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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248910, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339342

RESUMO

Abstract This study determines the associations among serum lipid profiles, risk of cardiovascular disease, and persistent organic pollutants. Using Gas chromatography technique, the intensity of toxic pollutant residues in serum samples of Hypertensive patients were measured. Based on statistical analysis, the effects of different covariates namely pesticides, age, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and lipid profile duration was checked using the logistic regression model. Statistical computation was performed on SPSS 22.0. The P-values of F-Statistic for each lipid profile class are greater than 0.01 (1%), therefore we cannot reject the null hypothesis for all cases. The estimated coefficients, their standard errors, Wald Statistic, and odds ratio of the binary logistic regression model for different lipid profile parameters indicate if pesticides increase then the logit value of different lipid profile parameters changes from -0.46 to -0.246 except LDL which increases by 0.135. The study reports a significantly increased threat of cardiovascular disease with increased concentrations of toxic pollutants.


Resumo Este estudo determina as associações entre o perfil lipídico sérico, o risco de doença cardiovascular e os poluentes orgânicos persistentes. Por meio da técnica de cromatografia gasosa, mediu-se a intensidade dos resíduos de poluentes tóxicos em amostras de soro de pacientes hipertensos. Com base na análise estatística, os efeitos de diferentes covariáveis ​​- ou seja, pesticidas, idade, pressão arterial sistólica, pressão arterial diastólica e duração do perfil lipídico - foram verificados usando o modelo de regressão logística. O cálculo estatístico foi realizado no SPSS 22.0. Os valores P da estatística F para cada classe de perfil lipídico são maiores que 0,01 (1%), portanto não podemos rejeitar a hipótese nula para todos os casos. Os coeficientes estimados, seus erros padrão, estatística de Wald e odds ratio do modelo de regressão logística binária para diferentes parâmetros do perfil lipídico indicam se os pesticidas aumentam, então o valor logit de diferentes parâmetros do perfil lipídico muda de -0,46 para -0,246, exceto LDL, que aumenta em 0,135. O estudo relata um aumento significativo da ameaça de doença cardiovascular com aumento das concentrações de poluentes tóxicos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Praguicidas , Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Orgânicos Persistentes , Lipídeos , Lipoproteínas
2.
Part Fibre Toxicol ; 19(1): 55, 2022 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35933442

RESUMO

As an emerging pollutant in the life cycle of plastic products, micro/nanoplastics (M/NPs) are increasingly being released into the natural environment. Substantial concerns have been raised regarding the environmental and health impacts of M/NPs. Although diverse M/NPs have been detected in natural environment, most of them display two similar features, i.e.,high surface area and strong binding affinity, which enable extensive interactions between M/NPs and surrounding substances. This results in the formation of coronas, including eco-coronas and bio-coronas, on the plastic surface in different media. In real exposure scenarios, corona formation on M/NPs is inevitable and often displays variable and complex structures. The surface coronas have been found to impact the transportation, uptake, distribution, biotransformation and toxicity of particulates. Different from conventional toxins, packages on M/NPs rather than bare particles are more dangerous. We, therefore, recommend seriously consideration of the role of surface coronas in safety assessments. This review summarizes recent progress on the eco-coronas and bio-coronas of M/NPs, and further discusses the analytical methods to interpret corona structures, highlights the impacts of the corona on toxicity and provides future perspectives.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Nanopartículas , Microplásticos , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Medição de Risco
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(33): e2202037119, 2022 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939673

RESUMO

The bronze goose-and-fish lamp exhibited in the national museum of China is a 2,000-y-old artifact once used for indoor lighting by nobility in the Western Han dynasty (206 BCE TO 25 CE). The beauty of this national treasure arises from its elegant shape vividly showing a goose catching fish with beautiful colors painted over the whole body. Beyond the artistic and historical value, what enchants people most is the eco-design concept of this oil-burning lamp. It is widely believed that the smoke generated by burning animal oil can flow into the goose belly through its long neck, then be absorbed by prefilled water in the belly, hence mitigating indoor air pollution. Although different mechanistic hypotheses such as natural convection and even the siphon effect have been proposed to qualitatively rationalize the above-claimed pollution mitigation function, due to the absence of a true scientific analysis, the definitive mechanism remains a mystery. By rigorous modeling of the nonisothermal fluid flow coupled with convection-diffusion of pollutant within and out of the lamp, we discover that it is the unnoticeable gap between goose body and lamp tray (i.e., an intrinsic feature of the multicompartmental design) that can offer definitive ventilation in the lamp. The ventilation is facilitated by natural convection due to oil burning. Adequate ventilation plays a key role in enabling pollution mitigation, as it allows pollutant to reach the goose belly, travel over and be absorbed by the water.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Gansos , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Ventilação , Água
4.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 938094, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909533

RESUMO

Environmental contaminants in ambient air pollution pose a serious risk to long-term metabolic health. Strong evidence shows that prenatal exposure to pollutants can significantly increase the risk of Type II Diabetes (T2DM) in children and all ethnicities, even without the prevalence of obesity. The central nervous system (CNS) is critical in regulating whole-body metabolism. Within the CNS, the hypothalamus lies at the intersection of the neuroendocrine and autonomic systems and is primarily responsible for the regulation of energy homeostasis and satiety signals. The hypothalamus is particularly sensitive to insults during early neurodevelopmental periods and may be susceptible to alterations in the formation of neural metabolic circuitry. Although the precise molecular mechanism is not yet defined, alterations in hypothalamic developmental circuits may represent a leading cause of impaired metabolic programming. In this review, we present the current knowledge on the links between prenatal pollutant exposure and the hypothalamic programming of metabolism.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Poluentes Ambientais , Criança , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotálamo/fisiologia , Sistemas Neurossecretores/fisiologia , Gravidez
5.
Front Immunol ; 13: 927880, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35911686

RESUMO

Heavy-metal pollution has increasingly jeopardized the habitats of marine organisms including the sea cucumber, a seafloor scavenger vital to seawater bio-decontamination, ocean de-acidification and coral-reef protection. Normal physiology including immune functions of sea cucumbers is toxicologically modulated by marine metal pollutants such as cadmium (Cd). The processes underpinning Cd's toxic effects on immune systems in the sea cucumber, Holothuria leucospilota, are still poorly understood. To this end, we cloned and characterized a full-length caspase-9 (Hl-CASP9) cDNA in the sea cucumber, Holothuria leucospilota. Hl-CASP9 mRNA levels evolved dynamically during embryonic development. Coelomocytes, a type of phagocytic immune effectors central to H. leucospilota immunity, were found to express Hl-CASP9 mRNA most abundantly. Hl-CASP9 protein structurally resembles caspases-2 and -9 in both invertebrate and vertebrate species, comprising a CARD domain and a CASc domain. Remarkably, Hl-CASP9 was transcriptionally sensitive to abiotic oxidative stress inducers including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric oxide (•NO) and cadmium (Cd), but insensitive to immunostimulants including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and poly(I:C). Overexpression of Hl-CASP9 augmented mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in HEK293T cells, while knock-down of Hl-CASP9 blunted Cd-induced coelomocyte apoptosis in vivo. Overall, we illustrate that an evolutionarily ancient caspase-9-dependent pathway exists to sensitize coelomocytes to premature cell death precipitated by heavy metal pollutants, with important implications for negative modulation of organismal immune response in marine invertebrates.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Holothuria , Pepinos-do-Mar , Animais , Apoptose , Cádmio/toxicidade , Caspase 9 , Células HEK293 , Holothuria/genética , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Pepinos-do-Mar/genética
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(32): e2203604119, 2022 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35917352

RESUMO

Anthropogenic organophosphorus compounds (AOPCs), such as phosphotriesters, are used extensively as plasticizers, flame retardants, nerve agents, and pesticides. To date, only a handful of soil bacteria bearing a phosphotriesterase (PTE), the key enzyme in the AOPC degradation pathway, have been identified. Therefore, the extent to which bacteria are capable of utilizing AOPCs as a phosphorus source, and how widespread this adaptation may be, remains unclear. Marine environments with phosphorus limitation and increasing levels of pollution by AOPCs may drive the emergence of PTE activity. Here, we report the utilization of diverse AOPCs by four model marine bacteria and 17 bacterial isolates from the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. To unravel the details of AOPC utilization, two PTEs from marine bacteria were isolated and characterized, with one of the enzymes belonging to a protein family that, to our knowledge, has never before been associated with PTE activity. When expressed in Escherichia coli with a phosphodiesterase, a PTE isolated from a marine bacterium enabled growth on a pesticide analog as the sole phosphorus source. Utilization of AOPCs may provide bacteria a source of phosphorus in depleted environments and offers a prospect for the bioremediation of a pervasive class of anthropogenic pollutants.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Praguicidas , Hidrolases de Triester Fosfórico , Bactérias/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Compostos Organofosforados/metabolismo , Hidrolases de Triester Fosfórico/genética , Hidrolases de Triester Fosfórico/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo
7.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1222: 340171, 2022 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934429

RESUMO

Nontarget analysis enables high-efficiency screening and identification of halogenated organic pollutants (HOPs) in complex matrices irrespective of lacking authentic standards, particularly for novel and emerging species, thereby realizing comprehensive component characterization of HOPs. Notwithstanding, nontarget analysis and comprehensive characterization of HOPs remain on the way to improvement. In this study, we implemented nontarget analysis of HOPs in fly ash, egg and sediment using gas chromatography quadrupole-orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry with the aid of chromatogram segmentation and Cl/Br-specific screening algorithms, and further performed comprehensive characterization of components and distribution of HOPs. In total, 122 HOP formulas were identified and tentatively assigned with structures, of which 28 were found in ≥ two matrices. Taking isomers into account, in total 1059 HOP congeners were found. Based on the identification and semiquantification results, the chemical components and concentration profiles of HOPs were preliminarily clarified, and accordingly the overall pollution signatures of HOPs were sketched. The total concentrations of HOPs in the fly ash, egg and sediment were 4.7, 41.2 and 750.8 µg g-1, respectively. Organochlorines were the most abundant among the categories classified by halogen types, and halogenated benzenes, halogenated dioxins, halogenated biphenyls/terphenyls and halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (H-PAHs) were the predominant of the structurally classified categories. Moreover, dozens of formulas of novel/little-known HOPs such as mix-chlorinated/brominated PAHs with ≥4 aromatic rings and polychlorinated terphenyls were identified. This study presents an accurate and high-performance nontarget analysis method for HOPs in complex matrices, and yields new cognitions on the pollution status of HOPs from an overall perspective.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Algoritmos , Cinza de Carvão/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise
8.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35915953

RESUMO

Environmental endocrine disruptors (EDCs) are ubiquitous in the environment, and detectable amounts are found in humans worldwide. EDCs can interact with nuclear receptors such as estrogen receptor, which could interfere with the normal function of endocrine system, and further cause the pathological alterations in the tissues. This article summarizes several common types of EDCs in the environment, which caused cardiac function abnormalities, and morphological growth malformations in heart as well as its relevant mechanisms, including oxidative stress, inflammatory response, changes in signal transduction, expressions of transcriptional regulatory factors, which are related to cardiac development, receptor pathways and cell apoptosis etc., for the purpose of understanding the process of EDCs-induced cardiac developmental toxicity, and further providing scientific theoretical basis for figuring out the toxicity mechanism of EDCs and the prevention and treatment of cardiac diseases.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Poluentes Ambientais , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Sistema Endócrino , Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais
9.
J Exp Biol ; 225(15)2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35942859

RESUMO

Movement is essential in the ecology of most animals, and it typically consumes a large proportion of individual energy budgets. Environmental conditions modulate the energetic cost of movement (cost of transport, COT), and there are pronounced differences in COT between individuals within species and across species. Differences in morphology affect COT, but the physiological mechanisms underlying variation in COT remain unresolved. Candidates include mitochondrial efficiency and the efficiency of muscle contraction-relaxation dynamics. Animals can offset increased COT behaviourally by adjusting movement rate and habitat selection. Here, we review the theory underlying COT and the impact of environmental changes on COT. Increasing temperatures, in particular, increase COT and its variability between individuals. Thermal acclimation and exercise can affect COT, but this is not consistent across taxa. Anthropogenic pollutants can increase COT, although few chemical pollutants have been investigated. Ecologically, COT may modify the allocation of energy to different fitness-related functions, and thereby influence fitness of individuals, and the dynamics of animal groups and communities. Future research should consider the effects of multiple stressors on COT, including a broader range of pollutants, the underlying mechanisms of COT and experimental quantifications of potential COT-induced allocation trade-offs.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Poluentes Ambientais , Aclimatação/fisiologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Mitocôndrias , Contração Muscular/fisiologia
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11887, 2022 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35831449

RESUMO

Hearing loss (HL) is a highly prevalent public health concern. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are widely used environmental pollutants harmful to human health. Studies investigating the effects of OCPs exposure on the auditory system in the general population are rare. To explore the association between OCPs exposure and HL in adults, 366 adults aged 20-69 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2003-2004) were investigated. HL was defined as a pure-tone average (PTA) ≥ 20 dB in the better ear. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the association of four selected serum OCPs with PTAs and the risk of HL. In participants aged < 60 years, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p, p'-DDE) exposure was positively associated with low- and speech-frequency PTAs, and with low-frequency HL, respectively. Risk of HL increased in the highest tertile compared with the lowest tertile of serum HCB and p, p'-DDE (odds ratio [OR]: 4.38, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.97-19.80; OR: 16.66, 95% CI: 2.64-105.09, respectively). In this study of US adults aged < 60 years, HCB and p, p'-DDE exposure was positively associated with HL. HCB and p, p'-DDE may be potential risk factors for HL.


Assuntos
Surdez , Poluentes Ambientais , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Praguicidas , Adulto , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Hexaclorobenzeno/análise , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Praguicidas/análise , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805664

RESUMO

Spatially explicit urban air quality information is important for urban fine-management and public life. However, existing air quality measurement methods still have some limitations on spatial coverage and system stability. A micro station is an emerging monitoring system with multiple sensors, which can be deployed to provide dense air quality monitoring data. Here, we proposed a method for urban air quality mapping at high-resolution for multiple pollutants. By using the dense air quality monitoring data from 448 micro stations in Lanzhou city, we developed a decision tree model to infer the distribution of citywide air quality at a 500 m × 500 m × 1 h resolution, with a coefficient of determination (R2) value of 0.740 for PM2.5, 0.754 for CO and 0.716 for SO2. Meanwhile, we also show that the deployment density of the monitoring stations can have a significant impact on the air quality inference results. Our method is able to show both short-term and long-term distribution of multiple important pollutants in the city, which demonstrates the potential and feasibility of dense monitoring data combined with advanced data science methods to support urban atmospheric environment fine-management, policy making, and public health studies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Material Particulado/análise
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805732

RESUMO

Urinary concentrations of several endocrine disrupting chemicals, including phthalate metabolites, bisphenol A (BPA), and benzophenone (BP)-type ultraviolet (UV) filters, have been associated with a longer time-to-pregnancy (TTP). Potential modification of these associations by couple's age has not been studied. TTP was defined as the number of prospectively observed menstrual cycles a couple attempted pregnancy until the occurrence of a human chorionic gonadotropic-detected pregnancy. Urinary concentrations of two BP-type UV filters and three phthalate metabolites were measured at baseline. Fecundability odds ratios (FORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for each chemical adjusting for age, body mass index, serum cotinine, creatinine, and accounting for right censoring and left truncation. Models evaluated effect modification between EDC concentrations and TTP by partner's age, dichotomized at 35 years. Separate models were run for male and female partners. No significant effect modification was observed for any EDC for either partner, but data were suggestive of a longer TTP among females aged ≥35 years, particularly for BP-2 (FOR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.36, 1.05) and 4-hydroxybenzophenone (FOR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.46, 1.09) reflecting 39% and 29% reductions in fecundability, respectively. We saw no evidence of effect modification by couples' age on associations between TTP and urinary phthalate or BPA metabolite concentrations. Across the EDCs we examined, we found little evidence that age modifies TTP-exposure associations.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Poluentes Ambientais , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Cotinina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Tempo para Engravidar
13.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807230

RESUMO

The concentration levels of thirteen organic pollutants and selected heavy metals were investigated in 40 plastics bottled and tap water samples. Some of the selected contaminants have an ascertained or suspected endocrine disrupting activity, such as Bisphenol A (BPA) and its analogs, and Bis 2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), which are used by industries as plasticizers. The most frequently detected pollutants were Bisphenol AF (BPAF) (detection frequency (DF) = 67.5%, mean 387.21 ng L-1), DEHP (DF = 62.5%, mean 46.19 µg L-1) and BPA (DF = 60.0%, mean 458.57 ng L-1), with higher concentration levels found in tap waters. Furthermore, a possible level of exposure to thirteen pollutants via drinking water intake was calculated. Our findings show that, even though the occurrence of contaminants and heavy metals in drinking waters does not pose an immediate, acute health risk for the population, their levels should be constantly monitored and "hard-wired" into everyday practice. Indeed, the health impact to the continuous and simultaneous intake of a huge variety of xenobiotics from various sources by humans is complex and still not fully understood.


Assuntos
Dietilexilftalato , Água Potável , Disruptores Endócrinos , Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Dietilexilftalato/análise , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Humanos , Plastificantes/análise , Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(13)2022 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35808337

RESUMO

Over the last decade, technological advancements have been made available and applied in a wide range of applications in several work fields, ranging from personal to industrial enforcements. One of the emerging issues concerns occupational safety and health in the Fourth Industrial Revolution and, in more detail, it deals with how industrial hygienists could improve the risk-assessment process. A possible way to achieve these aims is the adoption of new exposure-monitoring tools. In this study, a systematic review of the up-to-date scientific literature has been performed to identify and discuss the most-used sensors that could be useful for occupational risk assessment, with the intent of highlighting their pros and cons. A total of 40 papers have been included in this manuscript. The results show that sensors able to investigate airborne pollutants (i.e., gaseous pollutants and particulate matter), environmental conditions, physical agents, and workers' postures could be usefully adopted in the risk-assessment process, since they could report significant data without significantly interfering with the job activities of the investigated subjects. To date, there are only few "next-generation" monitors and sensors (NGMSs) that could be effectively used on the workplace to preserve human health. Due to this fact, the development and the validation of new NGMSs will be crucial in the upcoming years, to adopt these technologies in occupational-risk assessment.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Saúde do Trabalhador , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Medição de Risco , Tecnologia , Local de Trabalho
15.
Epidemiol Prev ; 46(3): 147-159, 2022.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35775293

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: assessment of the health effects on the resident population around the incinerator for municipal solid waste in Valmadrera (Lombardy Region, Northern Italy) in relation to the exposure level to the pollutants produced by the plant. DESIGN: historical cohort study, based on the resident population from 2003 to 2016 in the study area. With a dispersion model, based on PM10 emitted by the plant, three areas of exposure (high, medium, low) were defined and, on the basis of the residence of the cohort, different exposure levels were attributed to the subjects. The association between level of exposure and health effects were estimated by comparing the high and medium exposure levels with the low exposure level, using a Cox model, adjusted for age and socioeconomic deprivation index. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: mortality rates, hospitalization rates, cancer incidence rates, and perinatal outcomes were analysed for the main causes potentially associated with exposure to incineration plants. RESULTS: the subjects enrolled in the cohort were 106,056 (1,000,242 person-years). There were no statistically significant excesses of risk for almost all the outcomes investigated. Excessive mortality and hospitalization were found for liver/biliary cancers (HR women: 2.57; 95%CI 1.15-2.79; HR men: 2.22; 95%CI 1.10-4, 84). In the municipality where the plant is located, an excess prevalence (OR 1.78; 95%CI 1.43-2.21) of hepatitis C was found. CONCLUSIONS: the results suggest the absence of a relationship between residence in areas with different levels of pollutants emitted by the plant and the onset of almost all diseases. The associated causes do not have aetiological plausibility with exposure to pollutants from waste incineration. In particular, for liver/liver and biliary cancer, the association with infectious causes rather than exposure to environmental pollutants is more plausible.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluentes Ambientais , Neoplasias , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Incineração , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Morbidade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Gravidez
16.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc ; 72(7): 700-709, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35775662

RESUMO

The computational modeling of the dilution tunnels used for experimental measurement of the woodstove pollution was presented. Two EPA-approved test labs for residential wood heat appliances, referred to as Lab-1 and Lab-2 dilution tunnels were simulated. The Ansys-Fluent software was enhanced with the addition of user-defined functions (UDF) and was used to simulate the airflow velocity, temperature, and particle concentration in the dilution tunnels. Particular attention was given to the variation of concentration profile at the test section and its uniformity. The simulation results suggested that roughly uniform or somewhat non-uniform particle concentrations entering from the woodstove stack into the dilution tunnel led to the uniform concentration at the outlet of the tunnel. This is particularly the case for the Lab-1 dilution tunnel. However, for the Lab-2 dilution tunnel, a highly non-uniform concentration at the woodstove stack outlet flowing at a high velocity into the dilution tunnel led to a non-uniform profile for the particle concentration at the test section. For this case, replacing the second elbow that is downstream from the mixing section with a tee reduced the nonuniformity of the concentration profile at the tunnel outlet.Implications: This study numerically investigated two dilution tunnels used in EPA-approved test labs. The dilution tunnel is used to dilute and cool the exhaust flow of the woodstove's stack. A properly working dilution tunnel provides a uniform concentration at the test section. Under different conditions, particulate matter (PM) laden turbulent flows in the tunnels are simulated to assess the dilution tunnel's performance. The goal is to understand the conditions that the dilution tunnels provide uniform concentration at their test section. The presented results suggest that using a tee instead of an elbow would enhance mixing and the chance for generating uniform concentration at the test section.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Simulação por Computador , Material Particulado/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise
17.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 1051046, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35844948

RESUMO

Background: Bladder cancer (BC) is the most common of those affecting the urinary tract, and a significant proportion of the cases are attributable to tobacco use as well as occupational and environmental factors. Objective: The aim of this study is to estimate the current incidence of BC in an industrialized area in northeastern Spain and to analyze its time trends over three decades from an ecological perspective. Methods: Patients diagnosed with histologically confirmed primary BC, during 2018-2019, in an area in northeastern Spain (430,883 inhabitants) were included. Crude and age-standardized incidence rates were estimated per 100,000 person-years based on the number of individuals getting their first diagnosis. An exploratory time trend analysis was carried out to describe the evolution in tobacco use and occupational or environmental risk factors and the incidence of BC in the same area from the 1990s. Results: 295 patients were included (age 72.5 ± 10.3 years; 89.8% men). The crude rate was 62.6 (95% CI: 51.9-73.2) for men and 6.8 (95% CI: 3.4-10.3) for women. The annual rate adjusted to the European Standard Population was 85.3 (95% CI:75.0-95.5) for men and 7.0 (95% CI:4.5-9.5) for women. From 1994 to 2018, the prevalence of smokers decreased in men (42.3% to 30.9%) as well as in the active population working in the industry (44.36% to 22.59%). Nevertheless, the car fleet, especially diesel, has increased considerably. The annual mean concentrations of air (PM10, PM2.5, O3, and NO2) and water (nitrates, arsenic, trihalomethanes) pollutants were within the regulatory limit values, but not the maximum levels. Conclusions: The incidence of BC is one of the highest in men but not in women, despite the decrease in tobacco use and industrial activity (perhaps related to high latency after carcinogen exposure cessation) and despite the control of environmental pollution (the maximum regulatory limit probably needs to be lowered). Finally, a similar exposure to the carcinogen would result in a gender-specific differential incidence.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Ambientais , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Carcinógenos/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/análise , Espanha/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/etiologia
18.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 88(14): e0074222, 2022 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35862662

RESUMO

Recovery of microbial synthetic polymers with high economic value and market demand in activated sludge has attracted extensive attention. This work analyzed the synthesis of cyanophycin granule peptide (CGP) in activated sludge and its adsorption capacity for heavy metals and dyes. The distribution and expression of synthetic genes for eight biopolymers in two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were analyzed by metagenomics and metatranscriptomics. The results indicate that the abundance and expression level of CGP synthase (cphA) are similar to those of polyhydroxyalkanoate polymerase, implying high synthesis of CGP in activated sludges. CGP in activated sludge is mainly polymerized from aspartic acid and arginine, and its secondary structure is mainly ß-sheet. The crude yields of CGP are as high as 104 ± 26 and 76 ± 13 mg/g dry sludge in winter and in summer, respectively, comparable to those of polyhydroxyalkanoate and alginate. CGP has a stronger adsorption capacity for anionic pollutants (Cr (VI) and methyl orange) than for cationic pollutants because it is rich in guanidine groups. This study highlights prospects for recovery and application of CGP from WWTPs. IMPORTANCE The conversion of organic pollutants into bioresources by activated sludge can reduce the carbon dioxide emission of wastewater treatment plants. Identification of new high value-added biopolymers produced by activated sludge is beneficial to recover bioresources. Cyanophycin granule polypeptide (CGP), first discovered in cyanobacteria, has unique chemical and material properties suitable for industrial food, medicine, cosmetics, water treatment, and agriculture applications. Here, we revealed for the first time that activated sludge has a remarkable ability to produce CGP. These findings could further facilitate the conversion of wastewater treatment plants into resource recycling plants.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Poli-Hidroxialcanoatos , Proteínas de Bactérias , Peptídeos , Esgotos/microbiologia
19.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 167: 113322, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35872254

RESUMO

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of brominated flame-retardants (BFRs). As for other persistent organic pollutants, dietary intake (followed by dust inhalation) is the main route of human exposure to PBDEs. In 2012, we reviewed the scientific literature on the concentrations of PBDEs in foodstuffs and their dietary exposure. The current review is aimed at updating the results of recent studies (2012-2022) focused on determining the levels of PBDEs in food samples, as well as the dietary intake of these compounds. We have revised studies conducted over the world. The current information on the concentrations of PBDEs in food and their dietary intake is now much more notable than that available in our previous review, being China the country contributing with the highest number of studies. Because of the important differences in materials and methods used in the available studies, the comparison of results is certainly complicated. However, there seems to be a general trend towards a decrease in the levels of PBDEs in foods, and consequently, in the dietary intake of these contaminants. The lack of tolerable daily intakes of PBDEs is an issue that needs to be solved for assessing human health risks of these BFRs.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Retardadores de Chama , Dieta , Exposição Dietética/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/toxicidade , Humanos
20.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(7): 3386-3395, 2022 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35791524

RESUMO

With the continuous increase in transportation activities, the transportation sector has become an important source of global greenhouse gases. In 2019, road vehicles accounted for nearly three-quarters of the CO2 emissions of the entire transportation sector and will be the key to achieving carbon peaks in the transportation sector. At the same time, air pollutants emitted by road vehicles are also one of the threats to the environment and human health. Based on the long-range energy alternatives planning system (LEAP) model, we constructed the baseline (BAU) scenario, low-carbon (LC) scenario, and enhanced low-carbon (ELC) scenario for the development of the road transport sector in Lanzhou from 2015 to 2040 and simulated energy consumption and emission co-reduction of greenhouse gases and pollutants under policies and measures. The results showed that the energy consumption and CO2 emissions of the LC scenario will peak in 2026, whereas those in the ELC scenario will peak in 2020. In these two scenarios, pollutant emissions such as NOx, CO, HC, PM2.5, and PM10 began to decline sharply between 2015 and 2017, and the downward trend will slow down gradually around 2023. Based on the feasibility of measures and the cost of abatement, the LC scenario can be used as a road vehicle carbon peak scenario in Lanzhou. In this scenario, the reduction rates of energy consumption, CO2, NOx, CO, HC, PM2.5, and PM10 emissions will reach -24.17%, -26.57%, -55.38%, -65.91%, -72.87%, -76.66%, and -77.18% compared with those under the BAU scenario by 2040. At present, the road vehicles in Lanzhou City should focus on structural optimization measures such as clean-energy use of public transportation, electrification of small passenger cars, and phasing out old cars, as well as vigorously promoting low-carbon travel and improving energy efficiency accompanying the development of automotive technology. These efforts will effectively control CO2 and pollutant emissions by road vehicles, and carbon peaks will be achieved as soon as possible. In addition, it is necessary to pay attention to the changes in vehicle types during the implementation of these measures, which most contribute CO2 and various pollutants, in order to make the measures more targeted by changing the number or the market share of new energy of focused vehicle types.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono , Humanos , Material Particulado
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