Conidiobolus coronatus, which efficiently infects and rapidly kills Galleria mellonella. GC-MS analysis confirmed the presence of C8:0 in insecticidal fraction FR3 extracted from C. coronatus filtrate. Topical administration of C8:0 had a dose-dependent effect on survival rates of larvae but not on pupation or adult eclosion times of the survivors. Topically applied C8:0 was more toxic to adults than larvae (LD100 for adults 18.33 ± 2.49 vs. 33.56 ± 2.57 µg/mg of body mass for larvae). The administration of C8:0 on the cuticle of larvae and adults, in amounts corresponding to their LD50 and LD100 doses, had a considerable impact on the two main defense systems engaged in protecting against pathogens, causing serious changes in the developmental-stage-specific profiles of free fatty acids (FFAs) covering the cuticle of larvae and adults and damaging larval hemocytes. In vitro cultures of G. mellonella hemocytes, either directly treated with C8:0 or taken from C8:0 treated larvae, revealed deformation of hemocytes, disordered networking, late apoptosis, and necrosis, as well as caspase 1-9 activation and elevation of 8-OHdG level. C8:0 was also confirmed to have a cytotoxic effect on the SF-9 insect cell line, as determined by WST-1 and LDH tests.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Lepidópteros , Mariposas , Animais , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Caprilatos/farmacologia , Conidiobolus , Hemócitos/metabolismo , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva/metabolismo , Lepidópteros/microbiologia , Mariposas/microbiologia
5.
Pediatr Dermatol ; 39(1): 149-150, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34935187

RESUMO

Conidiobolomycosis caused by Conidiobolus species is an uncommon infection restricted to tropical and subtropical regions, usually affecting immunocompetent individuals. More than half of pediatric cases of conidiobolomycosis across the globe are from India. We report a case of subcutaneous conidiobolomycosis in an adolescent with development delay who responded to combined therapy with itraconazole and saturated solution of potassium iodide.


Assuntos
Conidiobolus , Zigomicose , Adolescente , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Humanos , Itraconazol/uso terapêutico , Zigomicose/diagnóstico , Zigomicose/tratamento farmacológico
6.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 186: 107685, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673044

RESUMO

Conidiobolus lunulus is a recently described entomophthoralean species isolated from leaf-cutter ants. This fungus discharges not only primary but also secondary conidia and microconidia of different shapes. Because nothing was known about the biology of the fungus, and its interactions with hosts, we first evaluated if its pathogenicity against leaf-cutter ants changes with the fungal age (time grown in vitro), and if it is related to the conidial structures produced. Afterwards, we tested its virulence at three combinations of temperature and relative humidity. In addition, we noted all visible causes of death by recovering different microorganisms from the dead, non-sterilized, ants to evaluate C. lunulus virulence when pathogens carried naturally by the ants were present. Finally, we used the conditions that lead to the highest mortality to evaluate fungal virulence to other host species, including non-leaf-cutter ants. Results indicated that C. lunulus was pathogenic from a culture age of 1 to 5 days, with a peak at 2-days-old, from which we registered median lethal times of 1-2 days and 85% of the cadavers with fungal conidiation. Our results suggest that primary conidia and moon-shaped microconidia were infective. Evaluations of mortality using 2-days-old cultures on several leaf-cutter ant colonies showed 1) significantly faster mortality of C. lunulus inoculated ants in comparison to controls, 2) significantly greater and faster mortality at 23.7 °C than at 21.2 °C, 3) significantly higher and faster mortality at 88% than at 57% RH, and 4) a significant reduction of other pathogens in C. lunulus inoculated ants in comparison to controls. C. lunulus was highly specific to leaf-cutter ants, as hardly any increase in mortality was observed on inoculated ants, and no conidia were recorded on cadavers of the other three non-leaf-cutter ant species tested. Our results highlight that C. lunulus is a very promising biological control agent against leaf-cutter ants.


Assuntos
Formigas/microbiologia , Conidiobolus/classificação , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Animais , Conidiobolus/patogenicidade , Conidiobolus/fisiologia , Virulência
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15963, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354188

RESUMO

One group of promising pest control agents are the entomopathogenic fungi; one such example is Conidiobolus coronatus, which produces a range of metabolites. Our present findings reveal for the first time that C. coronatus also produces dodecanol, a compound widely used to make surfactants and pharmaceuticals, and enhance flavors in food. The main aim of the study was to determine the influence of dodecanol on insect defense systems, i.e. cuticular lipid composition and the condition of insect immunocompetent cells; hence, its effect was examined in detail on two species differing in susceptibility to fungal infection: Galleria mellonella and Calliphora vicina. Dodecanol treatment elicited significant quantitative and qualitative differences in cuticular free fatty acid (FFA) profiles between the species, based on gas chromatography analysis with mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and had a negative effect on G. mellonella and C. vicina hemocytes and a Sf9 cell line in vitro: after 48 h, almost all the cells were completely disintegrated. The metabolite had a negative effect on the insect defense system, suggesting that it could play an important role during C. coronatus infection. Its high insecticidal activity and lack of toxicity towards vertebrates suggest it could be an effective insecticide.


Assuntos
Conidiobolus/metabolismo , Dodecanol/metabolismo , Dodecanol/farmacologia , Animais , Calliphoridae , Conidiobolus/química , Conidiobolus/patogenicidade , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Fungos/química , Fungos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Hemócitos/metabolismo , Imunidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Insetos/metabolismo , Inseticidas , Larva/metabolismo , Mariposas/metabolismo
8.
Virulence ; 12(1): 1705-1716, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167451

RESUMO

Virulence attenuation frequently occurs in in vitro culturing of pathogenic microbes. In this study, we investigated the total putative long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in an aphid-obligate pathogen, Conidiobolus obscurus, and screened the differentially expressed (DE) lncRNAs and protein-coding genes involved in the virulence decline. The virulence was significantly attenuated after eight subculturing events, in which the median lethal concentration of the conidia ejected from mycelial mats relative to the bamboo aphid, Takecallis taiwanus, increased from 36.1 to 126.1 conidia mm-2, four days after inoculation. In total, 1,252 lncRNAs were identified based on the genome-wide transcriptional analysis. By characterizing their molecular structures and expression patterns, we found that the lncRNAs possessed shorter transcripts, lower expression, and fewer exons than did protein-coding genes in C. obscurus. A total of 410 DE genes of 329 protein-coding genes and 81 lncRNAs were identified. The functional enrichment analysis showed the DE genes were enriched in peptidase activity, protein folding, autophagy, and metabolism. Moreover, target prediction analysis of the 81 lncRNAs revealed 3,111 cis-regulated and 23 trans-regulated mRNAs, while 121 DE lncRNA-mRNA pairs were possibly involved in virulence decline. Moreover, the DE lncRNA-regulated target genes mainly encoded small heat shock proteins, secretory proteins, transporters, autophagy proteins, and other stress response-related proteins. This implies that the decline in virulence regulated by lncRNAs was likely associated with the environmental stress response of C. obscurus. Hence, these findings can provide insights into the lncRNA molecules of Entomophthoromycotina, with regards to virulence regulators of entomopathogens.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Conidiobolus , RNA Longo não Codificante , Virulência/genética , Animais , Afídeos/microbiologia , Conidiobolus/genética , Conidiobolus/patogenicidade , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , RNA Fúngico/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética
9.
Arch Virol ; 166(6): 1801-1804, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33866414

RESUMO

Mycoviruses are widely distributed in fungi, but only a few mycoviruses have been reported in basal fungi to date. Here, we characterized a novel totivirus isolated from the basal fungus Conidiobolus heterosporus, and we designated this virus as "Conidiobolus heterosporus totivirus 1" (ChTV1). The complete genome of ChTV1 contains two discontinuous open reading frames (ORFs), ORF1 and ORF2, encoding a putative coat protein (CP) and a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on RdRP sequences showed that ChTV1 clustered with members of the genus Totivirus. The RdRP of ChTV1 has 51% sequence identity to that of Trichoderma koningiopsis totivirus 1 (TkTV1), which is the highest among mycoviruses. However, TkTV1 formed a distinct cluster with Wuhan insect virus 27, with 63% RdRP sequence identity, although Wuhan insect virus 27 has not been described, and its host represents a different kingdom. Therefore, we propose that ChTV1 is a new member of the genus Totivirus, family Totiviridae.


Assuntos
Conidiobolus/virologia , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Totivirus/genética , Genoma Viral , Totivirus/isolamento & purificação
10.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 39(4): 558-560, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892974

RESUMO

Conidiobolomycosis is a neglected tropical fungal infection involving the head and neck region. Here we report the first case of atypical conidiobolomycosis presenting with dysphagia and significant weight loss from Odisha, India. It was diagnosed by histopathology and fungal culture and was suscessfully treated with saturated solution of potassium iodide.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição , Zigomicose , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Conidiobolus , Transtornos de Deglutição/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Humanos , Índia , Zigomicose/diagnóstico , Zigomicose/tratamento farmacológico
11.
Mycoses ; 64(8): 882-889, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conidiobolomycosis is a rare tropical rhinofacial fungal infection which has not been well characterised. The available evidence in its management is sparse due to lack of clinical studies and the limited data on antifungal susceptibility patterns. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the clinical manifestations, antifungal treatment and outcomes of patients with conidiobolomycosis and to determine antifungal susceptibility profiles of the isolates. PATIENTS/METHODS: Retrospective analysis of data of all patients with a diagnosis of conidiobolomycosis confirmed by histopathology and culture at a tertiary care hospital from 2012 to 2019 was done. RESULTS: There were 22 patients, 21 males and one female, with a mean age of 37.1 years. Most common presenting symptom was nasal obstruction, found in 20 (90.90%) patients. Patients who presented within 12 months had a better cure rate (85%) compared to those who presented late (67%). Among the 19 patients who had a follow-up, good outcome was seen in 15 of the 17 (88.24%) patients who were on itraconazole or potassium iodide containing regimen. Of the six patients who received additional trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole), 67% showed good outcome with two patients showing complete cure and two patients still on treatment with significant improvement. High minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were noted for azoles and amphotericin B, whereas co-trimoxazole showed lowest MIC ranges. CONCLUSION: Itraconazole and potassium iodide are reasonable first-line options for the treatment of conidiobolomycosis. Good clinical response to KI and comparatively lower MIC of co-trimoxazole are promising. Further studies are required for developing clinical breakpoints that can predict therapeutic outcomes.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Conidiobolus/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Raras/microbiologia , Zigomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Zigomicose/microbiologia , Adulto , Gerenciamento Clínico , Face/microbiologia , Face/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Nasais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Nasais/microbiologia , Doenças Raras/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(2): 686-692, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is a destructive pest on Pinus trees and lacks effective control measures. The present study identified a novel nematotoxic cytolytic (Cyt)-like protein originating from the entomopathogenic fungus Conidiobolus obscurus. RESULTS: The protein was successfully purified using heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and affinity chromatography. N-hydroxysuccinimide-rhodamine-labeled Cyt-like protein was used to establish the route of toxin uptake, and revealed that the toxin can enter the nematode via the stylet. In bioassays, the purified protein had high nematicide activity against B. xylophilus, with a median lethal concentration at 24 h of 15.8 and 29.4 µg mL-1 for juveniles and adults, respectively. Compared with the deionized water control, fecundity, thrashing, and egg hatching were significantly reduced by 97%, 98%, and 83%, respectively, with 40 µg mL-1 Cyt-like protein at 24-36 h. Staining with Oil-Red-O showed a decrease in large lipid droplet formation in the protein-treated adult nematodes. CONCLUSION: The Cyt-like protein toxin possesses high nematicide activity against B. xylophilus with effects on nematode vitality and fecundity. The potential exists to use the Cyt-like protein for the control of B. xylophilus.


Assuntos
Pinus , Tylenchida , Animais , Conidiobolus , Fungos , Xylophilus
14.
Ear Nose Throat J ; 100(5_suppl): 835S-841S, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204618

RESUMO

Conidiobolomycosis is an uncommon, chronic, localized subcutaneous mycosis primarily affecting rhinofacial region. It is reported mainly from tropical and subtropical countries. The condition is underreported due to the lack of clinical suspicion and usually mismanaged. This rare mycosis is due to the genus Conidiobolus within the order Entomophthorales of class Zygomycetes. Here we present 3 cases of rhinofacial conidiobolomycosis in otherwise healthy adults from different parts of Sri Lanka over 1-year period. All patients had disfiguring subcutaneous lesions in the rhinofacial area. The diagnoses were based on isolation of Conidiobolus coronatus in clinical specimens.


Assuntos
Conidiobolus/isolamento & purificação , Dermatomicoses/diagnóstico , Dermatoses Faciais/diagnóstico , Zigomicose/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Dermatomicoses/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Dermatomicoses/patologia , Dermatoses Faciais/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatoses Faciais/microbiologia , Dermatoses Faciais/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Nariz/microbiologia , Nariz/patologia , Zigomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Zigomicose/microbiologia , Zigomicose/patologia
15.
Mycologia ; 113(1): 56-64, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151805

RESUMO

Entomophthoralean fungi with pathogenic abilities to infect social insects are rare. Here, we describe a fungus isolated from leafcutter ants. Morphologically, the fungus has spherical primary conidia and two types of microconidia: one with the same shape as the primary conidia and another with an elliptical to half-moon shape. The fungus also produces villose conidia known previously only from Conidiobolus coronatus. A multilocus phylogenetic analysis was performed with nuc rDNA sequences from three regions (28S, 18S, and internal transcribed spacer [ITS]). Our isolates are distinguished as a new species, described here as Conidiobolus lunulus, and is more closely related to C. brefeldianus than to C. coronatus, despite the greater morphological resemblance to the latter. Morphological differences, unique phylogenetic placement, and isolation from an altogether new host support this finding. This is the first record of an entomophthoralean species isolated from leafcutter ants.


Assuntos
Formigas/microbiologia , Conidiobolus , Fungos/classificação , Animais , Classificação , Conidiobolus/classificação , Conidiobolus/genética , Conidiobolus/isolamento & purificação , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Genes Fúngicos , Filogenia , Esporos Fúngicos/classificação , Esporos Fúngicos/citologia , Esporos Fúngicos/genética , Esporos Fúngicos/isolamento & purificação
16.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06978, 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1351279

RESUMO

The present article presents cases of conidiobolomycosis in adult goats with clinical signs characterized by serous nasal discharge, dyspnea, apathy, and weight loss. Two goats were necropsied. Necropsy displayed increased volume on the sagittal section of the head and an ulcerated surface containing a yellow friable mass with irregular and granular consistency in the nasal septum and in the ventral nasal turbinate. One goat also presented lesions on the ear's skin and the right pelvic limb. Microscopically, lesions were characterized by multifocal granulomas with a central necrotic area containing non-stained fungal hyphae images surrounded by a granulomatous infiltrate. Samples of the lesions examined by immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction were positive for Conidiobolus lamprauges. This is the first report of conidiobolomycosis in goats, and the disease should be considered in the differential diagnoses for rhinitis and dermatitis in goats.(AU)


O presente artigo apresenta casos de conidiobolomicose em cabras adultas com sinais clínicos caracterizados por secreção nasal serosa, dispneia, apatia e perda de peso. Dois caprinos foram necropsiados. Na necropsia, em corte sagital da cabeça, foi observado aumento de volume e superfície ulcerada contendo massa amarela e friável com consistência irregular e granular no septo nasal e conchas nasais ventrais. Uma cabra apresentou também lesões na pele da orelha e no membro pélvico direito. Microscopicamente, as lesões foram caracterizadas por granulomas multifocais com área central de necrose, contendo imagens de hifas fúngicas não coradas, circundadas por infiltrado inflamatório granulomatoso. Amostras das lesões submetidas à imuno-histoquímica e reação em cadeia da polimerase foram positivas para Conidiobolus lamprauges. Este é o primeiro registro de conidiobolomicose em caprinos e deve ser considerado no diagnóstico diferencial de rinite e dermatite em caprinos.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cabras/microbiologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Redução de Peso , Rinite , Conidiobolus/patogenicidade , Dermatite , Septo Nasal , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
17.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 32(6): 826-834, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921278

RESUMO

We review herein infections by Conidiobolus spp., Cryptococcus spp., and Aspergillus spp. in sheep and goats. Conidiobolus spp. are common causes of rhinitis in sheep and are less frequent in goats, in which Conidiobolus spp. also cause skin lesions. Cryptococcus spp. cause rhinitis, meningitis, encephalitis, and pneumonia in goats, and are rarely observed in sheep. Aspergillus spp. may cause rhinitis in goats, and pneumonia and mastitis in sheep and goats. Gross and microscopic lesions caused by these 3 fungal infections may be similar to each other. The diagnosis of these diseases must be based on gross and microscopic lesions, coupled with detection of the agent by immunohistochemical, molecular, and/or culture-based methods.


Assuntos
Aspergilose/veterinária , Conidiobolus , Criptococose/veterinária , Zigomicose/veterinária , Animais , Aspergilose/microbiologia , Criptococose/microbiologia , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Cabras , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia
18.
Biomolecules ; 10(9)2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878262

RESUMO

The study aimed to test the hypothesis that monomethyl branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) and a lipid extract of Conidiobolus heterosporus (CHLE), rich in monomethyl BCFAs, are able to activate the nuclear transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). Rat Fao cells were incubated with the monomethyl BCFAs 12-methyltridecanoic acid (MTriA), 12-methyltetradecanoic acid (MTA), isopalmitic acid (IPA) and 14-methylhexadecanoic acid (MHD), and the direct activation of PPARalpha was evaluated by reporter gene assay using a PPARalpha responsive reporter gene. Furthermore, Fao cells were incubated with different concentrations of the CHLE and PPARalpha activation was also evaluated by using the reporter gene assay, and by determining the mRNA concentrations of selected PPARalpha target genes by real-time RT-PCR. The reporter gene assay revealed that IPA and the CHLE, but not MTriA, MHD and MTA, activate the PPARalpha responsive reporter gene. CHLE dose-dependently increased mRNA concentrations of the PPARalpha target genes acyl-CoA oxidase (ACOX1), cytochrome P450 4A1 (CYP4A1), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A) and solute carrier family 22 (organic cation/carnitine transporter), member 5 (SLC22A5). In conclusion, the monomethyl BCFA IPA is a potent PPARalpha activator. CHLE activates PPARalpha-dependent gene expression in Fao cells, an effect that is possibly mediated by IPA.


Assuntos
Conidiobolus/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Reporter , PPAR alfa/agonistas , Ratos
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 527, 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conidiobolus spp. (mainly C. coronatus) are the causal agents of rhino-facial conidiobolomycosis, a limited soft tissue infection, which is essentially observed in immunocompetent individuals from tropical areas. Rare cases of invasive conidiobolomycosis due to C. coronatus or other species (C.incongruus, C.lamprauges) have been reported in immunocompromised patients. We report here the first case of invasive pulmonary fungal infection due to Conidiobolus pachyzygosporus in a Swiss patient with onco-haematologic malignancy. CASE PRESENTATION: A 71 year-old female was admitted in a Swiss hospital for induction chemotherapy of acute myeloid leukemia. A chest CT performed during the neutropenic phase identified three well-circumscribed lung lesions consistent with invasive fungal infection, along with a positive 1,3-beta-d-glucan assay in serum. A transbronchial biopsy of the lung lesions revealed large occasionally septate hyphae. A Conidiobolus spp. was detected by direct 18S rDNA in the tissue biopsy and subsequently identified at species level as C. pachyzygosporus by 28S rDNA sequencing. The infection was cured after isavuconazole therapy, recovery of the immune system and surgical resection of lung lesions. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first description of C. pachyzygosporus as human pathogen and second case report of invasive conidiobolomycosis from a European country.


Assuntos
Conidiobolus/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/complicações , Pneumopatias Fúngicas/complicações , Pneumopatias Fúngicas/diagnóstico , Zigomicose/complicações , Zigomicose/diagnóstico , Idoso , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Biópsia , Conidiobolus/isolamento & purificação , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Hifas/isolamento & purificação , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Pneumopatias Fúngicas/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumopatias Fúngicas/patologia , Nitrilas/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Suíça , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Triazóis/uso terapêutico , Zigomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Zigomicose/patologia
20.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235785, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645074

RESUMO

The interactions between entomopathogenic fungi and insects serve a classic example of a co-evolutionary arms race between pathogens and their target host. The cuticle, site of the first contact between insects and entomopathogenic fungus, is an important defensive barrier against pathogens. It is covered by a layer of lipids that appears to play a key role in these processes and cuticular free fatty acid (FFA) profiles are consider as a determinant of susceptibility, or resistance, to fungal infections. These profiles are species-specific. The cockroaches Blattella germanica (Blattodea: Blattidae) and Blatta orientalis (Blattodea: Ectobiidae) are unsusceptible to the soil fungus Conidiobolus coronatus (Entomophthorales: Ancylistaceae) infection, therefore we studied the profiles of FFAs in order to understand the defensive capabilities of the cockroaches. The fungus was cultivated for three weeks in minimal medium. Cell-free filtrate was obtained, assayed for elastase, N-acetylglucosaminidase, chitobiosidase and lipase activity, and then used for in vitro hydrolysis of the cuticle from wings and thoraces of adults and oothecae. The amounts of amino acids, N-glucosamine and FFAs released from the hydrolysed cuticle samples were measured after eight hours of incubation. The FFA profiles of the cuticle of adults, and the wings, thoraces and oothecae of both species were established using GC-MS and the results were correlated with the effectiveness of fungal proteases, chitinases and lipases in the hydrolyzation of cuticle samples. Positive correlations would suggest the existence of compounds used by the fungus as nutrients, whereas negative correlations may indicate that these compounds could be engaged in insect defence.


Assuntos
Baratas/microbiologia , Conidiobolus/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Hidrolases/metabolismo , Animais , Baratas/metabolismo , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Masculino
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