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1.
BMJ Case Rep ; 16(1)2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36593074

RESUMO

Coprophagia or the ingestion of faeces has been associated with medical conditions (seizure disorders, cerebral atrophy and tumours) and psychiatric disorders (mental retardation, alcoholism, depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, fetishes, delirium and dementia). The case of a woman in her 30s presenting with coprophagia and psychotic symptoms following hypoxic brain injury is reported. The case is discussed and literature is reviewed. We investigate cariprazine, a relatively new atypical antipsychotic for treating coprophagia, associated with psychotic symptoms. Psychiatric evaluation revealed cognitive dysfunction and psychotic symptoms. Physical examination and laboratory evaluation were unremarkable. She was treated with haloperidol resulting in resolution of coprophagia. Attempts at switching to alternative antipsychotics, due to side effects, resulted in recurrence of coprophagia. Subsequent relapses required higher doses of haloperidol for remission of coprophagia and psychotic symptoms. She finally responded to cariprazine. While firm conclusions are not possible from the experience of a single case, we suggest cariprazine may also be a treatment option for coprophagia, particularly in patients with psychotic symptoms.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Lesões Encefálicas , Transtornos Psicóticos , Feminino , Humanos , Haloperidol/uso terapêutico , Coprofagia , Transtornos Psicóticos/complicações , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico
2.
3.
Mol Biol Rep ; 49(2): 1057-1065, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The selection and validation of stably expressed reference genes is key for accurately quantifying the mRNA abundance of genes under different treatments. In the rabbit model of fasting caecotrophy, reports about the selection of stable reference genes are not available. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study aims to screen suitable reference genes in different tissues (including uterus, cecum, and liver) of rabbits between control and fasting caecotrophy groups. RT-qPCR was used to analyze the expression levels of eight commonly used reference genes (including GAPDH, 18S rRNA, B2M, CYP, HPRT1, ß-actin, H2afz, Ywhaz), and RefFinder (including geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper) was used to analyze the expression stability of these reference genes. Our results showed that the most stable reference genes were different in different tissues and treatments. In the control and fasting caecotrophy groups, CYP, GAPDH and HPRT1 were proven to be the top stable reference genes in the uterus, cecum, and liver tissues, respectively. GAPDH and Ywhaz were proven to be the top two stable reference genes among uterus, cecum, and liver in both control and fasting caecotrophy groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that the combined analysis of three or more reference genes (GAPDH, HPRT1, and Ywhaz) are recommended to be used for RT-qPCR normalization in the rabbit model of fasting caecotrophy, and that GAPDH is a better choice than the other reference genes for normalizing the relative expression of target genes in different tissues of fasting caecotrophy rabbits.


Assuntos
Coprofagia/genética , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Transcriptoma/genética , Proteínas 14-3-3/genética , Animais , Jejum , Fezes/química , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/normas , Gliceraldeído-3-Fosfato Desidrogenase (Fosforiladora)/genética , Hipoxantina Fosforribosiltransferase/genética , Fígado , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Coelhos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/normas , Padrões de Referência
4.
Zoo Biol ; 41(2): 176-180, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807474

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to determine the current prevalence of regurgitation and reingestion (R/R) and gain an insight on the occurrence of coprophagy in the Association of Zoos & Aquariums (AZA) gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) population. To do this, an online survey was sent to all AZA accredited gorilla institutions in 2018. This survey collected information on the severity of R/R at the individual level and the occurrence of coprophagy at the zoo level. Previous research suggests more than half of zoo-housed gorillas in the North American population engaged in R/R and coprophagy to some extent. The current study had a 100% response and completion rate; data were collected on all 296 noninfant gorillas in the population. Responses indicated that 60% of the AZA gorilla population engages in R/R to some degree and 24% of the population are observed exhibiting coprophagy on a weekly basis. With this preliminary information on coprophagy, and the realization that the Zoo community has been unsuccessful at eliminating R/R over the past 30 years, the next steps should be aimed at empirically assessing the potential drivers of these behaviors. Continuing efforts to further understand and eliminate R/R and coprophagy in zoo-housed primates is important not only because these behaviors are unsightly to visitors, but more importantly, R/R and coprophagy may signal deficiencies in current practices surrounding animal care.


Assuntos
Coprofagia , Gorilla gorilla , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/fisiologia , Gorilla gorilla/fisiologia , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Prevalência
5.
Physiol Genomics ; 53(12): 518-533, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34714176

RESUMO

Integration of microbiota in a host begins at birth and progresses during adolescence, forming a multidirectional system of physiological interactions. Here, we present an instantaneous effect of natural, bacterial gut colonization on the acceleration of longitudinal and radial bone growth in germ-free born, 7-wk-old male rats. Changes in bone mass and structure were analyzed after 10 days following the onset of colonization through cohousing with conventional rats and revealed unprecedented acceleration of bone accrual in cortical and trabecular compartments, increased bone tissue mineral density, improved proliferation and hypertrophy of growth plate chondrocytes, bone lengthening, and preferential deposition of periosteal bone in the tibia diaphysis. In addition, the number of small in size adipocytes increased, whereas the number of megakaryocytes decreased, in the bone marrow of conventionalized germ-free rats indicating that not only bone mass but also bone marrow environment is under control of gut microbiota signaling. The changes in bone status paralleled with a positive shift in microbiota composition toward short-chain fatty acids (SCFA)-producing microbes and a considerable increase in cecal SCFA concentrations, specifically butyrate. Furthermore, reconstitution of the host holobiont increased hepatic expression of IGF-1 and its circulating levels. Elevated serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D and alkaline phosphatase pointed toward an active process of bone formation. The acute stimulatory effect on bone growth occurred independently of body mass increase. Overall, the presented model of conventionalized germ-free rats could be used to study microbiota-based therapeutics for combatting dysbiosis-related bone disorders.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Ósseo/fisiologia , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Vida Livre de Germes , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/genética , Osteogênese/fisiologia , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Coprofagia , Disbiose , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
7.
Inflammation ; 44(2): 518-525, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978699

RESUMO

Cohousing of sick with healthy or treated animals is based on the concept of sharing an intestinal ecosystem and coprophagy, the consumption of feces, which includes sharing of the microbiome and of active drug metabolites secreted in the feces or urine. To develop a model for short-term cohousing, enabling the study of the effect of sharing an ecosystem on inflammatory states. To determine the impact of cohousing of sick and healthy mice on the immune-mediated disorders, mice injected with concanavalin A (ConA) were cohoused with healthy or sick mice or with steroid-treated or untreated mice. To determine the effect of cohousing on acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver damage, APAP-injected mice were cohoused with N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC)-treated or untreated mice. In the ConA-induced immune-mediated hepatitis model, cohousing of sick with healthy mice was associated with the alleviation of liver damage in sick animals. Similarly, a significant decrease in serum ALT was noted in ConA-injected mice kept in the same cage as ConA-injected mice treated with steroids. A trend for reduction in liver enzymes in APAP-injected mice was observed upon cohousing with NAC-treated animals. Cohousing of sick mice with healthy or treated mice ameliorated the immune-mediated inflammatory state induced by ConA and APAP. These models for liver damage can serve as biological systems for determining the effects of alterations in the ecosystem on the immune system.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/terapia , Coprofagia , Hepatite Autoimune/terapia , Abrigo para Animais , Acetaminofen , Acetilcisteína/uso terapêutico , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/sangue , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Concanavalina A , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Ecossistema , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hepatite Autoimune/sangue , Hepatite Autoimune/etiologia , Hepatite Autoimune/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Bull Entomol Res ; 111(3): 340-347, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33345762

RESUMO

Pitfall traps baited with cattle dung are commonly used to characterize local assemblages of coprophilous insects. Baits can be made fresh or be prepared in advance and kept frozen until needed. Insect recoveries are expected to decline with the age of the bait and may be affected by the use of fresh vs. frozen baits. To assess the effect of these two factors on insect recoveries, we performed a pitfall trap experiment that was repeated in four trials spanning 2 years and two locations in southern Alberta, Canada. The experimental design allowed us to minimize the potential confounding effect of short-term weather events. For results combined across trials, baits aged >3 days were largely ineffective for attracting coprophilous species. Frozen baits attracted significantly more insects than did fresh dung for the first 3 days after placement in the field with no difference thereafter. Our findings suggest that insect recoveries in dung-baited pitfall traps can be maximized with the use of frozen baits with replacement every 3-4 days.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Coprofagia , Insetos , Animais , Bovinos , Besouros , Fezes
9.
ISME J ; 14(10): 2625-2645, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632263

RESUMO

Many small mammals engage in coprophagy, or the behavior of consuming feces, as a means to meet nutritional requirements when feeding on low-quality foods. In addition to nutritional benefits, coprophagy may also help herbivores retain necessary gut microbial diversity and function, which may have downstream physiological effects, such as maintaining energy balance and cognitive function. Here, we used collars to prevent Brandt's vole (Lasiopodomys brandtii) from engaging in coprophagy and monitored changes in microbial community structure, energy metabolism, and cognitive performance. In this research, we found that coprophagy prevention decreased alpha diversity of the gut microbiota, and altered proportions of microbial taxa such as Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Oscillospira. Preventing coprophagy resulted in a reduced body mass, and increased food intake. Importantly, coprophagy prevention decreased vole cognitive behavior and altered levels of neurotransmitters in brain. Daily acetate administration was able to reverse some of the coprophagy prevention-induced changes in microbiota composition, metabolism, neurochemistry, and cognitive behavior. These findings identify the functional importance of coprophagy behavior and interactions between the gut microbiota, energy metabolism, and neurological function. Our results suggest that coprophagy contributes to stabilizing the gut microbiota, promoting microbial metabolism, maintaining host energy balance and, consequently, altering cognitive performance.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Neuroquímica , Animais , Cognição , Coprofagia , Mamíferos
10.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 195, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: All dogs imported into Iceland must undergo mandatory quarantine in a special station before introduction into the country. A faecal sample is collected from the first stool passed by the dog in this station and subsequently examined for the presence of intestinal parasite stages. CASE PRESENTATION: In May 2019 unsporulated oocysts were detected in faeces from a 7-year-old household dog that had been imported from Sweden. Most of the oocysts studied strongly resembled those of Eimeria canis Wenyon, 1923. As this species is not valid, the purpose of the present article was to identify the correct species and examine their possible origin. Studies confirmed the presence of two distinct unsporulated oocyst morphotypes in the faeces; measurements and photomicrographs confirmed their identification as Eimeria magna Pérard, 1925 and Eimeria stiedai (Lindemann, 1865) Kisskalt and Hartmann, 1907, both common parasites of European rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus (L., 1758). When the owner of the dog was questioned about the food administrated to the dog prior to its import to Iceland, it turned out that it had exclusively been fed dry dog food pellets. However, the owner also reported that on the morning prior to transportation to Iceland, the dog was allowed to move freely in a grassland area where rabbits are common and heaps of their faeces are present. Furthermore, the owner confirmed that the dog consumed rabbit faeces that morning. CONCLUSION: It is believed that this coprophagic behaviour can explain the detection of rabbit eimerids in the dog's faeces, and that such behaviour must be taken into consideration by veterinarians and other diagnostic personnel when they detect atypical cysts or eggs during coprological examinations.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Coprofagia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Eimeria/classificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Islândia , Oocistos/isolamento & purificação , Quarentena/veterinária , Coelhos/parasitologia , Suécia
11.
Lipids ; 55(4): 341-351, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343435

RESUMO

Guinea pigs are assumed to practice caecotrophy to a higher degree than rats. Studies from leporids suggest that through the practice of caecotrophy, hindgut fermenting species could build up microbial fatty acids (FA) in body tissues. We hypothesized that microbial FA would be detectable in the body tissue of guinea pigs and rats, and this to a higher degree in guinea pigs. Twenty-four rats and guinea pigs were fed with four different pelleted diets (lucerne-, meat-, meat-bone-, insect-based) in groups of six animals for 8 weeks. Perirenal adipose tissue differed in FA composition between the species in spite of the common diets. FA typically associated with microbial activity (saturated FA (SFA; typically 18:0), monounsaturated FA (MUFA; typically trans-fatty acids TFA), and odd- and branched-chain FA (Iso-FA)), were all detected. Guinea pigs had higher SFA levels than rats except on the lucerne diet. Concentrations of 18:0 were higher for guinea pigs on the meat and bone diet. Iso-FA concentrations in guinea pigs exceeded those of rats on all diets. FA profiles with a microbial fingerprint appear-although in low proportions-in the body tissue of both species, and this seemingly to a higher extent in guinea pigs. With respect to whether consumption of rodent meat rich in microbial FA has particular effects on human health as shown for ruminant products, microbial FA concentrations are probably too low to cause any distinct effects.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/química , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Microbiota/fisiologia , Ração Animal/classificação , Animais , Coprofagia , Dieta , Cobaias , Ratos , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
Microbiome ; 8(1): 19, 2020 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The upper gastrointestinal tract plays a prominent role in human physiology as the primary site for enzymatic digestion and nutrient absorption, immune sampling, and drug uptake. Alterations to the small intestine microbiome have been implicated in various human diseases, such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and inflammatory bowel conditions. Yet, the physiological and functional roles of the small intestine microbiota in humans remain poorly characterized because of the complexities associated with its sampling. Rodent models are used extensively in microbiome research and enable the spatial, temporal, compositional, and functional interrogation of the gastrointestinal microbiota and its effects on the host physiology and disease phenotype. Classical, culture-based studies have documented that fecal microbial self-reinoculation (via coprophagy) affects the composition and abundance of microbes in the murine proximal gastrointestinal tract. This pervasive self-reinoculation behavior could be a particularly relevant study factor when investigating small intestine microbiota. Modern microbiome studies either do not take self-reinoculation into account, or assume that approaches such as single housing mice or housing on wire mesh floors eliminate it. These assumptions have not been rigorously tested with modern tools. Here, we used quantitative 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, quantitative microbial functional gene content inference, and metabolomic analyses of bile acids to evaluate the effects of self-reinoculation on microbial loads, composition, and function in the murine upper gastrointestinal tract. RESULTS: In coprophagic mice, continuous self-exposure to the fecal flora had substantial quantitative and qualitative effects on the upper gastrointestinal microbiome. These differences in microbial abundance and community composition were associated with an altered profile of the small intestine bile acid pool, and, importantly, could not be inferred from analyzing large intestine or stool samples. Overall, the patterns observed in the small intestine of non-coprophagic mice (reduced total microbial load, low abundance of anaerobic microbiota, and bile acids predominantly in the conjugated form) resemble those typically seen in the human small intestine. CONCLUSIONS: Future studies need to take self-reinoculation into account when using mouse models to evaluate gastrointestinal microbial colonization and function in relation to xenobiotic transformation and pharmacokinetics or in the context of physiological states and diseases linked to small intestine microbiome and to small intestine dysbiosis. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Coprofagia , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestino Delgado/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Animais , Carga Bacteriana , Disbiose , Humanos , Masculino , Metabolômica/métodos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Animais , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos
13.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 104(2): 749-757, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943422

RESUMO

Cecotrophy is a special behaviour of rabbits. Eating soft faeces can improve feed efficiency and maintain gut flora in rabbits. In our previous study, we found that fasting from soft faeces significantly reduced growth rate and total cholesterol (TC) in New Zealand white rabbits (NZW rabbits), thereby resulting in lower values for body weight and fat deposition in the soft faeces fasting group than in the control group. However, it has not been demonstrated whether cecotrophy by NZW rabbits can regulate lipid metabolism by changing the diversity of caecal microorganisms. In this study, thirty-six 28-day-old weaned NZW female rabbits were randomly divided into two groups (the soft faeces fasting group and the control group) and fed to 90 days. Rabbits in the experimental group were treated with an Elizabeth circle to prevent them from eating their soft faeces. Then, the caecal contents of three rabbits from the soft faeces fasting group and three rabbits from the control group were collected for metagenomic sequencing. We found that the abundance of Bacteroides increased, while Ruminococcus decreased, compared with the control group after fasting from soft faeces. Relative abundance was depressed for genes related to metabolic pathways such as ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, riboflavin metabolism and bile secretion. Moreover, there was a general correlation between variation in microbial diversity and fat deposition. Bacteroides affects body weight and TC by participating in the riboflavin metabolism pathway. By investigating the effect of cecotrophy on caecal microorganisms of rabbits, we identified the key microorganisms that regulate the rapid growth performance of NZW rabbits, which may provide useful reference for the future research and development of microecological preparations for NZW rabbits.


Assuntos
Ceco/microbiologia , Gorduras/metabolismo , Coelhos/fisiologia , Animais , Coprofagia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Coelhos/microbiologia
14.
J Vet Med Sci ; 81(9): 1389-1399, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406033

RESUMO

The transgenerational maintenance of symbiotic microbes that benefit host nutrition and health is evolutionarily advantageous. In some vertebrate lineages, coprophagy is used as a strategy for effectively transmitting microbes across generations. However, this strategy has still not been studied in birds. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of maternal cecal feces consumption by Japanese rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta japonica) chicks as a strategy for acquiring essential gut microbes. Both the duration of coprophagy behavior by the chicks and the development process of the chick cecal microbiome (n=20 one- to three-week-old chicks, from three broods) were investigated. In all three broods, coprophagy behavior was only observed from 3 to 18 days of age. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the number of bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in 1-week-old chicks (n=651) and adults (n=609), and most of the main OTUs observed in the adults were already present in the 1-week-old chicks. These results indicate that, in this precocial bird species, coprophagy may contribute to the early establishment of cecal bacteria that are essential for food digestion and, thus, chick survival. In fact, Japanese rock ptarmigan chicks consume the same food as their hens from the time of hatching. This behavior may have applications to ex-situ conservation.


Assuntos
Coprofagia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Codorniz/microbiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Ceco/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Japão , Codorniz/fisiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(37): 9264-9269, 2018 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30150390

RESUMO

Naked mole-rats form eusocial colonies consisting of a single breeding female (the queen), several breeding males, and sexually immature adults (subordinates). Subordinates are cooperative and provide alloparental care by huddling and retrieving pups to the nest. However, the physiological mechanism(s) underlying alloparental behavior of nonbreeders remains undetermined. Here, we examined the response of subordinates to pup voice and the fecal estradiol concentrations of subordinates during the three reproductive periods of the queen, including gestation, postpartum, and nonlactating. Subordinate response to pup voice was observed only during the queen's postpartum and was preceded by an incremental rise in subordinates' fecal estradiol concentrations during the queen's gestation period, which coincided with physiological changes in the queen. We hypothesized that the increased estradiol in the queen's feces was disseminated to subordinates through coprophagy, which stimulated subordinates' responses to pup vocalizations. To test this hypothesis, we fed subordinates either fecal pellets from pregnant queens or pellets from nonpregnant queens amended with estradiol for 9 days and examined their response to recorded pup voice. In both treatments, the subordinates exhibited a constant level of response to pup voice during the feeding period but became more responsive 4 days after the feeding period. Thus, we believe that we have identified a previously unknown system of communication in naked mole-rats, in which a hormone released by one individual controls the behavior of another individual and influences the level of responsiveness among subordinate adults to pup vocal signals, thereby contributing to the alloparental pup care by subordinates.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Coprofagia/fisiologia , Ratos-Toupeira/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Animais
16.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0198610, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29874290

RESUMO

While the impacts of extreme and rising mean temperatures are well documented, increased thermal variability associated with climate change may also threaten ectotherm fitness and survival, but remains poorly explored. Using three wild collected coprophagic species Copris elphenor, Metacatharsius opacus and Scarabaeus zambezianus, we explored the effects of thermal amplitude around the mean on thermal tolerance. Using standardized protocols, we measured traits of high- (critical thermal maxima [CTmax] and heat knockdown time [HKDT]) and -low temperature tolerance (critical thermal minima [CTmin], chill coma recovery time [CCRT] and supercooling points [SCPs]) following variable temperature pulses (δ0, δ3, δ6 and δ9°C) around the mean (27°C). Our results show that increased temperature variability may offset basal and plastic responses to temperature and differs across species and metrics tested. Furthermore, we also show differential effects of body mass, body water content (BWC) and body lipid content (BLC) on traits of thermal tolerance. For example, body mass significantly influenced C. elphenor and S. zambezianus CTmax and S. zambezianus HKDT but not CTmin and CCRT. BWC significantly affected M. opacus and C. elphenor CTmax and in only M. opacus HKDT, CTmin and CCRT. Similarly, BLC only had a significant effect for M opacus CTmin. These results suggest differential and species dependent effects of climate variability of thermal fitness traits. It is therefore likely that the ecological services provided by these species may be constrained in the face of climate change. This implies that, to develop more realistic predictions for the effects of climate change on insect biodiversity and ecosystem function, thermal variability is a significant determinant.


Assuntos
Clima , Resposta ao Choque Frio/genética , Besouros/fisiologia , Termotolerância/genética , Animais , Biodiversidade , Botsuana , Mudança Climática , Coprofagia/fisiologia
17.
Vet Med Sci ; 4(2): 106-114, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29851313

RESUMO

Canine conspecific coprophagy, the tendency or predisposition of some dogs to eat their own faeces or those of other dogs, seems paradoxical because dogs typically show an aversion to conspecific faeces. In an attempt to resolve this paradox, we set out to determine the factors associated with the occurrence of this behaviour and to evaluate the efficacy of 11 products marketed for treating coprophagy as well as behaviour modification procedures. Because a large sample of dogs was needed to address these issues, two web-based surveys were utilized. One, intended to compare coprophagic dogs and non-coprophagic dogs, yielded 1552 returns. The other, yielding 1475 usable returns, specifically recruited owners of coprophagic dogs to gather information about the characteristics of coprophagy and treatment success. The findings revealed that 16% of dogs sampled engaged in frequent conspecific coprophagy, defined as having been seen eating stools at least six times. No evidence was found relating the coprophagy to diet or the dog's age. Coprophagic dogs were as easily house trained as non-coprophagic dogs, suggesting a normal aversion to faeces. Coprophagic dogs were more likely to be reported as greedy eaters than non-coprophagic dogs. The reported success rate of the commercial products and behaviour modification approaches was close to zero, indicating that the behaviour is not readily changed. The coprophagy was overwhelmingly directed at fresh stools, defined as being no more than 2 days old. A hypothesis is offered that coprophagy reflects a tendency inherited from the ancestral wolf to keep the den area free of faecal-borne intestinal parasites that might be deposited in the den resting area and would typically have parasite ova that are not initially infective, but could develop infective larvae after 2 days. An evolved parasite defence strategy to consume fresh faeces in the rest area would be adaptive.


Assuntos
Coprofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Cães/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Masculino
18.
Am J Primatol ; 80(4): e22752, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29664132

RESUMO

Unraveling the relationship between the unusual feeding behaviors and the nutritional intake of endangered species may provide crucial information for understanding species response to habitat unpredictable changes. Primates occasionally re-ingest fruit seeds alongside ingestion of feces, a behavior called coprophagy. The nutritional benefit is one of the several non-mutual exclusive hypotheses proposed to explain this behavior. We investigated the ecological correlates of coprophagy in wild western gorillas. We tested whether coprophagy occurred during periods of lower fruit availability and whether it led to higher nutrient intake in comparison to the other food. Data integrated phenological, fecal and nutritional analyses of gorilla food with behavioral observations collected at two sites in Central Africa (Mbeli Bai: ad libitum observations on 15 groups/solitary males, October 2002-November 2005; Bai Hokou: 5-min scan on a habituated group, December 2004-December 2005). Coprophagy occurred at the end of the high-fruiting season in association of two Dialium species. Coprophagy correlated positively with the occurrence of Dialium spp. fruit in gorilla feces and in the feeding scans, and showed a positive trend with Dialium availability but not with total fruit availability. Nutritional comparison of Dialium seeds with other important gorilla food showed higher fat and mineral content, particularly of Mg, but also of phenols and tannins in Dialium seeds. We discuss how the effect of gut processing and gut heat via coprophagy may act as cooking-like effect: increasing the ability to maximize nutrient intake by concurrently softening fibers and decreasing the toxic effect of antifeedants, like in human traditional cooking. Our results support both the multiple nutritional benefit hypothesis and the toxicity reduction hypothesis. Since Dialium is precious timber, the importance of this tree for the critically endangered western gorillas should be taken with high consideration when planning controlled logging of degraded forests or in face of habitat changes.


Assuntos
Coprofagia/fisiologia , Fabaceae/química , Gorilla gorilla/fisiologia , Sementes/química , África Central , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Comportamento Alimentar , Frutas , Masculino , Valor Nutritivo , Fenóis , Taninos
19.
J Small Anim Pract ; 58(3): 139-145, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28267218

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of four rabbit diets (hay only, extruded diet with hay, muesli with hay and muesli only) on faecal pellet size, faecal output and caecotrophy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two Dutch rabbits were studied over 17 months. Faecal pellet size and weight were measured in weeks 3, 9, 21 and 43 and faecal output in weeks 10, 22 and 45. Number of uneaten caecotrophs was recorded weekly. RESULTS: Faecal pellets were consistently smaller and lighter in rabbits fed muesli only, and the size of pellets produced by those fed muesli with hay decreased over the course of the study. Faecal output was greatest in rabbits with the highest hay intake. Uneaten caecotrophs were found in greatest frequency in rabbits fed muesli. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Muesli diets have a negative effect on faecal output and caecotroph ingestion and may therefore predispose to digestive disorders. Higher hay intake is associated with greater faecal output and fewer uneaten caecotrophs and may assist in preventing the gastrointestinal stasis.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Coprofagia , Fezes , Coelhos/fisiologia , Animais , Fibras na Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal
20.
PLoS One ; 11(7): e0159770, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27438701

RESUMO

Helminth infections and nutrition can independently alter the composition and abundance of the gastrointestinal microbiota, however, their combined effect is poorly understood. Here, we used the T. retortaeformis-rabbit system to examine how the helminth infection and host restriction from coprophagy/ready-to-absorb nutrients affected the duodenal microbiota, and how these changes related to the acquired immune response at the site of infection. A factorial experiment was performed where the bacterial community, its functionality and the immune response were examined in four treatments (Infect, Infect+Collar, Control+Collar and Control). Helminths reduced the diversity and abundance of the microbiota while the combination of parasites and coprophagic restriction led to a more diversified and abundant microbiota than infected cases, without significantly affecting the intensity of infection. Animals restricted from coprophagy and free from parasites exhibited the richest and most abundant bacterial community. By forcing the individuals to absorb nutrients from less digested food, the coprophagic restriction appears to have facilitated the diversity and proliferation of bacteria in the duodenum. Changes in the microbiota were more clearly associated with changes in the immune response for the infected than the nutrient restricted animals. The functional and metabolic characteristics of the duodenal microbiota were not significantly different between treatments. Overall, infection and diet affect the gut microbiota but their interactions and outcome can be complex. These findings can have important implications for the development of control measures to helminth infections where poor nutrition/malnutrition can also be a concern.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Helmintíase/microbiologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Microbiota/genética , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Coprofagia , Digestão/genética , Ingestão de Alimentos/genética , Helmintíase/genética , Helmintíase/metabolismo , Helmintos/patogenicidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Intestino Delgado/microbiologia , Coelhos
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