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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15165, 2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071170

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of health facility-level factors, including the availability of long-acting modern contraceptives (LAMC) at the nearest health facility and its distance from women's homes, on the occurrence of unintended pregnancy that resulted in a live birth. We analysed the 2017/18 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey data linked with the 2017 Bangladesh Health Facility Survey. The weighted sample comprised 5051 women of reproductive age, who had at least one live birth within 3 years of the survey. The outcome variable was women's intention to conceive at their most recent pregnancy that ended with a live birth. The major explanatory variables were the health facility level factors. A multi-level multinomial logistic regression model was used to assess the association of the outcome variable with explanatory variables adjusting for individual, household, and community-level factors. Nearly 21% of the total respondents reported that their most recent live birth was unintended at conception. Better health facility management systems and health facility infrastructure were found to be 14-30% protective of unintended pregnancy that resulted in a live birth. LAMC availability at the nearest health facility was associated with a 31% reduction (95% CI 0.50-0.92) in the likelihood of an unwanted pregnancy that resulted in a live birth. Health facility readiness to provide LAMC was also associated with a 14-16% reduction in unintended pregnancies that ended with a birth. The likelihood of unintended pregnancy that resulted in a live birth increased around 20-22% with the increased distance of the nearest health facility providing LAMC from the women's homes.The availability of health facilities near women's homes and access to LAMC can significantly reduce unintended pregnancy. Policies and programs to ensure access and affordability of LAMC across current health facilities and to increase the number of health facilities are recommended.


Assuntos
Gravidez não Planejada , Gravidez não Desejada , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Anticoncepcionais , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Gravidez
2.
Reprod Health ; 19(1): 187, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36050768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ineffective or no use of contraception following an unintended pregnancy contributes to a subsequent unintended pregnancy. This study aimed to determine whether women's experiences of unintended pregnancies affect changing their contraceptive using patterns. METHODS: We analysed the 2017/2018 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey data. The contraceptive switching pattern was computed by comparing women's contraceptives using data before and after pregnancy. Women were categorised into the following three groups, depending on their patterns of contraceptive use before and after pregnancy: no change, if there were no change in contraceptive using pattern; switched to higher effective contraceptives, if changed from pre-pregnancy less effective contraceptives to post-pregnancy more effective contraceptives; switched to less effective contraceptives, if changed from pre-pregnancy more effective contraceptives to post-pregnancy less effective contraceptives. Women's intention in the most recent pregnancy was our primary explanatory variable, classified as wanted, mistimed and unwanted. Multinomial multilevel logistics regression was used to determine the association between women's intention in the most recent pregnancy and women's contraceptive methods switching patterns from before to after pregnancy. RESULTS: Around 20% of the most recent pregnancies that ended with a live birth were unintended at conception. No contraceptive use was reported by 37% of women before their pregnancies which decreased to 24% after pregnancies. Overall, around 54% of women who reported no contraceptive use before pregnancy used modern contraceptives after pregnancy. The rate was higher among women who experienced unwanted pregnancy (73.4%) than mistimed (58.8%) and wanted (53.4%) pregnancy. Experience of mistimed pregnancy was associated with a higher likelihood of no contraceptive change (aOR, 1.84, 95% CI 1.41-2.39) and switching to less effective contraceptives (aOR, 1.58, 95% CI 1.10-2.26) than switching to more effective contraceptives. However, unwanted pregnancy was not associated with any significant change in contraceptives use from before to after pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Experience of unintended pregnancy did not change women's contraception using patterns, which indicates the risk of repeat unintended pregnancies and associated adverse consequences, including maternal and child morbidity and mortality. Policies to ensure access to and use of modern contraceptives among women facing unwanted or mistimed pregnancies are recommended.


Unintended pregnancy is considered a public health challenge in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Around 89% of the global occurrences of unintended pregnancies occur in LMICs. In absolute numbers, this is equivalent to nearly 88 million pregnancies. Adverse pregnancy consequences, including bleeding, haemorrhage and maternal mortality are common in this group. The adverse consequences are even higher among women facing unintended pregnancies more than once, i.e., repeat unintended pregnancies, which represent around half of the total occurrences of unintended pregnancies in LMICs. Ensuring proper access to effective contraceptives following birth is key to reducing repeat unintended pregnancies and associated adverse consequences. It is critical to know the patterns of women's pre-pregnancy contraceptive methods use and whether experiences of unintended pregnancies affect their contraceptive methods uptake and their types. However, this data is completely lacking in the context of LMICs. Using nationally representative survey data from Bangladesh, we examined women's contraceptive switching patterns from before to after pregnancy and their association with pregnancy types. We found increased likelihood of no change in contraceptive using pattern or switching to less effective contraceptives among women after they experienced mistimed pregnancy compared to those whose pregnancy was wanted. This pattern increases the risk of repeat unintended pregnancies in Bangladesh and associated adverse consequences, including maternal and child morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo , Gravidez não Planejada , Anticoncepção , Anticoncepcionais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Gravidez não Desejada
3.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 369, 2022 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Modern contraceptive use has been shown to influence population growth, protect women's health and rights, as well as prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) for barrier contraceptive methods such as condoms. The present study aimed at assessing the level of utilization and factors associated with modern contraceptive use among sexually active adolescent girls in Rwanda. METHODS: We used secondary data from the Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey (RDHS) 2020 data of 539 sexually active adolescent girls (aged 15 to 19 years). Multistage stratified sampling was used to select study participants. We conducted multivariable logistic regression to assess the association between various socio-demographics and modern contraceptive use using SPSS version 25. Modern contraception included the use of products or medical procedures that interfere with reproduction from acts of sexual intercourse. RESULTS: Of the 539 sexually active girls, only 94 (17.4%, 95% CI: 13.8-20.1) were using modern contraceptives. Implants (69.1%) and male condoms (12.8%) were the most used options. Modern contraceptive use was positively associated with older age (AOR = 10.28, 95% CI: 1.34-78.70), higher educational level (AOR = 6.98, 95% CI: 1.08-45.07), history of having a sexually transmitted infection (AOR = 8.27, 95% CI: 2.54-26.99), working status (AOR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.03-2.88) and being from a female-headed household (AOR = 1.96, 95% CI: 1.12-3.43). However, not being in a union (AOR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.10-0.35) and region (AOR = 0.28, 95% CI: 0.10-0.80) had negative associations. CONCLUSIONS: To promote utilisation of modern contraceptives, family planning campaigns need to place more emphasis on the younger, unmarried adolescents, as well as those with lower educational levels. Consideration of household and regional dynamics is also highlighted.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Adolescente , Anticoncepção/métodos , Comportamento Contraceptivo , Estudos Transversais , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ruanda , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle
4.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1675, 2022 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With overpopulation contributing to the depletion of planetary resources, the high rates of unintended pregnancies in India are a cause for concern. Despite the free supply of contraception options within India's national family planning initiatives, women are generally offered hormonal options as temporary spacing methods. However, female condoms, a much neglected but potent woman initiated, non-hormonal multipurpose prevention device, are yet to be considered for inclusion in India's contraceptive cafeteria. Thus, we aim to examine the place of female condoms among the contraceptive options, by analysing the perceptions of key stakeholders regarding its advantages and disadvantages, along with their opinions on how female condoms should be promoted. METHODS: We used purposive sampling to recruit and interview potential users and dispensers of the female condom. The interview participants visited or worked at family planning clinics in Pune at Smt. Kashibai Navale Medical College and General Hospital (SKNMC-GH), its urban and rural outreach clinics, and at Saheli (a non-governmental organisation for female sex workers). We conducted semi-structured interviews and coded our data inductively. RESULTS: We interviewed 5 rural women, 20 urban women (including 10 female sex workers), 5 male partners of female sex workers, and 5 family planning healthcare providers. Nearly half (12/25) of the women we interviewed, said that they were eager to use female condoms in the future. Many participants perceived female condoms to be an instrument to empower women to be in control of their sexual and reproductive lives (15/35), and that it provided user comfort and confidence (4/35). Their perceived disadvantages are that they are relatively more expensive (6/35), users have limited experience (9/35), and women who buy or use them may be stigmatised and feel embarrassed (4/35). Yet, nearly three-quarters of potential users (21/30) and most healthcare providers (4/5), were confident that female condoms could become popular following extensive promotional campaigns, interventions to improve availability and access, and initiatives to enhance the knowledge of female users. CONCLUSIONS: Female condoms have garnered support from both users and dispensers and have the potential to be widely adopted in India if family planning initiatives which increase awareness, knowledge, and access are systematically undertaken as with other contraceptive options.


Assuntos
Preservativos Femininos , Profissionais do Sexo , Preservativos , Anticoncepção , Anticoncepcionais , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Gravidez , Comportamento Sexual
5.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273907, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048860

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The role of men in family planning is critical in patriarchal societies like Pakistan. The objective of this study is to explore the predictors of modern contraceptive use among Pakistani men. METHODS: This study is a secondary analysis of Pakistan demographic and health survey (PDHS) 2017-18 data. The study sample consists of 3691 ever married men aged 15-49 years. Pearson's chi square test and logistic regression were used to find out the determinants of modern contraceptive use among men. Data analysis was carried out in December, 2020. RESULTS: Findings of logistic regression showed that men who were uneducated (aOR = 0.746; 95% CI = 0.568-0.980), residing in Sindh (aOR = 0.748; 95% CI = 0.568-0.985), Baluchistan (aOR = 0.421; 95% CI = 0.280-0.632) or FATA (aOR 0.313; 95% CI 0.176-0.556) and those who belonged to the poorest wealth quintile (aOR = 0.569; 95% CI = 0.382-0.846) were less likely to use modern contraceptives. Men who did not wish for another child (aOR = 2.821; 95% CI = 2.305-3.451) had a higher likelihood of modern contraceptive use. Finally, men who thought that contraception was women's business (aOR = 0.670; 95% CI = 0.526-0.853) and those who did not discuss family planning with health worker (aOR = 0.715; 95% CI = 0.559-0.914) were also less likely to use modern contraceptives. CONCLUSION: Reproductive health education of males, targeting males, in addition to, females for addressing family planning issues and improvement of family planning facilities in socioeconomically under-privileged regions are suggested to improve contraceptive use among couples.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo , Anticoncepcionais , Anticoncepção , Demografia , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão
6.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1180, 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36131314

RESUMO

AIM: Increasing access to long-acting modern contraceptives (LMAC) is one of the key factors in preventing unintended pregnancy and protecting women's health rights. However, the availability and accessibility of health facilities and their impacts on LAMC utilisation (implant, intrauterine devices, sterilisation) in low- and middle-income countries is an understudied topic. This study aimed to examine the association between the availability and readiness of health facilities and the use of LAMC in Bangladesh. METHODS: In this survey study, we linked the 2017/18 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey data with the 2017 Bangladesh Health Facility Survey data using the administrative-boundary linkage method. Mixed-effect multilevel logistic regressions were conducted. The sample comprised 10,938 married women of 15-49 years age range who were fertile but did not desire a child within 2 years of the date of survey. The outcome variable was the current use of LAMC (yes, no), and the explanatory variables were health facility-, individual-, household- and community-level factors. RESULTS: Nearly 34% of participants used LAMCs with significant variations across areas in Bangladesh. The average scores of the health facility management and health facility infrastructure were 0.79 and 0.83, respectively. Of the facilities where LAMCs were available, 69% of them were functional and ready to provide LAMCs to the respondents. The increase in scores for the management (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 1.59; 95% CI, 1.21-2.42) and infrastructure (aOR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.01-1.69) of health facilities was positively associated with the overall uptake of LAMC. For per unit increase in the availability and readiness scores to provide LAMC at the nearest health facilities, the aORs for women to report using LAMC were 2.16 (95% CI, 1.18-3.21) and 1.74 (95% CI, 1.15-3.20), respectively. A nearly 27% decline in the likelihood of LAMC uptake was observed for every kilometre increase in the average regional-level distance between women's homes and the nearest health facilities. CONCLUSION: The proximity of health facilities and their improved management, infrastructure, and readiness to provide LAMCs to women significantly increase their uptake. Policies and programs should prioritise improving health facility readiness to increase LAMC uptake.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Bangladesh , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Anticoncepcionais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Gravidez , Web Semântica
7.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 376, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Access to sexual and reproductive health information enables young women to make appropriate decisions. We examined the association between exposure to family panning messages on different mass media and the use of modern contraceptives among young women in Sierra Leone. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of the 2019 Sierra Leone Demographic and Health Survey data of young women aged 15-24 years. Multistage stratified sampling was used to select study participants in the survey. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine the association between exposure to family panning messages on different types mass media channels and utilization of modern contraceptives. All our analyses were done using SPSS version 25. RESULTS: Out of 6055 young women, 1506 (24.9%, 95% CI 24.0-26.2) were utilizing a modern contraceptive method with the prevalence higher among urban women (26.5%) compared to rural women (23.1%). Less than half (45.6%) had been exposed to family planning messages on mass media (radio 28.6%, television 10.6%, mobile phones 4.2% and newspapers or magazines 2.2%). Young women who had exposure to family planning messages on radio (AOR: 1.26, 95% CI 1.06-1.50) and mobile phones (AOR: 1.84, 95% CI 1.25-2.69) had higher odds of using modern contraceptives compared to their counterparts without the same exposure. Furthermore, having access to internet (AOR: 1.45, 95% CI 1.19-1.78), working (AOR: 1.49, 95% CI 1.27-1.74), being older (20-24 years) (AOR: 1.75, 95% CI 1.46-2.10), being married (AOR: 0.33, 95% CI 0.26-0.42), having visited a health facility within the last 12 months (AOR: 1.34, 95% CI 1.10-1.63), having secondary (AOR: 2.83, 95% CI 2.20-3.64) and tertiary levels of education (AOR: 3.35, 95% CI 1.83-6.13), higher parity (having above one child) AOR: 1.57, 95% CI 1.19-2.08) and residing in the southern (AOR: 2.11, 95% CI 1.61-2.79), northwestern (AOR: 1.87, 95% CI 1.39-2.52), northern (AOR: 2.11, 95% CI 1.59-2.82) and eastern (AOR: 1.68, 95% CI 1.27-2.22) regions of residence were associated with higher odds of modern contraceptives utilization. CONCLUSION: In Sierra Leon, only one in four young women were using modern contraception and more than half of them had not had any exposure to family planning messages on the different types of mass media channels. Behavior change communicators can prioritize family planning messages using radio, mobile phones and the internet. In order to publicize and encourage young women to adopt healthy behaviours and increase uptake of modern contraceptive.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Criança , Comportamento Contraceptivo , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Casamento , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Gravidez , Serra Leoa
8.
Hawaii J Health Soc Welf ; 81(9): 239-246, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36118155

RESUMO

The prevention of unintended pregnancy was identified as a primary prevention strategy to reduce Zika-related adverse birth outcomes during the 2016-2017 Zika virus outbreak. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in partnership with local health agencies conducted formative research to guide the development of culturally appropriate messages and materials to increase awareness of the prevention of unintended pregnancy as a strategy to decrease Zika-related adverse outcomes in American Samoa and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI). Nine focus groups (N=71) were conducted with women and men aged 18-44 years living in American Samoa and CNMI. Semi-structured interview guides were used to explore participants' knowledge and perceptions of Zika, family planning, and contraception; barriers and facilitators to access contraception and use; and information sources and contraception decision-making. Trained staff from local organizations co-moderated each focus group. Thematic analysis was conducted with NVivo 10. Participants had mixed knowledge about Zika virus and its relation to pregnancy and birth defects. Women and men had varied knowledge of the full range of contraceptive methods available in their jurisdiction and identified barriers to contraceptive access. Social factors including stigma, gender roles, and religion often deterred participants from accessing contraceptive services. Participants highlighted the need for culturally appropriate and clear messaging about contraceptive methods. Results demonstrate the feasibility of conducting formative research as an effective strategy for understanding community perspectives on unintended pregnancy prevention in the context of the Zika virus outbreak to develop health communication materials.


Assuntos
Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Samoa Americana/epidemiologia , Anticoncepção/métodos , Anticoncepcionais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle
9.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 381, 2022 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36123682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of the present trial was to assess the difference in pharmacokinetics (PK) of an oral test preparation containing 4 mg drospirenone (DRSP) under fasting conditions compared to PK upon food intake after single dose administration. METHODS: Open label, single centre, two-treatment, two-sequence, crossover study in 24 healthy female volunteers, with duration of 1 day per sequence and with a real wash-out period of 14 days to investigate the relative bioavailability of DRSP with both forms of administration. The 90% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for the intra-individual ratio (test with food vs. without food) of the PK endpoints Area under the curve; 0-72 h [AUC(0-72 h)] and maximal plasma concentration [Cmax] of DRSP. RESULTS: The 90% CI calculated by analysis of variance using logistic transformation (ANOVA-log) for the endpoint, intra-individual ratio (Test 'A' = with food intake) vs. Test 'B' = without food intake) of AUC(0-72 h) of drospirenone was between 104.72 and 111.36%. The 90% CI calculated by means of ANOVA- log for the endpoint intra-individual ratio (Test 'A' vs. Test 'B') of Cmax of DRSP was between 118.58 and 141.10%. The mean relative bioavailability of the test with food 'A' compared to the Test without food 'B' after single dose administration based on the endpoints AUC(0-72 h) was 107.99%; for the endpoint Cmax it was 129.35%. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of absorption, based on the endpoint Cmax of DRSP was increased by about 30% under fed conditions. With respect to consumer habits, this may represent a relevant benefit for contraceptive safety, as the time span between food consumption and pill intake does not play a role. IMPLICATIONS: Our results suggest that the food intake has no impact on the absorption of 4 mg DRSP in the management of contraception. This increases the contraceptive efficacy as no interference with food is expected when consuming the oral formulation under real life conditions. TRAIL REGISTRATION: Trial registration number: EudraCT-No: 2012-004,309-28.


Assuntos
Desjejum , Anticoncepcionais , Androstenos , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos
10.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e061747, 2022 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115678

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify the individual and contextual factors consistently associated with utilisation of essential maternal and child health services in Nigeria across time and household geolocation. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Secondary data from five nationally representative household surveys conducted in Nigeria from 2003 to 2018 were used in this study. The study participants are women and children depending on essential maternal and child health (MCH) services. OUTCOME MEASURES: The outcome measures were indicators of whether participants used each of the following essential MCH services: antenatal care, facility-based delivery, modern contraceptive use, childhood immunisations (BCG, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis/Pentavalent and measles) and treatments of childhood illnesses (fever, cough and diarrhoea). METHODS: We estimated generalised additive models with logit links and smoothing terms for households' geolocation and survey years. RESULTS: Higher maternal education and households' wealth were significantly associated with utilisation of all types of essential MCH services (p<0.05). On the other hand, households with more children under 5 years of age and in poor communities were significantly less likely to use essential MCH services (p<0.05). Except for childhood immunisations, greater access to transport was positively associated with utilisation (p<0.05). Households with longer travel times to the most accessible health facility were less likely to use all types of essential MCH services (p<0.05), except modern contraceptive use and treatment of childhood fever and/or cough. CONCLUSION: This study adds to the evidence that maternal education and household wealth status are consistently associated with utilisation of essential MCH services across time and space. To increase utilisation of essential MCH services across different geolocations, interventions targeting poor communities and households with more children under 5 years of age should be appropriately designed. Moreover, additional interventions should prioritise to reduce inequities of essential MCH service utilisation between the wealth quantiles and between education status.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Vacina BCG , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Anticoncepcionais , Tosse , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Gravidez
11.
Perspect Sex Reprod Health ; 54(3): 90-98, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071572

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Understanding how pregnancy preferences shape contraceptive use is essential for guiding contraceptive interventions and policies that center individuals' preferences and desires. Lack of rigorous measurement of pregnancy preferences, particularly on the population level, has been a methodologic challenge. METHODS: We investigated associations between prospective pregnancy preferences, measured with a valid instrument, the Desire to Avoid Pregnancy (DAP) scale, and contraceptive use in a representative sample of 2601 pregnancy-capable self-identified women, aged 18-44 years, in Alabama and South Carolina (2017-2018). We used multivariable regression with weighting to investigate how probability of modern contraceptive use, and use of different contraceptive method types, changed with increasing preference to avoid pregnancy. RESULTS: Desire to Avoid Pregnancy scale scores (range:0-4, 4 = greater preference to avoid pregnancy, median = 2.29, IQR: 1.57-3.14; α:0.95) were strongly associated with contraceptive use among sexually active respondents (aPR = 1.15 [1.10, 1.20]; predicted 45% using contraception among DAP = 0, 62% among DAP = 2, 86% among DAP = 4). Method types used did not differ by DAP score. The most common reasons for nonuse were concern over side effects and not wanting to use a method (32% each) among respondents with mid-range and high DAP scores. Among those with mid-range DAP scores, 20% reported nonuse due to not minding if pregnancy were to occur (vs. 0% among those with high DAP scores). CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancy preferences strongly influence likelihood of contraceptive use. Providion of appropriate contraceptive care to those not explicitly desiring pregnancy must differentiate between ranges of feelings about pregnancy, perceived drawbacks to contraceptive use, and legitimate psychological and interpersonal benefits of nonuse to promote autonomy in contraceptive decision-making.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção , Anticoncepcionais , Comportamento Contraceptivo , Anticoncepcionais/uso terapêutico , Dispositivos Anticoncepcionais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos
12.
Perspect Sex Reprod Health ; 54(3): 80-89, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071608

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The COVID-19 pandemic increased the provision of contraception through telemedicine. This qualitative study describes provider perceptions of how telemedicine provision of contraception has impacted patient care. METHODS: We interviewed 40 obstetrics-gynecology and family medicine physicians, midwives, nurse practitioners, and support staff providing contraception via telemedicine in practices across Illinois, including Planned Parenthood of Illinois (PPIL) health centers. We analyzed interview content to identify themes around the perceived impact of telemedicine implementation on contraception access, contraceptive counseling, patient privacy, and provision of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC). RESULTS: Participants perceived that telemedicine implementation improved care by increasing contraception access, increasing focus on counseling while reducing bias, and allowing easier method switching. Participants thought disparities in telemedicine usage and limitations to the technological interface presented barriers to patient care. Participants' perceptions of how telemedicine implementation impacts patient privacy and LARC provision were mixed. Some participants found telemedicine implementation enhanced privacy, while others felt unable to ensure privacy in a virtual space. Participants found telemedicine modalities useful for counseling patients considering methods of LARC, but they sometimes presented an unnecessary extra step for those sure about receiving one at a practice offering same day insertion. CONCLUSION: Providers felt telemedicine provision of contraception positively impacted patient care. Improvements to counseling and easier access to method switching suggest that telemedicine implementation may help reduce contraceptive coercion. Our findings highlight the need to integrate LARC care with telemedicine workflows, improve patient privacy protections, and promote equitable access to all telemedicine modalities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Telemedicina , Anticoncepção/métodos , Anticoncepcionais , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Gravidez
13.
Wiad Lek ; 75(8 pt 2): 1965-1969, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36129079

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To determine the distribution of Candida spp. within different age groups and contraceptive methods in women with vulvovaginitis, as well as the susceptibility of Candida spp. to commonly used antifungals. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: High vaginal swabs were taken from 98 women aged 18 to 50 with vulvovaginitis who used contraceptives and attended the Women and Children Hospital in Al-Diwaniyah; after diagnosis of Candida species, the sensitivity of Candida spp. to some antifungals was studied. RESULTS: Results: The results showed (43/98) women (43.87%) used IUD, (15/98) women (15.30%) used birth control pills, (7/98) women (7.14%) used an injection of contraceptive, (5/98) women (5.10%) used contraceptive suppositories, and (28/98) women (28.57%) did not use any contraceptives. Candida spp. was found in (48/83) specimens (57.831%) from women who used contraceptives and only (11/28) specimens (39.285%) from women who did not use contraceptives. Only (59/98) vaginal specimens tested positive for vaginal candidiasis, (28/59) isolates (47.457%) for C. albicans, then (16/59) isolates for C. glabrata (27.118%), (9/59) isolates (15.254%) for C. tropicalis and (6/59) isolates (10.169%) for C. krusei. Nystatin was the best treatment for all Candida spp. under study, and the MIC was 6.25, and the MFC was 50 for all antifungals and Candida species under study. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: C. albicans was the most prevalent cause of vulvovaginal candidiasis, while C. glabrata was the most common non-albicans species in women aged 26 to 35; using an IUD was associated with an increased infection of vulvovaginal candidiasis, and nystatin was the most effective treatment.


Assuntos
Candidíase Vulvovaginal , Vulvovaginite , Antifúngicos , Candida , Candida albicans , Criança , Anticoncepção , Anticoncepcionais , Feminino , Humanos , Nistatina , Pichia , Supositórios
14.
Sex Reprod Health Matters ; 30(1): 2111796, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36129725

RESUMO

Immigrant women in Sweden often have unmet sexual and reproductive health (SRH) needs. Successful contraceptive counselling may improve their sexual and reproductive health and rights. The unique Swedish model, with midwives as the main providers of contraceptive counselling, is important for immigrant women's health at both individual and societal levels. This study explored immigrant women's perspectives on receiving contraceptive counselling from midwives in Sweden, in order to obtain deeper knowledge about the factors they perceive as important in the counselling situation. Nineteen in-depth individual interviews were conducted from December 2018 to February 2019, followed by qualitative manifest and latent content analysis. Trust emerged as the overall important factor in the contraceptive counselling meeting. Knowledge was lacking about the midwife's professional role as a contraceptive counsellor. Contraceptive counselling was seen as a private matter not easily shared with unfamiliar midwives or interpreters. Previous experiences of contraceptives and preconceptions were important considerations for contraceptive choice, but communicating these needs required trust. Women also wanted more knowledge about contraceptives and SRH care and rights. Cultural and social norms concerning when and why to use contraceptives needed to be acknowledged in the midwife encounter. Although immigrant women want more knowledge about contraception, a trustful relationship with the midwife is needed to be able to make informed contraceptive choices. Midwives may need increased awareness of the many factors influencing immigrant women's choices to ensure their contraceptive autonomy. Policy changes that promote new ways of counselling and ability to provide continuous care are needed.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Tocologia , Anticoncepcionais , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Suécia
15.
Sex Reprod Healthc ; 33: 100764, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36057204

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Rates of unintended pregnancy among women with substance use disorder (SUD) are much higher than the general reproductive-age population, suggesting lower rates of contraceptive use. This study aims to determine the prevalence of contraceptive use in postpartum women with SUD and identify factors associated with its use. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study using electronic health record data from 2016 to 2019 included postpartum adult women with any SUD who received care at a high-risk pregnancy clinic (n = 353). The primary outcome was contraception utilization as identified using diagnosis and procedure codes. An adjusted multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between postpartum contraceptive use and sample characteristics. RESULTS: Of the 353 postpartum women with SUD, contraceptive use was found in 128 (36.3%) women. Among the study population, the most commonly reported substance use disorders were nicotine use disorder (70.3%), opioid use disorder (51.3%), and cannabis use disorder (15.0%). Among those with opioid use disorder, 45.3% were found to be using medication for opioid use disorder (MOUD). Women who attended a postpartum visit had 2.23 times the odds of using contraception compared to women who did not (OR: 2.23, 95% CI: 1.20-4.15). Those using MOUD had 3.69 times the odds of using contraception compared to those who were not (OR: 3.69, 95% CI: 1.89-7.19). Overall, women who utilized contraception were more likely to be younger than 25, receiving MOUD, and participating in postpartum care. CONCLUSIONS: Postpartum women with SUD are not using contraceptive methods and this is associated with a lack of appropriate healthcare interventions in the perinatal period, which can reduce the odds of receiving effective family planning services. Specialized whole-health interventions and policies to increase access to care for women with SUD should be developed.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Adulto , Anticoncepção/métodos , Comportamento Contraceptivo , Anticoncepcionais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 25(9): e26001, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073977

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Contraceptive implants containing etonogestrel and levonorgestrel have emerged as popular contraceptive options among women in areas of high HIV burden in sub-Saharan Africa. However, recent pharmacokinetic data have shown drug-drug interactions between implants and efavirenz-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART), reducing the effectiveness of the implants. Here, we evaluated pregnancy incidence in 6-month intervals following implant initiation among women using efavirenz and contraceptive implants to assess whether the risk of breakthrough pregnancy is higher after specific periods of implant use. METHODS: We used data from a retrospective longitudinal analysis of women living with HIV ages 18-45 years in western Kenya who attended HIV-care facilities between 2011 and 2015. We used Cox proportional hazard models to compute hazard ratios (HRs) for breakthrough pregnancy by implant type and ART regimen. Depending on the model, we adjusted for socio-demographic and clinical factors, programme, site and interaction between calendar time and ART regimen. We utilized inverse probability weights (IPWs) to account for three sampling phases (electronic medical record [EMR], chart review and phone interview) and calculated overall parameter estimates. RESULTS: Women contributed 14,768 woman-years from the largest sampling phase (EMR). The median age was 31 years. Women used etonogestrel implants for 26-69% of the time and levonorgestrel implants for 7-31% of the time, depending on the sampling phase. Women used efavirenz, nevirapine or no ART for 27-33%, 40-46% and 15-26% of follow-ups, respectively. When combining sampling phases, there was little evidence to suggest that the relative hazard of pregnancy among efavirenz-containing ART users relative to nevirapine-containing ART changed with length of time on implants: IPW-adjusted HR of 3.1 (CI: [1.5; 6.4]) at 12 months, 3.4 (CI: [1.8; 6.3]) at 24 months, 3.8 (CI: [1.9; 7.7]) at 36 months and 4.2 (CI: [1.6; 11.1]) at 48 months (interaction p-value = 0.88). Similarly, no significant change in HRs over time was found when comparing women not using ART to nevirapine-containing ART users (interaction p-value = 0.49). CONCLUSIONS: We did not find evidence to suggest implants being more fallible from drug-drug interactions with efavirenz at later time intervals of implant use. Thus, we would not recommend shortening the duration of implant use or replacing implants sooner when concomitantly used with efavirenz.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Nevirapina , Adolescente , Adulto , Alcinos , Benzoxazinas , Anticoncepcionais , Ciclopropanos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Levanogestrel/farmacocinética , Levanogestrel/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Sex Reprod Health Matters ; 29(3): 2110671, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36083099

RESUMO

Adolescents experience significant barriers, including stigma and discrimination, to accessing voluntary family planning and reproductive health (FP/RH) services in Rwanda. Self-care interventions have been shown to reduce social barriers to FP/RH care, but little is known about the effectiveness of digital self-care for adolescents, particularly in low-resource settings. This paper presents findings from a pilot study of CyberRwanda, a digital self-care intervention providing comprehensive sexuality education and confidential online ordering of contraceptives for school-aged youth in Rwanda through a rights-based approach. A mixed-methods pilot study was conducted from November 2019 to February 2020 to assess feasibility, acceptability, and engagement and to inform a future impact evaluation. Surveys were administered to a random sample of 158 students aged 12-19 years in three secondary schools. In-depth interviews were conducted with students, parents, teachers, pharmacists, district-level administrators, and youth centre staff. Descriptive statistics were calculated and qualitative data were analyzed using a thematic coding approach. One hundred and fifty-eight surveys and 28 interviews were conducted. Results revealed high demand for CyberRwanda in schools. Students were interested in engaging with the program and found the FP/RH content relevant to their needs. However, few purchased contraceptive products through the online ordering system. There are preliminary indications that CyberRwanda may improve access to FP/RH information. An extended implementation period and further research are needed to measure the long-term impacts of the program and evaluate whether this digital self-care intervention can increase uptake of contraceptive methods and reduce adolescent pregnancy among school-aged youth.


Assuntos
Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva , Adolescente , Criança , Anticoncepcionais , Feminino , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Saúde Reprodutiva , Ruanda , Autocuidado , Educação Sexual
18.
Pan Afr Med J ; 42: 45, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35949473

RESUMO

Introduction: globally, 600,000 women died of complications due to pregnancies among more than 2 million women on antiretroviral treatment who get pregnant every year due to low utilization of dual contraception and unsafe sex. The failure rate of preventing of mother-to-child transmission of HIV/AIDS (PMTCT) in Rwanda was 2% in 2019. In Rwanda, there was no research done and published on this topic. To fill the gap, the study aimed to assess the use of dual contraceptives and associated factors among women aged 15-49 years on antiretroviral (ART) in Kayonza District, Rwanda. Methods: a cross-sectional design was conducted in October 2021. The sample was 345 participants selected by cluster simple random sampling from a targeted population of 1426 women. The interviews were conducted, and structured questionnaires were filled out before entering and analyzing data into Statistical Package Social Sciences (SPSS). Descriptive statistics analysis was used to determine frequencies and percentages, while multivariate seconded the bivariate regression analysis determine the factors associated to dual contraception by odds ratio with 95% CI. Results: the mean age of interviewees was 35.59 years and the majority of them were married women (60.9%). The dual contraception rate was 40%. The multivariate analysis of factors associated with dual contraception revealed that single women were most likely (AOR=38.123, 95% CI: 6.575-221.040, p<0.001) to use combinations of condoms and other methods. The odds of utilizing dual contraceptive methods were 7.347 times (AOR=7.347, 95% CI: 0.936-57.671, p=0.049) higher among women whose partners were casual laborers. Women who did not desire to have a baby were most likely (AOR=3.990, 95% CI: 1.796-8.865, p=0.001) to utilize dual contraception. The odds of utilizing dual methods were 5.634 times (AOR=5.634, 95% CI: 2.277-13.939, p<0.001) higher among women whose sexual partners did not desire a baby compared to those whose partners did. The odds of using dual methods were 1.354 times (AOR=1.354, 95% CI: 0.705-2.602) higher among women who disclosed their HIV status to their sexual partners compared to those who did not. The odds of using dual contraception were 5.526 times (AOR=5.526, 95% CI: 2.186-13.968, p<0.001) higher among women who were in HIV program for more than five years compared to those who were in the program for one year or less. Conclusion: the rate of dual contraception in this area is still low according to World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation and strategies to increase it are of paramount importance to be put in place by the Ministry of Health through Rwanda Biomedical Center, health facilities and partners in terms of training, health education, availability of dual methods at the level of the health system and men involvement in family planning.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais , Infecções por HIV , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Anticoncepção , Comportamento Contraceptivo , Anticoncepcionais/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Gravidez , Ruanda
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36011419

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Afghanistan is one of the countries with the highest prevalence of spousal violence (56%) and a low prevalence of contraceptive use (23%), yet there is no study assessing how spousal violence is related to contraceptive use, and what methods are most used by women. Therefore, this study examined the association between the number of types of spousal violence and contraceptive use. METHOD: Using data from 18,985 Afghan married women, aged 15 to 49, who responded to the 2015 Afghanistan Demographic and Health Survey, the current contraceptive method was grouped into five categories: male-involved methods, pills, injectables, long-acting reversible contraception, female sterilization, and Lactation Amenorrhea Method. The number of types of spousal violence in the past 12 months was categorized as none, one type, or two or more types, based on women's experiences with verbal, physical, and sexual violence. For analysis, binary and multinomial logistic regression were used. RESULTS: After adjusting for the covariates, the experience of any spousal violence was associated with contraception use (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.93, 95% CI: 1.64-2.27, p = 0.0001). Among those using contraception, experiencing two or three types of spousal violence was associated with using pills (adjusted risk ratio (aRRR) = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.63-2.77, p = 0.0001), injections (aRRR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.26-2.41, p = 0.001), and LAM (aRRR = 3.27, 95% CI: 2.05-5.20, p = 0.0001), compared to male-involved methods. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study may inform policymakers and program implementers in designing interventions to address the pervasive problem of violence against women, and make pills and injectables more accessible to Afghan women, since these methods are under women's control and more often used in Afghanistan.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais , Casamento , Anticoncepção , Comportamento Contraceptivo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Violência
20.
Tex Heart Inst J ; 49(4)2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939276

RESUMO

Cardiac thrombus, the most common intracardiac mass, is typically seen in the left side of the heart in the presence of atrial fibrillation, mitral stenosis, or impaired global wall motion. Right atrial thrombus, which is rarer, is usually associated with central venous catheter placement or pulmonary embolism. We present the case of a 24-year-old woman with a history of mitral valve prolapse who presented with fatigue and palpitations. Echocardiograms and cardiac magnetic resonance images revealed a right atrial mass compatible with a myxoma. However, after surgical excision of this and a second mass discovered intraoperatively, pathologic evaluation confirmed organized thrombus rather than myxoma. The patient's only risk factor was her use of oral contraceptive pills. Test results for hypercoagulable disorders revealed the presence of antiphosphatidylserine, an uncommon antiphospholipid antibody. The patient stopped taking the contraceptive. This case suggests the need to examine further the role of antiphosphatidylserine antibodies in the diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cardíacas , Mixoma , Trombose , Adulto , Anticorpos Antifosfolipídeos , Anticoncepcionais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Átrios do Coração/patologia , Neoplasias Cardíacas/patologia , Humanos , Mixoma/diagnóstico , Mixoma/cirurgia , Trombose/diagnóstico , Trombose/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
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