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2.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 35(6): 901-915, 2022 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35666914

RESUMO

Given the worldwide popularity of hair dyeing, there is an urgent need to understand the toxicities and risks associated with exposure to chemicals found in hair dye formulations. Hair dyes are categorized as oxidative and nonoxidative in terms of their chemical composition and ingredients. For several decades, the expert panel's Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) has assessed the safety of many of the chemicals used in hair dyes; however, a comprehensive review of hair dye ingredients and the risk of exposure to hair dyeing has not been documented. Herein, we review the safety of the various chemicals in oxidative and nonoxidative hair dyes, toxicities associated with hair dyeing, and the carcinogenic risks related to hair dyeing. While many compounds are considered safe for users at the concentrations in hair dyes, there are conflicting data about a large number of hair dye formulations. The CIR expert panel has ratified a number of coloring ingredients for hair dyes and banned a series of chemicals as carcinogenic to animals and unsafe for this application. The use of these chemicals as raw materials for producing hair dyes may result in the synthesis of other contaminants with potential toxicities and increased risk of carcinogenesis. It is an open question whether personal or occupational hair dyeing increases the risk of cancer; however, in specific subpopulations, a positive association between hair dye use and cancer occurrence has been reported. To address this question, a better understanding of the chemical and mechanistic basis of the reported toxicities of hair dye mixtures and individual hair dye ingredients is needed. It is anticipated that in-depth chemical and systems toxicology studies harnessing modern and emerging techniques can shed light on this public health concern in the future.


Assuntos
Cosméticos , Tinturas para Cabelo , Alérgenos , Animais , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Cosméticos/toxicidade , Cabelo , Tinturas para Cabelo/química , Tinturas para Cabelo/toxicidade
3.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1662022 03 09.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A large number of herbal preparations are offered on the internet. Some of these may contain substances not listed on the label. When these are illegal "regular" drugs, this can lead to serious side effects. CASE DESCRIPTION: In January 2021, The Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre Lareb received 4 reports of side effects after using the herbal preparation Montalin® from Indonesia. Laboratory analysis showed that effective amounts of paracetamol and meloxicam were also present in this herbal preparation. These have been added illegally and are not listed on the packaging. The five web shops that sold this product were ordered to immediately stop trading by order of the Dutch Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (NVWA). CONCLUSION: Consumers should be careful when purchasing herbal preparations over the internet. It is not always clear what is in it. Certainly if a clear effect is experienced, it may be that (illegally) effective amounts of pharmacologically active substances have been added.


Assuntos
Farmacovigilância , Preparações de Plantas , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Humanos , Indonésia , Internet , Preparações de Plantas/efeitos adversos
6.
Int J Toxicol ; 41(1_suppl): 44S-60S, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531605

RESUMO

The Expert Panel for Cosmetic Ingredient Safety (Panel) reviewed the safety of 12 Rosa canina-derived ingredients, which are reported to function as skin conditioning agents, fragrance ingredients, cosmetic astringents, anti-acne agents, abrasives, humectants, and exfoliants in cosmetic products. Because final product formulations may contain multiple botanicals, each containing the same constituents of concern, formulators are advised to be aware of these constituents and to avoid reaching cumulative levels that may be hazardous to consumers. The Panel reviewed relevant data relating to the safety of these ingredients and concluded that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration described in this safety assessment when formulated to be non-irritating and non-sensitizing.


Assuntos
Cosméticos , Rosa , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Cosméticos/toxicidade
7.
Int J Toxicol ; 41(1_suppl): 80S-105S, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531773

RESUMO

The Expert Panel for Cosmetic Ingredient Safety (Panel) assessed the safety of 6 carbonate salts which function as absorbents, bulking agents, opacifying agents, pH adjusters, buffering agents, abrasives, and oral care agents in cosmetic products. The Panel reviewed relevant data relating to the safety of these ingredients, and concluded that these carbonate salts are safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetics when formulated to be non-irritating.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Cosméticos , Carbonatos/toxicidade , Cosméticos/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Sais/toxicidade
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 834: 154849, 2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35405240

RESUMO

Chemical ingredients in consumer products are continually changing. To understand our exposure to chemicals and their consequent risk, we need to know their concentrations in products, or chemical weight fractions. Unfortunately, manufacturers rarely report comprehensive weight fraction data on product labels. The goal of this study was to evaluate the utility of machine learning strategies for predicting weight fractions when chemical constituent data are limited. A "data-poor" framework was developed and tested using a small dataset on consumer products containing engineered nanomaterials to represent emerging substances. A second, more traditional framework was applied to a "data-rich" product dataset comprised of bulk-scale organic chemicals for comparison purposes. Feature variables included chemical properties, functional use categories (e.g., antimicrobial), product categories (e.g., makeup), product matrix categories, and whether weight fractions were manufacturer-reported or experimentally obtained. Classification into three weight fraction bins was done using a random forest or nonlinear support vector classifier. An ablation study revealed that functional use data improved predictive performance when included alongside chemical property data, suggesting the utility of functional use categories in evaluating the safety and sustainability of emerging chemicals. Models could roughly stratify material-product observations into order of magnitude weight fractions with moderate success; the best of these achieved an average balanced accuracy of 73% on the nanomaterials product data. Framework comparisons also revealed a positive trend in sample size versus average balanced accuracy, suggesting great promise for machine learning approaches with continued investment in chemical data collection.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Compostos Orgânicos , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Aprendizado de Máquina
10.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 163 Suppl 1: 113055, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35460830

RESUMO

Therefore, the phenethyl formate MOE for the fertility endpoint can be calculated by dividing the phenethyl alcohol NOAEL in mg/kg/day by the total systemic exposure to phenethyl formate, 1000/0.00062 or 1612903.


Assuntos
Odorantes , Perfumes , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Formiatos , Perfumes/toxicidade , Fenilacetatos , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Testes de Toxicidade
15.
Food Microbiol ; 105: 104005, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35473983

RESUMO

To minimize the survival of Listeria monocytogenes on ready-to-eat (RTE)-products, active antimicrobial packaging based on polyvinyl alcohol films with Enterocin A or ethyl-lauroyl-arginate (LAE) have been designed and its antimicrobial activity assessed in vacuum-packed sliced dry-cured ham stored under refrigeration. The Enterocin A-based antimicrobial film exerted a strong antilisterial activity, causing an immediate reduction of L. monocytogenes counts of 1 log units compared with the control without antimicrobial. Besides, Enterocin A film enhanced (4-fold higher) the die-off rate along the 6 months of storage at 8 °C. The antilisterial effect of Enterocin A film applied on dry-cured ham complies with the performance criteria requirement of Alternative 1 of the US Listeria rule regarding the control of L. monocytogenes. Films made with LAE did not exert an immediate bactericidal effect but slightly increased the die-off rate of the pathogen and reduced its counts during the shelf life compared to the control batch.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Produtos da Carne , Carne de Porco , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bacteriocinas , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Embalagem de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos
17.
Int J Toxicol ; 41(1_suppl): 69S-79S, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35435034

RESUMO

The Expert Panel for Cosmetic Ingredient Safety (Panel) reviewed the safety of 1-Hydroxyethyl 4,5-Diamino Pyrazole Sulfate, which functions as an oxidative hair dye ingredient. The Panel reviewed relevant data provided in this safety assessment, and concluded that 1-Hydroxyethyl 4,5-Diamino Pyrazole Sulfate is safe in the present practices of use and concentration in oxidative hair dye formulations.


Assuntos
Cosméticos , Tinturas para Cabelo , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Cosméticos/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Sulfatos
18.
Int J Toxicol ; 41(1_suppl): 61S-68S, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35437046

RESUMO

The Expert Panel for Cosmetic Ingredient Safety (Panel) reviewed the safety of Hydrofluorocarbon 152a, which functions as a propellant in personal care products. The Panel reviewed relevant data provided in this safety assessment, and concluded that Hydrofluorocarbon 152a is safe in the present practices of use and concentration described in this safety assessment.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Cosméticos , Cosméticos/toxicidade , Medição de Risco
19.
J Safety Res ; 80: 198-214, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35249600

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Product risk assessment is the overall process of determining whether a product is judged safe for consumers to use. Among several methods for product risk assessment, RAPEX is the primary one used by regulators in the UK and EU. Despite its widespread use we identify several limitations of RAPEX, including a limited approach to handling uncertainty, especially in the absence of data, and the inability to incorporate causal explanations for using and interpreting the data. METHOD: We develop a Bayesian Network (BN) model to provide an improved systematic method for product risk assessment that resolves the identified limitations with RAPEX. BNs are a rigorous, normative method for modelling uncertainty and causality which are already used for risk assessment in domains such as medicine and finance, as well as critical systems generally. RESULTS: We use the BN approach to demonstrate risk assessments for products where relevant test and product instance data are and are not available. Whereas RAPEX can only produce results given relevant data, the BN approach produce results for products with and with no relevant data - replicating RAPEX in the former and providing deeper insights in both cases. CONCLUSION: The BN approach is powerful and flexible for systematic product risk assessment. While it can complement more traditional methods like RAPEX, it is able to provide quantified, auditable assessments in situations where such methods cannot because of lack of data. Practical Applications: Safety regulators, manufacturers, and risk professionals can use the BN approach for all types of consumer product risk assessment, including for novel products or products with little or no historical data. They can also use it to validate the results of existing methods when data becomes available. It informs risk management decisions and helps understand the effect of those decisions on the consumer risk perception.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Teorema de Bayes , Causalidade , Humanos , Medição de Risco/métodos
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