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1.
J Texture Stud ; 55(4): e12851, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38952153

RESUMO

Rheological properties of gastric contents depend on the food ingested, and on the volume and composition of secretions from the host, which may vary. This study investigates the impact of saliva regular incorporation in the stomach after a meal on the rheological properties of gastric contents, considering two levels of salivary flow (low = 0.5 and high = 1.5 mL/min). In vitro chymes were obtained by mixing sour cream, simulated gastric fluid, two different volumes of oral fluid (at-rest human saliva, SSF for Simulated Salivary Fluid or water) and adjusting pH at 3. Chymes samples were characterized at 37°C for their particle size and rheological properties. Overall, particle size distribution was not different between samples: incorporating a larger volume of saliva resulted in more heterogeneity, but the surface area moment D[3,2] and volume moment D[4,3] did not differ significantly with the oral fluid type. Shear viscosity of chyme samples was higher when saliva was incorporated, in comparison with water or SSF. In addition, as shown from data extracted at γ ̇ $$ \dot{\gamma} $$ = 20 s-1 the higher the fluid volume the lower the shear viscosity, which is attributed to a dilution effect. However, this dilution effect was attenuated in the case of saliva, most likely due to its composition in organic compounds (e.g., mucins) contributing to the rheological properties of this biological fluid. In these in vitro conditions, both saliva and the salivation rate had a significant but slight impact on the rheological properties of gastric contents (of the order of 1-5 mPa s at γ ̇ $$ \dot{\gamma} $$ = 20 s-1).


Assuntos
Tamanho da Partícula , Reologia , Saliva , Saliva/química , Humanos , Viscosidade , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Suco Gástrico/química
2.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 96(2): e20230652, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38922275

RESUMO

Trophic plasticity is a distinctive feature of freshwater fishes, representing an essential strategy for fish living in resource-variable environments. We analyzed the stomach contents of individuals sampled in two Atlantic Forest streams to identify the primary food sources consumed by Psalidodon aff. fasciatus and verify the existence of spatial, seasonal, and ontogenetic variations. The diet was determined by analyzing the stomach contents using the Volume Method to quantify the importance of food items. In general, Psalidodon aff. fasciatus was classified as an omnivorous species, consuming mainly insects, plant material, and filamentous algae. The results also showed significant effects for all factors considered (spatial, seasonal, and ontogenetic). Finally, Psalidodon aff. fasciatus demonstrated considerable trophic plasticity, which can result in better use of available resources in the environment and improved resource partitioning, reducing intraspecific and interspecific competition.


Assuntos
Characidae , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Rios , Estações do Ano , Animais , Brasil , Characidae/fisiologia , Characidae/classificação , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Florestas , Cadeia Alimentar
6.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 35(4): 961-969, 2024 Apr 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38884231

RESUMO

Research about feeding ecology of fish is important to understand individual behavior and population development, which is also the basic to analyze trophic structure and function of aquatic ecosystems. Chaetrichthys stigmatias is one of the key species in the Haizhou Bay fisheries ecosystem, which has critical ecological niche within the food web. In this study, we collected samples through bottom trawl surveys during the fall of 2018 in the Haizhou Bay, and analyzed the feeding ecology of C. stigmatias based on both stomach content analysis and stable isotope technology. The results showed that the primary diet groups for C. stigmatias were Ophiuroidea and Shrimp, including Ophiothrix marenzelleri, Ophiopholis mirabilis, Ophiura sarsii, Penaeidae, and Alpheus japonicus. The range of δ13C values of C. stigmatias was from -19.39‰ to -15.74‰, with an average value of (-18.07±0.87)‰, which had no significant correlation with body length. The range of δ15N values was from 8.16‰ to 12.86‰, with an average value of (10.14±1.51)‰, which was positively correlated with body length. The trophic level of C. stigmatias showed a positive relationship with body length, with an average value of (3.74±0.34) and a range value of 3.32 to 4.20 among different size groups. The contribution rates of different prey groups varied significantly. Based on the structural equation modeling, we found that the feeding intensity of C. stigmatias was primally influenced by body length, sea bottom salinity, sea bottom temperature, and water depth, with a particularly signi-ficant positive correlation with body length. The combination of stable isotope technology and stomach content analysis methods could contribute to comprehensive understanding on the feeding ecology of C. stigmatias, providing essential data and foundation for research on trophic structures and resource conservation in the Haizhou Bay ecosystem.


Assuntos
Baías , Ecossistema , Comportamento Alimentar , Estações do Ano , Animais , China , Cadeia Alimentar , Peixes , Oceanos e Mares , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 14102, 2024 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38890338

RESUMO

Large predators have disproportionate effects on their underlying food webs. Thus, appropriately assigning trophic positions has important conservation implications both for the predators themselves and for their prey. Large-bodied predators are often referred to as apex predators, implying that they are many trophic levels above primary producers. However, theoretical considerations predict both higher and lower trophic position with increasing body size. Nitrogen stable isotope values (δ15N) are increasingly replacing stomach contents or behavioral observations to assess trophic position and it is often assumed that ontogenetic dietary shifts result in higher trophic positions. Intraspecific studies based on δ15N values found a positive relationship between size and inferred trophic position. Here, we use datasets of predatory vertebrate ectotherms (crocodilians, turtles, lizards and fishes) to show that, although there are positive intraspecific relationships between size and δ15N values, relationships between stomach-content-based trophic level (TPdiet) and size are undetectable or negative. As there is usually no single value for 15N trophic discrimination factor (TDF) applicable to a predator species or its prey, estimates of trophic position based on δ15N in ectotherm vertebrates with large size ranges, may be inaccurate and biased. We urge a reconsideration of the sole use of δ15N values to assess trophic position and encourage the combined use of isotopes and stomach contents to assess diet and trophic level.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal , Cadeia Alimentar , Isótopos de Nitrogênio , Comportamento Predatório , Vertebrados , Animais , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Lagartos/fisiologia , Lagartos/metabolismo , Peixes/fisiologia , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Tartarugas/fisiologia , Tartarugas/metabolismo
8.
Paediatr Anaesth ; 34(8): 768-772, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38764216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The retention of gastric contents at surgery presentation is a risk factor for perioperative aspiration. A preoperative fasting (nil per os; NPO) interval is widely used to reduce this risk, but this approach is based on assumptions about the prevalence of typical gastric emptying rates. We assessed NPO guidelines' reliability with ultrasound (US) imaging and suction in pediatric patients presenting for single long-bone fracture repair after appropriate NPO intervals, when nearly all should have had empty stomachs. AIMS AND METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional observational study comprised 200 pediatric surgical patients. As their NPO times varied by food/drink type, we defined "weighted NPO units" as the lowest multiple of elapsed recommended NPO times between consumption and surgery for each type of food or drink. We used US to image the stomach and its contents before anesthesia induction, followed by gastric suction. We evaluated the relationships between weighted NPO units, US gastric contents grade, opioid analgesic dosage and timing, and suctioned volume. RESULTS: Despite meeting typical NPO standards (median 14 h fasting), many patients retained nontrivial quantities of gastric contents at surgery. Weighted NPO units did not exhibit statistically-significant relationships with either suctioned volume or US grade. However, suctioned volume did correspond well to US grade. CONCLUSION: NPO status may be a less reliable predictor of gastric contents at anesthesia induction in this patient population than has been assumed. Bedside US screening appears to provide more useful information for the planning of airway management.


Assuntos
Jejum , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Estômago , Ultrassonografia , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Pré-Escolar , Estômago/diagnóstico por imagem , Estômago/lesões , Adolescente , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Esvaziamento Gástrico , Lactente
9.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302518, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38820525

RESUMO

Predation by invasive species can threaten local ecosystems and economies. The European green crab (Carcinus maenas), one of the most widespread marine invasive species, is an effective predator associated with clam and crab population declines outside of its native range. In the U.S. Pacific Northwest, green crab has recently increased in abundance and expanded its distribution, generating concern for estuarine ecosystems and associated aquaculture production. However, regionally-specific information on the trophic impacts of invasive green crab is very limited. We compared the stomach contents of green crabs collected on clam aquaculture beds versus intertidal sloughs in Willapa Bay, Washington, to provide the first in-depth description of European green crab diet at a particularly crucial time for regional management. We first identified putative prey items using DNA metabarcoding of stomach content samples. We compared diet composition across sites using prey presence/absence and an index of species-specific relative abundance. For eight prey species, we also calibrated metabarcoding data to quantitatively compare DNA abundance between prey taxa, and to describe an 'average' green crab diet at an intertidal slough versus a clam aquaculture bed. From the stomach contents of 61 green crabs, we identified 54 unique taxa belonging to nine phyla. The stomach contents of crabs collected from clam aquaculture beds were significantly different from the stomach contents of crabs collected at intertidal sloughs. Across all sites, arthropods were the most frequently detected prey, with the native hairy shore crab (Hemigrapsus oregonensis) the single most common prey item. Of the eight species calibrated with a quantitative model, two ecologically-important native species-the sand shrimp (Crangon franciscorum) and the Pacific staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus)-had the highest average DNA abundance when detected in a stomach content sample. In addition to providing timely information on green crab diet, our research demonstrates the novel application of a recently developed model for more quantitative DNA metabarcoding. This represents another step in the ongoing evolution of DNA-based diet analysis towards producing the quantitative data necessary for modeling invasive species impacts.


Assuntos
Braquiúros , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Estuários , Espécies Introduzidas , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Braquiúros/genética , Braquiúros/fisiologia , Washington , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Bivalves/genética , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar
10.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm ; 200: 114341, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38795785

RESUMO

Mathematical models that treat the fed stomach content as a uniform entity emptied with a constant rate may not suffice to explain pharmacokinetic profiles recorded in clinical trials. In reality, phenomena such as the Magenstrasse or chyme areas of different pH and viscosity, play an important role in the intragastric drug dissolution and its transfer to the intestine. In this study, we investigated the data gathered in the bioequivalence trial between an immediate-release tablet (Reference) and an orally dispersible tablet (Test) with a poorly soluble weak base drug administered with or without water after a high-fat high-calorie breakfast. Maximum concentrations (Cmax) were significantly greater after administering the Reference product than the Test tablets, despite similar in vitro dissolution profiles. To explain this difference, we constructed a novel semi-mechanistic IVIVP model including a heterogeneous gastric chyme. The drug dissolution in vivo was modeled from the in vitro experiments in biorelevant media simulating gastric and intestinal fluids in the fed state (FEDGAS and FeSSIF). The key novelty of the model was separating the stomach contents into two compartments: isolated chyme (the viscous food content) that carries the drug slowly, and aq_chyme open for rapid Magenstrasse-like routes of drug transit. Drug distribution between these two compartments was both formulation- and administration-dependent, and recognized the respective drug fractions from the clinical pharmacokinetic data. The model's assumption about the nonuniform mixing of the API with the chyme, influencing differential drug dissolution and transit kinetics, led to simulating plasma concentration profiles that reflected well the variability observed in the clinical trial. The model indicated that, after administration, the Reference product mixes to a greater extent with aq_chyme, where the released drug dissolves better and transfers faster to the intestine. In conclusion, this novel approach underlines that diverse gastric emptying of different oral dosage forms may significantly impact pharmacokinetics and affect the outcomes of bioequivalence trials.


Assuntos
Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Esvaziamento Gástrico , Solubilidade , Comprimidos , Equivalência Terapêutica , Humanos , Administração Oral , Esvaziamento Gástrico/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Masculino , Adulto , Trânsito Gastrointestinal , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Viscosidade , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Estômago/efeitos dos fármacos , Simulação por Computador , Adulto Jovem , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over
11.
Parasitol Res ; 123(5): 208, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724709

RESUMO

In freshwater ecosystems, parasite infection patterns are influenced by factors including spatial-temporal variations, host diet, and habitat. Fish often change diets, affecting their parasite communities. This study focused on non-native host fish Geophagus sveni, aiming to characterize diet and endoparasitic helminth fauna patterns in the invaded area, investigating spatial and seasonal possible differences of endoparasite infections and correlating with host diet, in São José dos Dourados River and Tietê River areas. The host fish were collected in these areas during the dry and rainy season using gillnets. The endoparasites were collected and preserved in alcohol and identified using taxonomic methods, and stomach contents were examined for diet analysis. Parasitism descriptors were calculated and evaluated spatially and seasonally by ANOVA and the Kruskal-Wallis tests. PERMANOVA assessed G. sveni diet differences, and RDA correlated the endohelminth abundance with the host diet. Two endoparasites were recorded: metacercariae of Austrodiplostomum compactum (Trematoda) and larvae and adults of Raphidascaris (Sprentascaris) lanfrediae (Nematoda). Spatial differences were observed for the mean abundance and prevalence of R. (S.) lanfrediae and A. compactum prevalence. Seasonal variations of parasitic descriptors occurred for the nematode in the Tietê River area. The detritus and aquatic insects were the most consumed items by G. sveni. Detritus consumption positively correlates with nematode abundance. The findings indicate that factors such as artificial channels and rainfall, which can influence resource availability, may affect the fish's diet and potentially influence the structure of its endoparasite community. The study emphasizes the importance of understanding trophic chain-transmitted parasites and calls for further research in Neotropical environments.


Assuntos
Dieta , Doenças dos Peixes , Helmintíase Animal , Rios , Estações do Ano , Animais , Rios/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Trematódeos/classificação , Brasil/epidemiologia , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Nematoides/classificação , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Helmintos/classificação , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/parasitologia
12.
J Fish Biol ; 104(6): 2008-2021, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561933

RESUMO

The present study aimed to characterize the diet of Moenkhausia collettii and investigate possible changes due to environmental variations and its body size in streams in the eastern Amazon. The specimens were sampled monthly between April 2019 and March 2020. They were measured for standard length (SL) and total mass (Tm) and eviscerated for analysis of stomach contents. Food items were identified and grouped into categories. Dietary aspects such as food importance index (AI%), trophic niche width, and stomach repletion index (SRI%) were evaluated. Furthermore, generalized linear models (GLMs) were used to evaluate the relation between diet and the SL, as well as between diet and the environmental variables of streams. A total of 355 specimens with SL ranging from 11.06 to 46.03 mm and weight ranging from 0.020 to 2.373 g were evaluated. Out of the 355 stomachs analysed, 88 contained material in an advanced stage of decomposition and 12 were empty. The diet of M. collettii was considered omnivorous, with a tendency toward insectivory. Formicidae was the most important category in the diet of the species, followed by immature Diptera and plant material. The GLMs showed a relationship between the diet and a set of environmental variables such as dissolved oxygen, conductivity, flow, width, depth, wood, leaf bank, and SL. The trophic niche width and feeding intensity increased with the length of the species, as well as in the period of higher precipitation, reinforcing trophic opportunism for M. collettii. Therefore, new studies that combine the traditional method of stomach content analysis, the use of stable isotopes, as well as ecomorphological attributes, are crucial for a profound understanding of the trophic ecology of the ichthyofauna in the face of natural changes occurring in their environment.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal , Characidae , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Rios , Animais , Brasil , Dieta/veterinária , Characidae/anatomia & histologia , Characidae/fisiologia , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 927: 172235, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582125

RESUMO

Plastic pollution is a global challenge that affects all marine ecosystems, and reflects all types of uses and activities of human society in these environments. In marine ecosystems, microplastics and mesoplastics interact with invertebrates and become available to higher predators, such as fish, which can ingest these contaminants. This study aimed to analyze how ecological food interactions (diet overlap and trophic niche amplitude) among fish species contribute to the ingestion of plastic particles. The gastrointestinal contents of six fish species (Atherinella brasiliensis, Eucinostomus melanopterus, Eucinostomus argenteus, Genidens genidens, Coptodon rendalli, and Geophagus brasiliensis) were analyzed to identify prey items and plastic ingestion. Based on the ontogenetic classification, A. brasiliensis, E. melanopterus, and G. genidens were divided into juveniles and adults, and the six fish species analyzed were divided into nine predator groups. Most of the plastics ingested by the fish species were blue microplastic (MP) fibers (< 0.05 mm) classified as polyester terephthalate, polyethylene, and polybutadiene. Considering all the analyzed predators, the average number and weight of plastics ingested per individual were 2.01 and 0.0005 g, respectively. We observed that predators with a high trophic overlap could present a relationship with the intake of MP fibers owing to predation on the same resources. In addition, we observed the general pattern that when a species expands its trophic diversity and niche, it can become more susceptible to plastic ingestion. For example, the species with the highest Levin niche amplitude, E. argenteus juveniles, had the highest mean number (2.9) of ingested MP fibers. Understanding the feeding ecology and interactions among species, considering how each predator uses habitats and food resources, can provide a better understanding of how plastic particle contamination occurs and which habitats are contaminated with these polluting substances.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Cadeia Alimentar , Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Peixes/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Plásticos/análise , Ecossistema
14.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0300319, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557648

RESUMO

The dietary habits of seals play a pivotal role in shaping management and administration policies, especially in regions with potential interactions with fisheries. Previous studies have utilized various methods, including traditional approaches, to predict seal diets by retrieving indigestible prey parts, such as calcified structures, from intestines, feces, and stomach contents. Additionally, methods evaluating nitrogen and stable isotopes of carbon have been employed. The metabolomics approach, capable of quantifying small-scale molecules in biofluids, holds promise for specifying dietary exposures and estimating disease risk. This study aimed to assess the diet composition of five seal species-Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus, Lobodon carcinophaga, Ommatophoca rossii, and Arctocephalus tropicalis 1 and 2-by analyzing stomach and colon contents collected from stranded dead seals at various locations. Metabolite concentrations in the seal stomach and colon contents were determined using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Among the colon and stomach contents, 29 known and 8 unknown metabolites were identified. Four metabolites (alanine, fumarate, lactate, and proline) from stomach contents and one metabolite (alanine) from colon contents showed no significant differences between seal species (p>0.05). This suggests that traces of these metabolites in the stomach and colon contents may be produced by the seals' gut microbiome or derived from other animals, possibly indicating reliance on fish caught at sea. Despite this insight, the cause of death for stranded seals remains unclear. The study highlights the need for specific and reliable biomarkers to precisely indicate dietary exposures across seal populations. Additionally, there is a call for the development of relevant metabolite and disease interaction networks to explore disease-related metabolites in seals. Ultimately, the metabolomic method employed in this study reveals potential metabolites in the stomach and colon contents of these seal species.


Assuntos
Otárias , Focas Verdadeiras , Animais , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Regiões Antárticas , Estômago , Alanina , Colo
15.
J Anim Ecol ; 93(6): 705-714, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38644583

RESUMO

Ecological similarity plays an important role in biotic interactions. Increased body size similarity of competing species, for example, increases the strength of their biotic interactions. Body sizes of many exothermic species are forecast to be altered under global warming, mediating shifts in existing trophic interactions among species, in particular for species with different thermal niches. Temperate rocky reefs along the southeast coast of Australia are located in a climate warming hotspot and now house a mixture of temperate native fish species and poleward range-extending tropical fishes (vagrants), creating novel species assemblages. Here, we studied the relationship between body size similarity and trophic overlap between individual temperate native and tropical vagrant fishes. Dietary niche overlap between vagrant and native fish species increased as their body sizes converged, based on both stomach content composition (short-term diet), stable isotope analyses (integrated long-term diet) and similarity in consumed prey sizes. We conclude that the warming-induced faster growth rates of tropical range-extending fish species at their cool water ranges will continue to converge their body size towards and strengthen their degree of trophic interactions and dietary overlap with co-occurring native temperate species under increasing ocean warming. The strengthening of these novel competitive interactions is likely to drive changes to temperate food web structures and reshuffle existing species community structures.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal , Mudança Climática , Peixes , Cadeia Alimentar , Animais , Peixes/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Austrália
16.
Mar Environ Res ; 198: 106493, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626629

RESUMO

The influences of oceanographic changes on diet composition and trophic level for pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) inhabiting the East Sea off the Korean coast were examined based on stomach content and stable isotope analyses during 2016 and 2017. The diets of pollock consisted mainly of benthic crustaceans (particularly carid shrimps and euphausiids) and cephalopods, with a predominance of teleosts in the diets of larger individuals in deeper habitats. In 2016, amphipods, carid shrimps and cephalopods featured strongly in pollock diets, and the contribution of amphipods decreased in the diets of larger individuals and deeper depths. In 2017, euphausiids dominated at shallower depths, whereas the contributions of carid shrimps and teleosts increased in deeper habitats. Body-size-related differences in carbon stable isotope (δ13C) values were present in both 2016 and 2017, but size-related differences in nitrogen stable isotope (δ15N) values were only observed in 2017. The increased contribution of euphausiids during 2017 resulted in a distinct decrease in the trophic level of pollock compared to co-occurring higher trophic level predators, which can be linked to changes in habitat water temperature. Combined stomach contents and isotopic analyses provide a more comprehensive understanding of how fish diets and trophic levels fluctuate with changes in the type and abundance of prey resources in response to environmental changes.


Assuntos
Isótopos de Carbono , Dieta , Cadeia Alimentar , Isótopos de Nitrogênio , Animais , República da Coreia , Dieta/veterinária , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Ecossistema , Gadiformes/metabolismo , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Monitoramento Ambiental
17.
Aquat Toxicol ; 269: 106867, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38432024

RESUMO

Sea turtle mortality is often related to materials that reach the coast from different anthropic activities worldwide. This study aimed to investigate whether sea turtle mortality was related to older marine problems, such as solid waste, or one of the largest oil spill accidents on the Brazilian coast, that occurred in 2019. We posed three questions: 1) Are there solid residues in the digestive tract samples, and which typology is the most abundant? 2) Can meso­ and macro-waste marine pollutants cause mortality? 3) Is the dark material found really oil? A total of 25 gastrointestinal content (GC) samples were obtained, of which 22 ingested waste of anthropogenic origin and 18 were necropsied. These 22 samples were obtained during or after the 2019 oil spill, of which 17 specimens were affected, making it possible to suggest oil ingestion with the cause of death in the animals that could be necropsied. Macroscopic data showed that the most abundant solid waste was plastic (76.05 %), followed by fabrics (12.18 %) and oil-like materials. However, chemical data confirmed only three specimens with oil levels ranging from remnants to high. It was possible to infer possible causes of death in 16 of the total 18 necropsied cases: Most deaths were due to respiratory arrest (62.5 %), followed by pulmonary edema (12.5 %), cachexia syndrome (12.5 %), circulatory shock (6.25 %), and head trauma (6.25 %), which may have been caused by contact with solid waste, oil, or both. The study showed that not all dark material found in the GCs of turtles killed in oiled areas is truly oil, and in this sense, a chemical analysis step to prove the evidence of oil must be added to international protocols.


Assuntos
Poluição por Petróleo , Tartarugas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Poluição por Petróleo/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Petróleo/análise , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Brasil , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Plásticos , Ingestão de Alimentos
18.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 43(5): 943-951, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38441271

RESUMO

Pesticides, which are vital for agriculture, pose a significant threat to wildlife in transformed Japanese landscapes. Despite global reports of pesticide poisoning in animals, limited studies have examined current wildlife exposure in croplands or metropolitan areas in the region. Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), our study aimed to assess the contamination status of 368 commonly used pesticides. The stomach contents of raccoons living in croplands contained 13 pesticides, including six herbicides and 11 fungicides. Neonicotinoid insecticides, some fungicides, and previously banned insecticides (benzene hexachloride and dichlofenthion) were most frequently detected and found at the highest concentrations, suggesting direct soil-plant transfer and direct consumption by crop-eating species. In masked palm civets living in metropolitan areas, four insecticides and six fungicides were detected, indicating urban wildlife exposure from raided dustbins, urban gardens, and lumber from houses. Although the maximum measured concentrations of all pesticides were lower than the acceptable daily intake for humans, it remains unclear whether these concentrations may have toxic or adverse health effects on the species evaluated in these transformed landscapes. Our study is the first to examine recent pesticide exposures in wild mammals in Japan. Application of the method we developed will lay the foundation for the examination of pesticides in other wildlife species to assist conservation management efforts in the region. Environ Toxicol Chem 2024;43:943-951. © 2024 SETAC.


Assuntos
Guaxinins , Viverridae , Animais , Japão , Monitoramento Ambiental , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Praguicidas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Poluentes Ambientais/análise
19.
JAMA Surg ; 159(6): 660-667, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38446466

RESUMO

Importance: Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) use is rapidly increasing in the US, driven by its expanded approval for weight management in addition to hyperglycemia management in patients with type 2 diabetes. The perioperative safety of these medications, particularly with aspiration risk under anesthesia, is uncertain. Objective: To assess the association between GLP-1 RA use and prevalence of increased residual gastric content (RGC), a major risk factor for aspiration under anesthesia, using gastric ultrasonography. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study prospectively enrolled patients from a large, tertiary, university-affiliated hospital from June 6 through July 12, 2023. Participants followed preprocedural fasting guidelines before an elective procedure under anesthesia. Patients with altered gastric anatomy (eg, from previous gastric surgery), pregnancy, recent trauma (<1 month), or an inability to lie in the right lateral decubitus position for gastric ultrasonography were excluded. Exposure: Use of a once-weekly GLP-1 RA. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the presence of increased RGC, defined by the presence of solids, thick liquids, or more than 1.5 mL/kg of clear liquids on gastric ultrasonography. Analysis was adjusted for confounders using augmented inverse probability of treatment weighting, a propensity score-based technique. Secondarily, the association between the duration of drug interruption and the prevalence of increased RGC was explored. Results: Among the 124 participants (median age, 56 years [IQR, 46-65 years]; 75 [60%] female), the prevalence of increased RGC was 56% (35 of 62) in patients with GLP-1 RA use (exposure group) compared with 19% (12 of 62) in patients who were not taking a GLP-1 RA drug (control group). After adjustment for confounding, GLP-1 RA use was associated with a 30.5% (95% CI, 9.9%-51.2%) higher prevalence of increased RGC (adjusted prevalence ratio, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.23-4.97). There was no association between the duration of GLP-1 RA interruption and the prevalence of increased RGC (adjusted odds ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.65-1.14). Conclusions and Relevance: Use of a GLP-1 RA was independently associated with increased RGC on preprocedural gastric ultrasonography. The findings suggest that the preprocedural fasting duration suggested by current guidelines may be inadequate in this group of patients at increased risk of aspiration under anesthesia.


Assuntos
Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1 , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Transversais , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Estudos Prospectivos , Ultrassonografia , Idoso , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Fatores de Risco , Anestesia
20.
Radiology ; 310(2): e231710, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38319165

RESUMO

Background Preoperative recognition of irreversible bowel necrosis is important, as it provides valuable guidance for surgical strategy selection but also may inform perioperative risk assessment and communication. Few studies have focused on the association between CT signs and bowel necrosis. Purpose To assess the diagnostic accuracy of CT signs to predict bowel necrosis in patients with closed-loop small bowel obstruction (CL-SBO). Materials and Methods This retrospective single-center study included patients who were surgically confirmed to have CL-SBO caused by adhesion or internal hernia between January 2016 and May 2022. Necrosis was determined based on surgical exploration and postoperative pathologic examination. Two radiologists independently reviewed CT signs by both subjective visual assessment and objective measurement. Disagreements were resolved in consensus with a third gastrointestinal radiologist. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to assess the association between CT signs and bowel necrosis, and Cohen κ was used to assess interobserver agreement. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each CT sign. Results This study included 145 patients: 61 (42.1%) in the necrotic group (median age, 62 years [IQR, 51-71.5 years]; 37 [60.7%] women) and 84 (57.9%) in the nonnecrotic group (median age, 61.5 years [IQR, 51-68.8 years]; 51 [60.7%] women). Univariable analysis and multivariable analysis showed that increased attenuation of intestinal contents and increased attenuation of intestinal wall were independent predictors for bowel necrosis (odds ratio = 45.3 and 15.1; P = .001 and P < .001, respectively). Increased attenuation of intestinal contents and increased attenuation of intestinal wall had similar sensitivity (64% and 67%, respectively) and specificity (99% and 92%, respectively) for predicting bowel necrosis. However, interobserver agreement was better for assessing the contents than the wall (κ = 0.84 and 0.59, respectively). Conclusion Increased attenuation of intestinal contents was a highly specific CT sign with good reproducibility to predict bowel necrosis in CL-SBO. © RSNA, 2024 Supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Taourel and Zins in this issue.


Assuntos
Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Obstrução Intestinal , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Obstrução Intestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Obstrução Intestinal/cirurgia , Necrose/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
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