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1.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361638

RESUMO

The species Cordia verbenacea DC (Boraginaceae), known as the whaling herb and camaradinha, is a perennial shrub species native to the Atlantic Forest. Its leaves are used in folk medicine as an anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiulcerogenic and curative agent, in the form of teas or infusions for internal or topical use. The present study aimed to verify the cytotoxicity of the essential oil and the leishmanicidal and trypanocidal potential of C. verbenacea. The essential oil was characterized by GC-MS. The in vitro biological activity was determined by anti-Leishmania and anti-Trypanosoma assays. The cytotoxixity was determined using mammalian fibroblasts. The C. verbenacea species presented α-pinene (45.71%), ß-caryophyllene (18.77%), tricyclo[2,2,1-(2.6)]heptane (12.56%) as their main compounds. The essential oil exhibited strong cytotoxicity at concentrations below 250 µg/mL (LC50 138.1 µg/mL) in mammalian fibroblasts. The potent anti-trypanosome and anti-promastigote activities occurred from the concentration of 62.5 µg/mL and was considered clinically relevant. The results also demonstrate that at low concentrations (<62.5 µg/mL), the essential oil of C. verbenacea managed to be lethal for these activities. This can be considered an indication of the power used in daily human consumption. Therefore, it can be concluded that the essential oil of C. verbenacea contains a compound with remarkable antiparasitic activities and requires further research.


Assuntos
Cordia/química , Citotoxinas , Leishmania braziliensis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óleos Voláteis , Tripanossomicidas , Trypanosoma cruzi/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Citotoxinas/química , Citotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Camundongos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Tripanossomicidas/química , Tripanossomicidas/isolamento & purificação , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia
2.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 20(8): 1033-1051, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297334

RESUMO

Cordia verbenacea DC (Boraginaceae) is a flowering shrub found along the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, Brazilian coast, and low areas of the Amazon. The crude extract of its leaves is widely used in Brazilian folk medicine as an anti-inflammatory, both topically and orally. The aim of this study is to evaluate the activity of C. verbenacea ethanolic leaves extract (CVE) against UVB-triggered cutaneous inflammation and oxidative damage in hairless mice. CVE treatment recovered cutaneous antioxidant capacity demonstrated by scavenging ABTS+ free radical and iron-reducing antioxidant potential evaluated by FRAP. CVE also controlled the following UV-triggered events in the skin: reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion, catalase activity decrease, and superoxide anion (O⋅-) build-up. Furthermore, mice treated with CVE exhibited less inflammation, shown by the reduction in COX-2 expression, TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, edema, and neutrophil infiltration. CVE also regulated epidermal thickening and sunburn cells, reduced dermal mast cells, and preserved collagen integrity. The best results were obtained using 5% CVE-added emulsion. The present data demonstrate that topical administration of CVE presents photochemoprotective activity in a mouse model of UVB inflammation and oxidative stress. Because of the intricate network linking inflammation, oxidative stress, and skin cancer, these results also indicate the importance of further studies elucidating a possible role of C. verbenacea in the prevention of UVB-induced skin cancer and evaluating a potential synergy between CVE and sunscreens in topical products against UVB damaging effects to the skin.


Assuntos
Cordia/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Administração Tópica , Animais , Emulsões , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Folhas de Planta/química , Pele/metabolismo , Protetores Solares/administração & dosagem , Protetores Solares/química , Protetores Solares/farmacologia
3.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248083, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190769

RESUMO

Species of the genus Cordia have shown biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, antiviral, and antifungal activities. The species Cordia glabrata (MART) A.DC. Has no information concerning its phytochemical profile and possible biological activities. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate this profile in ethanolic extracts of young, adult and senescent leaves, as well as their antioxidant, photoprotective, antimicrobial, and virucidal potentials. Phytochemical analysis was performed by TLC (thin-layer chromatography) and showed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, and terpenes. The evaluation by UPLC-MS/MS (Ultra performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometer) evidenced the presence of caffeic (3.89 mgL-1), p-cumaric (6.13 mgL-1), and ferulic (0.58 mgL-1) acids, whilst, in GC/MS (Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) analysis there was a greater amount of palmitic (51.17%), stearic (20.34%), linoleic (9.62%), and miristic (8.16%) fatty acids. The DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS+ (2'-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) radicals were used to verify the potential antioxidant activity, observing a better activity for the leaf extract in the adult phenological stage: 54.63 ± 1.06 µgmL-1 (DPPH) and 44.21 ± 1.69 mM (ABTS). The potential photoprotective activity of the extracts was determined by spectrophotometry and the in vitro values of SPF (Sun Protection Factor) in young and adult leaves (5.47 and 5.41, respectively) showed values close to the minimum SPF of 6.0 required by ANVISA (Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency). It was not observed an antimicrobial activity for Staphylococcus aureus with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 2000 µgmL-1, however the anti-herpetic assay against the Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) showed a potent virucidal activity at the tested concentrations with CV50 value <0.195 µgmL-1 and a Selectivity Index (SI = CC50 / CV50) greater than 448. The results obtained in this study suggest that extracts of leaves of C. glabrata in their adult phenological stage have potential antioxidant, photoprotective and virucidal activity, considering in vitro test results.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Cordia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Brasil , Cromatografia Líquida , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
4.
Carbohydr Polym ; 257: 117606, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541639

RESUMO

Salvia Mirzaiani essential oil (SMEO) was extracted using hydrodistillation and its GC-MS analysis identified 54 compounds. SMEO nanoemulsion (SMEO-NE) was produced using ultrasound. Then, gum-based films extracted from Cordia dichotoma containing SMEO-NE were prepared at concentrations of 0 (control), 1, 1.5 and 2% (v/v). Addition of SMEO-NE increased thickness, contact angle and elongation at break of the films. It decreased moisture content, water solubility, ultimate tensile strength, water vapor permeability, percentage of light transmission in the visible and ultraviolet range with a significant change in color factors. Formation of new hydrogen bonds between SMEO-NE and film matrix was confirmed by FTIR. Besides, dynamic mechanical-thermal analysis showed a decrease in storage modulus and glass transition temperature of the films. Electron microscope images showed that presence of SMEO-NE led to changes in microstructure of the films. Furthermore, increasing the concentration of SMEO-NE increased antioxidant and antibacterial activity of the films.


Assuntos
Cordia/metabolismo , Filmes Comestíveis , Emulsões/química , Nanopartículas/química , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Salvia/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Embalagem de Alimentos , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia Eletrônica , Permeabilidade , Solubilidade , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Vapor , Temperatura , Resistência à Tração
5.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 216: 112151, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581679

RESUMO

Photochemoprotection of the skin can be achieved by inhibiting inflammation and oxidative stress, which we tested using Cordia verbenacea extract, a medicinal plant known for its rich content of antioxidant molecules and anti-inflammatory activity. In vitro antioxidant evaluation of Cordia verbenacea leaves ethanolic extract (CVE) presented the following results: ferric reducing antioxidant power (886.32 µM equivalent of Trolox/g extract); IC50 of 19.128 µg/ml for scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl; IC50 of 12.48 µg/mL for scavenging 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid); decrease of hydroperoxides from linoleic acid (IC50 of 10.20 µg/mL); inhibition of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (IC50 8.90 µg/mL); iron-chelating ability in bathophenanthroline iron assay (IC50 47.35 µg/mL); chemiluminescence triggered by free radicals in the H2O2/horseradish peroxidase/luminol (IC50 0.286 µg/mL) and xanthine/xanthine oxidase/luminol (IC50 0.42 µg/mL) methods. CVE (10-100 mg per kg, 30 min before and immediately after UVB exposure) treatment was performed by gavage in hairless mice. CVE inhibited skin edema, neutrophil infiltration, and overproduction of MMP-9; reduced levels of TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL- 6; numbers of skin mast cells, epidermal thickening, number of epidermal apoptotic keratinocytes, and collagen degradation. CVE increased the skin's natural antioxidant defenses as observed by Nrf-2, NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1, and heme oxygenase 1 mRNA expression enhancement. Furthermore, CVE inhibited lipid peroxidation and superoxide anion production and recovered antioxidant reduced glutathione, catalase activity, and ROS scavenging capacity of the skin. Concluding, CVE downregulates the skin inflammatory and oxidative damages triggered by UVB, demonstrating its potentialities as a therapeutic approach.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Antioxidantes/química , Cordia/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Edema/metabolismo , Feminino , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Ácido Linoleico/química , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Camundongos Pelados , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos da radiação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Quinona Redutases/metabolismo , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(6): 6771-6783, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009617

RESUMO

In this work, for the first time, Cordia trichotoma sawdust, a residue derived from noble wood processing, was applied as an alternative biosorbent for the removal of crystal violet by discontinuous and continuous biosorption processes. The optimum conditions for biosorption of crystal violet were 7.5 pH and a biosorbent dosage of 0.8 g L-1. The biosorption kinetics showed that the equilibrium was reached at 120 min, achieving a maximum biosorption capacity of 107 mg g-1 for initial dye concentration of 200 mg L-1. The Elovich model was the proper model for representing the biosorption kinetics. The isotherm assays showed that the rise of temperature causes an increase in the biosorption capacity of the crystal violet, with a maximum biosorption capacity of 129.77 mg g-1 at 328 K. The Langmuir model was the most proper model for describing the behavior. The sign of ΔG0 indicates that the process was spontaneous and favorable, whereas the ΔH0 indicates an endothermic process. The treatment of the colored simulated effluent composed by dyes and salts resulted in 80% of color removal. The application of biosorbent in the fixed-bed system achieved a breakthrough time of 505 min, resulting in 83.35% of color removal. The Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models were able to describe the fixed-bed biosorption behavior. This collection of experimental evidence shows that the Cordia trichotoma sawdust can be applied for the removal of crystal violet and a mixture of other dyes that contain them.


Assuntos
Cordia , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Violeta Genciana , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Termodinâmica , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Madeira/química
7.
Nat Prod Res ; 35(3): 525-528, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305143

RESUMO

Present investigation reports first phytochemical profile of Cordia sinensis Lam. stems utilising GC-FID and GC-MS analyses. Moreover, antibacterial, antifungal, phytotoxic and insecticidal potential of stems was also evaluated. Altogether 33 (∼69%) compounds were identified. n-Hexadecanoic acid (15.62-35.55%), methyl hexadecanoate (11.22-29.49%), methyl octadecanoate (4.10-8.66%) and n-octadecanoic acid (4.24-6.64%), present in all the fractions were the major components identified. Overall 4 hydrocarbons, 7 fatty acids, 12 fatty acid esters, 3 phytosterols, 2 terpenes, a terpenoid and 4 aromatics were identified. It is important to note that methanolic mother extract showed moderate phytotoxic activity at higher dose only. However, GC-MS identifications revealed the presence of several phytoconstituents with reported bioactive potential. Moreover, biogenetic correlation of identified phytoconstituents with other parts of plant confirms their natural existence. Newly identified secondary metabolites of C. sinensis stems may also serve as the chemotaxonomic markers and can be correlated with the genus Cordia and Boraginaceae.


Assuntos
Cordia/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Caules de Planta/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Cordia/metabolismo , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Metanol/química , Estrutura Molecular , Fitosteróis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Metabolismo Secundário , Terpenos/análise
8.
Nat Prod Res ; 35(7): 1212-1216, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311328

RESUMO

Crude extracts and fractions of Cordia sinensis leaves were subjected to gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection (GC-FID), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses and preliminary screening for biological potentials using antibacterial, antifungal, phytotoxic, cytotoxic, insecticidal, antileishmanicidal and antiglycation bioassays. Overall thirty-one phytochemicals including three hydrocarbons, seven fatty acids, fifteen fatty acid esters, three terpenes, one each of phytosterol, terpenoid, and polyunsaturated aldehyde were identified. n-Hexadecanoic acid (13.2%), methyl hexadecanoate (9.0%), octadec-9Z-enoic acid (8.3%) and methyl octadec-9Z,12Z,15Z-trienoate (7.8%) were the main components. Presumably, this is a first report of twenty, thirteen and twenty phytochemicals from C. sinensis, Cordia and Boraginaceae, respectively. Moreover, ethyl acetate fraction exhibited significant insecticidal and antifungal activity against Sitophilus oryzae and Microsporum canis, respectively. Similarly, n-hexane fraction significantly inhibited (77.4%) advanced glycation end products in antiglycation assay. Conclusively, C. sinensis leaves with bioactive metabolites are a potential source for the development of insecticides, fungicides and pharmaceutically active antidiabetic drugs.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/análise , Cordia/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Inseticidas/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Glicosilação , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Microsporum/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química
9.
Int J Phytoremediation ; 23(5): 445-453, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016103

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and organic matter on a crude oil-polluted soil by Cordia myxa. The treatments consisted of crude oil at two levels (3 and 6% w/w), municipal waste compost at two levels (5 and 10% v/v), and two different bacterial strains (Pseudomonas sp.141 and Pseudomonas sp. 27ps). At the end of the growth period, the plants were harvested and prepared for the laboratory analyses. The greatest population of oil degrading-bacteria (4.6 × 106 CFU/g soil) was observed in the treatment containing 10% compost, 6% crude oil, and Pseudomonas sp.141. The highest crude oil degradation (76.49%) was recorded in the soil polluted with 6% crude oil, amended with 10% compost, and inoculated with Pseudomonas sp.141. The investigation on the degradation of the chains of C10-C35 compounds indicated that, in various treatments, the most abundant compound was among those with fewer carbon atoms (C12-C25), so the application of organic matter boosted the degradation of crude oil. In conclusion, C. myxa seedlings has an acceptable efficiency in the remediation of the oil-contaminated soil affected by biological factors (compost and Pseudomonas bacteria), which is because of their high tolerance to the pollution and their ability to penetrate deeper soil layers.


Assuntos
Cordia , Poluição por Petróleo , Petróleo , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
10.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 265: 113300, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871237

RESUMO

Cordia verbenacea DC is a plant whose geographical distribution is all over Brazil, but mainly on the country's coastal areas. It is used by folk medicine to treat inflammations and chronic pain with application of the raw extract of macerated leaves in the region of pain. This paper aims to provide an integrative review of the role of chemical compounds present in the extract and the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea DC for their anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and healing properties. The extract of Cordia verbenacea DC is widely found within popular culture as teas, decoctions, infusions, pomades/creams for anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and healing uses. Its extract is mainly composed of α-humulene, α-pinene, trans-caryophyllene, artemetin, spathulenol and allo-aromadrendene. The described effects of the chemical compounds found in the extract are applied to muscle bruising and myofascial pain, edema reduction and chronic tendonitis, when used topically (with a comercial product being marketed); and to rheumatic, neuralgic and arthritic processes, when used orally as an anti-ulcerative agent; as well as for its healing and analgesic properties when used topically or as infusion according to test results using animals. Besides its use in chronic pain and topical application, in vitro studies have revealed the importance of antimicrobial action by inhibiting the bacterial growth of the components present in the Cordia verbenacea DC extract. In addition to expanding knowledge about Cordia verbenacea, other studies are being developed with the extract and essential oil in order to expand knowledge about healing aspects of topical use. Although other studies are being conducted, the results presented in this analysis provide a rich database of the activities found in the compounds found in the extract and the essential oil, in addition to promoting knowledge of the best extraction method cited. Therefore, such studies constitute a preliminary source of information to encourage new pieces of research, species conservation, safe management of the species, use of the extract/essential oil and development of plant-based products.


Assuntos
Cordia/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Humanos , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(6): 1951-1960, 01-11-2020. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147960

RESUMO

This work aimed to compare the antifungal activity of the essential oil of Varronia curassavica obtained by hydrodistillation and microwave against the fungus Colletotrichum musae and verify the alterations caused by these extraction methods on the leaf surface. This study used four essential oil samples obtained by different methods, two by hydrodistillation [HD1 (1.0 L of water and 100 min.) and HD2 (2.0 L of water and 140 min.)] and two by microwave [MI1 (500W, 20 min, without water) and MI2 (700W, 40 min, with 50 mL of water added to fresh leaves)]. Essential oils concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 3.0% (v / v) were tested in PDA medium. The mycelial growth of C. musae was evaluated by measuring the diameter, every 24 hours up to 144 hours after the beginning of the incubation. Untreated leaves and leaves treated with HD1 and MI1 were prepared for observation in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) LEO EVO 40. The most abundant compounds detected in the essential oil samples analyzed by gas chromatography were: shyobunol, germacrene D-4-ol, E-caryophyllene, bicyclogermacrene, and α-cadinol. Up to 72 hours after the beginning of the incubation, C. musae presented no mycelial growth, even at the lowest essential oil concentration. Conversely, mycelial growth was detected in the control (PDA + DMSO) from 24 hours after incubation. At 144 hours after incubation, regardless of the concentration, the essential oil samples obtained by HD provided lower mycelial growth of C. musae (1.49 cm) when compared with samples obtained by MI (1.80 cm). This difference possibly occurred due to the reduction to less than half of the germacrene D-4-ol content in the samples obtained by MI. The four essential oil samples tested inhibited the mycelial growth and thus presented a inhibitory effect on C. musae. The SEM revealed more drastic changes on the surface of the leaf treated with MI than on those treated with HD. The essential oil of V. curassavica, mainly when obtained by hydrodistillation, has the potential for use in the control of C. musae.


O objetivo do trabalho foi comparar a atividade antifúngica do óleo essencial de Varronia curassavica obtido por hidrodestilação e micro-ondas frente ao fungo Colletotrichum musae e verificar as alterações que esses métodos de extração causam na superfície da folha. Quatro amostras de óleo essencial obtidas em diferentes condições foram utilizadas. Sendo duas por hidrodestilação, HD1 (1,0 L de água e 100 min.) e HD2 (2,0 L de água e 140 min.); e duas por micro-ondas, MI1 (500W, 20 min. sem adição de água) e MI2 (700W, 40 min. com adição de 50 mL de água às folhas frescas). Foram testadas as concentrações 0,05; 0,1; 0,5; 1,0 e 3,0 % (v/v) de óleo essencial em meio BDA. O crescimento micelial do C. musae foi avaliado por medições do diâmetro, a cada 24 horas até 144 horas após o início da incubação. Folhas sem qualquer tratamento e após os tratamentos HD1 e MI1 foram preparadas para observação em microscópio eletrônico de varredura (MEV) LEO EVO 40. Os compostos mais abundantes nas amostras de óleo essencial analisadas por cromatografia gasosa foram: shyobunol, germacreno D-4-ol, E-cariofileno, biciclogermacreno e α-cadinol. Até 72 horas após o início da incubação, não foi observado nenhum crescimento micelial do C. musae, mesmo nas concentrações mais baixas de óleo essencial, enquanto, para o controle (BDA + DMSO), foi observado crescimento do fungo a partir de 24 horas. Após 144 horas, independentemente da concentração, as amostras de óleo essencial obtidas por HD proporcionaram menor crescimento micelial do C. musae (1,49 cm) quando comparadas às amostras obtidas por MI (1,80 cm). Possivelmente essa diferença ocorreu devido à redução para menos da metade, do teor de germacreno D-4-ol, nas amostras obtidas por MI. As quatro amostras de óleo essencial testadas foram capazes de inibir o crescimento micelial, apresentando portanto, um efeito inibitório sobre o C. musae. Alterações mais drásticas observadas através da MEV foram visualizadas na superfície da folha submetida ao processo de extração por MI em comparação à HD. O óleo essencial de V. curassavica, sobretudo o obtido por hidrodestilação, apresenta potencial para o controle de C. musae.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis , Destilação , Cordia , Antifúngicos
12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 159: 714-724, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416298

RESUMO

Cordia verbenacea (erva baleeira) is a plant used in indigenous folk medicine. Due to its pharmacological properties (antioxidant and anti-inflammatory), it can be used in the development of herbal medicines by different forms of administration such as orally disintegrating films (ODFs), which would facilitate the systemic release of its active ingredients. Considering the properties of the C. verbenacea and the advantages of ODFs, the objective of this work was the potential development of ODFs with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The polymeric matrices were produced based on starch and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and additives with different C. verbenacea extract concentrations in order to obtain concentrations of 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 mg flavonoids/ODF. The films were characterized by microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, mechanical properties, mucoadhesiveness, in vitro disintegration, in vitro release of flavonoids, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of the films. The ODFs showed good antioxidant activity and high anti-inflammatory capacity with inhibition of COX-2 enzyme. The stability study demonstrated the conservation of flavonoids and also the maintenance of the anti-inflammatory capacity of ODFs. This study demonstrated that orally disintegrating films have high potential for the delivery of natural bioactive compounds and the maintenance of their pharmacological properties.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cordia/química , Derivados da Hipromelose/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Amido/química , Administração Oral , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacocinética , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacocinética , Fenômenos Químicos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Flavonoides , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Análise Espectral
13.
J Econ Entomol ; 113(3): 1486-1492, 2020 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207826

RESUMO

The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is an important insect pest of the citrus crop worldwide. It vectors the pathogen 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas) that causes a serious disease known as citrus greening. Here, we tested the infection frequency of Wolbachia and CLas from 100 D. citri individuals collected from two host plants belonging to families Rutaceae (Citrus reticulata Blanco) and Boraginaceae (Cordia myxa L.) using molecular methods. The following trend of endosymbionts infection in adult D. citri was found; 85.4% (35/41) by Wolbachia, and 19.5% (8/41) by CLas collected from C. reticulata plants and 65.4% (17/26) by Wolbachia, and 15.4% (4/26) by CLas in case of C. myxa plant. However, 61.5% (8/13) nymphs collected from C. reticulata and 20.0% (4/20) collected from C. myxa plants were infected by Wolbachia, while no nymph was infected by CLas collected from either host plants. Findings from this work represent the first report of CLas presence in D. citri feeding on C. myxa plants. By studying the presence of CLas with other endosymbiotic bacteria, future basic and applied research to develop control strategies can be prioritized.


Assuntos
Anaplasmataceae , Boraginaceae , Citrus , Cordia , Hemípteros , Rhizobiaceae , Rutaceae , Wolbachia , Animais , Doenças das Plantas , Rickettsiales
14.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 251: 112543, 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917279

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE: CORDIA MORELOSANA: Standley (Boraginaceae) is commonly used in folk medicine for the treatment of diarrhoea, kidney inflammation, diabetes, lung pain, bronchitis, asthma, hoarseness, cough and fever. AIM: Current work was conducted to develop a bio-guided isolation of antidiabetic compounds from ethanolic extract of Cordia morelosana (EECm). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The phytochemical bio-guided study was conducted by successive chromatographic techniques, and isolated compounds were characterized by 1D and 2D-NMR experiments. The in vivo antihyperglycemic and antidiabetic activities of EECm (100 mg/kg), and methyl rosmarinate (MR, 50 mg/kg) were determined on normoglycemic and diabetic murine models. Additionally, the in vitro activity was conducted to determine α-glucosidase inhibitory effect, and PPARs, GLUT4 and FATP expression on 3T3-L1 cells by RT-PCR. Acute and sub-chronic toxicological studies for EECm were conducted on rats, following the OECD guidelines (No. 420 and 407). RESULTS: EECm promotes significant α-glucosidase inhibition (55.6%) at 1 mg/kg respect to the control. Also, EECm (100 mg/kg) showed significant antihyperglycemic effect on oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and in non-insulin dependent type 2 diabetes (NIDD) model, had antidiabetic activity (p < 0.001) compared to controls. The bio-guided isolation allowed to obtain four known compounds described as rosmarinic acid (RA), methyl rosmarinate (MR), nicotiflorine and 1-O-methyl-scyllo-inositol. On the other hand, MR showed significant antidiabetic and anthiyperglycemic activities (p < 0.05), and overexpression of PPARγ, PPARα, GLUT-4 and FATP than control. Docking studies were conducted with PPARγ and PPARα, showing interesting binding mode profile on those targets. Finally, EECm displayed a LD50 > 2000 mg/kg and sub-chronic toxicological study reveals no toxic signs in animals tested compared to control. CONCLUSION: EECm showed significant antihyperglycemic and antidiabetic actions being RA and MR the main antidiabetic metabolites.


Assuntos
Cordia , Hipoglicemiantes , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Extratos Vegetais , Células 3T3-L1 , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/genética , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/genética , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/toxicidade , Masculino , Camundongos , PPAR alfa/genética , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ratos Wistar , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Testes de Toxicidade Subcrônica , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(4): 4376-4389, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31832936

RESUMO

The increased use of pesticides applied to treat diseases caused by bacteria has caused serious environmental problems. There are few fungicides/bactericides for the treatment of plant diseases caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), and only two natural products with general bactericidal/fungicidal use are available on the market. Thus, this study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of essential oils (EOs), and their combinations, from five distinct genotypes of Cordia curassavica (Jacq.) Roem. & Schult (Syn. Varronia curassavica Jacq.) (CCUR) against Xcc. GC/MS chemical analysis revealed α-pinene, sabinene, (E)-caryophyllene, ar-curcumene, ß-sesquiphellandrene, 7-cyclodecen-1-one, and ar-Turmerone as the major compounds of the five EOs of CCUR. All EOs showed growth inhibition of Xcc with minimum inhibitory concentration between 500 and 1000 µg mL-1. The associations between two EOs from different CCUR genotypes showed that 70% of the total combinations had an additive effect. However, the combinations between CCUR-002 × (-302, -202) and CCUR-302 × (-601) showed a synergistic effect, with mean fractional inhibitory concentration FIC50 values of 0.28, 0.42, and 0.40, respectively. This study demonstrates that combinations of C. curassavica EOs have antimicrobial activity and a potential to be used in the control of black rot. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cordia/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Xanthomonas campestris/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle
16.
J Nat Prod ; 82(12): 3233-3241, 2019 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800248

RESUMO

Six new secocycloartane glycosides (1-6) were isolated from the ethanol extract of the flowers of Cordia lutea Lam. on the basis of bioassay-guided fractionation. Their structures were determined by the application of NMR and MS data analyses together with X-ray crystallographic analyses for compounds 1 and 2. Compounds 1-6 represent the first examples of 9,10-seco-29-norcycloartane glycosides. These compounds showed significant in vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori activity, and no activity against either Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Significant activity was observed for 5 and 6 against Staphylococcus aureus. All compounds displayed weak cytotoxicity against RAW 264.7 cells. The in vitro antileishmanial and antiplasmodial activities of 1-6 were also evaluated.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/química , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Cordia/química , Flores/química , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antiprotozoários/isolamento & purificação , Cristalografia por Raios X , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Células RAW 264.7 , Análise Espectral/métodos
17.
Molecules ; 24(22)2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744153

RESUMO

We carried out surveys on the use of Cordia nodosa Lam. in the jungles of Bobonaza (Ecuador). We documented this knowledge to prevent its loss under the Framework of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Nagoya Protocol. We conducted bibliographic research and identified quercetrin as a significant bioactive molecule. We studied its in silico biological activity. The selected methodology was virtual docking experiments with the proteins responsible for the venomous action of snakes. The molecular structures of quercetrin and 21 selected toxins underwent corresponding tests with SwissDock and Chimera software. The results point to support its antiophidic use. They show reasonable geometries and a binding free energy of -7 to -10.03 kcal/mol. The most favorable values were obtained for the venom of the Asian snake Naja atra (5Z2G, -10.03 kcal/mol). Good results were also obtained from the venom of the Latin American Bothrops pirajai (3CYL, -9.71 kcal/mol) and that of Ecuadorian Bothrops asper snakes (5TFV, -9.47 kcal/mol) and Bothrops atrox (5TS5, -9.49 kcal/mol). In the 5Z2G and 5TS5 L-amino acid oxidases, quercetrin binds in a pocket adjacent to the FAD cofactor, while in the myotoxic homologues of PLA2, 3CYL and 5TFV, it joins in the hydrophobic channel formed when oligomerizing, in the first one similar to α-tocopherol. This study presents a case demonstration of the potential of bioinformatic tools in the validation process of ethnobotanical phytopharmaceuticals and how in silico methods are becoming increasingly useful for sustainable drug discovery.


Assuntos
Antídotos/química , Antídotos/farmacologia , Cordia/química , Modelos Moleculares , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sítios de Ligação , Conformação Molecular , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Venenos de Serpentes/antagonistas & inibidores , Venenos de Serpentes/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Toxinas Biológicas/antagonistas & inibidores , Toxinas Biológicas/química , Árvores
18.
Molecules ; 24(17)2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484419

RESUMO

Chemical investigation of Cordia millenii, Baker resulted in the isolation of a new depsidone, cordidepsine (1), along with twelve known compounds including cyclooctasulfur (2), lup-20(29)-en-3-triacontanoate (3), 1-(26-hydroxyhexacosanoyl)glycerol (4), glyceryl-1-hexacosanoate (5) betulinic acid (6), lupenone (7), ß-amyrone (8), lupeol (9), ß-amyrin (10), allantoin (11), 2'-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethylpropanoate (12) and stigmasterol glycoside (13). Hemi-synthetic reactions were carried out on two isolated compounds (5 and 6) to afford two new derivatives, that is, cordicerol A (14) and cordicerol B (15), respectively. The chemical structures of all the compounds were established based on analysis and interpretation of spectroscopic data such as electron ionization mass spectrometry (EI-MS), high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS), fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS), one dimension and two dimension nuclear magnetic resonance (1D and 2D-NMR) spectral data as well as X-ray crystallography (XRC). Lupeol ester derivatives [Lup-20(29)-en-3-triacontanoate (3)], monoglycerol derivatives [1-(26-hydroxyhexacosanoyl)glycerol (4) and glyceryl-1 hexacosanoate (5)] were isolated for the first time from Cordia genus while sulfur allotrope [cyclooctasulfur (2)] was isolated for the first time from plant origin. Biological assays cordidepsine (1) exhibited significant anti-HIV integrase activity with IC50 = 4.65 µM; EtOAc extract of stem barks, EtOAc fraction of roots and leaves were not toxic against 3T3 cells.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Cordia/química , Depsídeos/química , Lactonas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cristalografia por Raios X , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas
19.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 112: 108693, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30798128

RESUMO

This study evaluated the pharmacological effect of the association of crude extract from the fruits of Pterodon pubescens (Pp) with the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea (Cv) in antinociception and anti-inflammatory experimental models. The effective doses of each extract and the combinations used in the associations of extracts were defined by acetic acid-induced writhing test. The separate extracts were also evaluated on formalin test. Interaction between extracts was assessed by isobologram method. The effects of different concentrations of associations (A50, A100 and A200) were evaluated on formalin test, tail flick and hot plate. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in paw edema induced by carrageenan and PGE2, carrageenan-induced peritonitis and mechanical allodynia induced by Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA). The associations were markedly synergistic, as assessed using isobolographic analyses. On formalin and on acetic acid-induced writhing tests, associations demonstrated greater efficacy when compared to extracts separately. In paw edema models, significant reductions of edema were observed. On mechanical allodynia induced by CFA, associations were effective at acute phase with pronounced effect at chronic phase. The associations were not effective in hot plate, tail flick and carrageenan-induced peritonitis tests. Phytochemical analysis by HPLC-DAD and FID showed important concentrations of α-Humulene, trans-Caryophyllene, geranylgeraniol, isomers 6α-hydroxy-7ß-acetoxy-vouacapan-17ßoate methyl ester and 6α-acetoxy-7ß-hydroxy-vouacapan-17ß-oate methyl ester (compounds m/z 404) and 6α,7ß-dihydroxyvouacapan-17ß-oate methyl ester (m/z 362). These findings demonstrate that the associations promote synergistic antinociceptive effect and important anti-inflammatory activities, especially on chronic inflammation conditions, at lower doses than the separate crude extracts, without demonstrating side effects, probably acting in different pharmacological receptors. The inhibition of inflammation suggests a relationship with inflammatory mediators and PGE2 pathway and might be exploited to achieve greater anti-inflammatory efficacy, being considered as a potential phytotherapy.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Cordia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fabaceae , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/isolamento & purificação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Dor/metabolismo , Medição da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos , Medição da Dor/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
20.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(5(Supplementary)): 2245-2250, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894050

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to purify, hydrolyze and modify the Cordia myxa gum to document its binder potential in pharmaceutical tablets formulation. The hydrolysis and modification was carried out to remove impurities, roughness, increase thermal stability and to improve the functional properties of biopolymers. Physiochemical properties such as pH, solubility, viscosity, swelling index, bulk and tapped density was performed prior to investigate binder potential. The binder potential of Cordia myxa gum was studied in its different forms such as crude, purified, modified and hydrolyzed in paracetamol tablets and was compared with standard hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) being used as synthetic binder. Tablets were prepared by direct compression method and evaluated for weight uniformity, hardness, friability, disintegration time and dissolution analysis. Prepared tablets with selected gums exhibit faster and slower dissolution profile in the same dissolution system. The crude gum has high dissolution rate whereas the hydrolyzed and modified gums showed less dissolution rate. The hydrolyzed and modified gums having faster release rate and it could be helpful in conventional tablet formulations efficiently as compared to synthetic HPMC binder.


Assuntos
Cordia/química , Suplementos Nutricionais , Gomas Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Comprimidos/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Gomas Vegetais/química , Solubilidade
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